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Q: law,illinois,grandjury ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   0 Comments )
Subject: law,illinois,grandjury
Category: Relationships and Society > Law
Asked by: jack1425-ga
List Price: $100.00
Posted: 14 Feb 2003 16:53 PST
Expires: 16 Mar 2003 16:53 PST
Question ID: 161543
How can a person seek an inditement directly from a grandjury in
Illinois if one is sitting or cause one to be formed for that purpose?
Subject: Re: law,illinois,grandjury
Answered By: pafalafa-ga on 14 Feb 2003 20:13 PST
Rated:5 out of 5 stars
Hello Jack, and thank you for a most fascinating question.  

First, a little background about the role of the grand jury.  I've
included below excerpts from various sites that explain the roles and
responsibilities of the grand jury in the state of Illinois.  Text
immediately below a link is taken directly from the site itself,
except anything in brackets, which is text I wrote myself:


[If someone has been charged with a crime that can lead to prison
time, then the charges against that person are considered by a grand
jury, which decides whether probable cause exists to issue an
indictment -- that is, bring the accused to trial]

The Grand Jury

The Constitution and laws of Illinois provide that no person shall be
brought to trial for a crime punishable by death or by imprisonment in
the penitentiary unless either the initial charge has been brought by
indictment of a grand jury or the person has been given a prompt
preliminary hearing and a judge has found probable cause.

A grand jury, so named because it is comprised of a greater number of
people (16) than a petite jury, is sworn to hear evidence presented by
the prosecution and determines if probable cause exists that a crime
has been committed.


The Constitution and laws of Illinois provide that no
person shall be brought to trial for a crime punishable by death
or by imprisonment in the penitentiary unless either the initial
charge has been brought by indictment of a grand jury or the
person has been given a prompt preliminary hearing and a judge
has found probable cause.

In cases presented to the grand jury, the grand jury has a
dual function. It determines that a person should be charged or
prosecuted for a criminal act when it finds there is probable
cause to believe the person has committed an offense. At the
same time, it protects the innocent from unfounded accusation of
crime and from the trouble, expense, and anxiety of a trial when
there is, in fact, insufficient evidence to believe the accused is
guilty of any criminal offense. The grand jury thus stands
between the citizen and the State, pledged to bring before the
Court, to answer to a charge of having committed a crime,
persons against whom there is evidence of guilt and to prevent
the unjust indictment of those who are accused of crime without
sufficient evidence or because of private motives or popular


Your question has two parts, and I'd like to address each separately. 
But I must begin with two caveats:

(1)  I am not a lawyer.  Although I am a good researcher, and I'm
confident about the information I've given you here, you should
certainly seek the advice of a legal professional before basing any
actions on this information.

(2)  If for any reason, this answer does not meet your expectations,
please let me know through a Request for Clarification, and I will be
happy to provide additional information.

Now, as to your two-part question.  Part I asked:

I.  How can a person seek an indictment directly from a grand jury in
Illinois if one is sitting?

Generally speaking, you can't.  The ordinary course of events is to
bring any information you have about the commision of a crime to law
enforcement officials -- that is, to the police and/or the attorney
general.  If these officials find your information compelling, and can
identify an individual, or individuals allegedly involved with the
crime, they will initiate the process of filing formal charges.  If
the charges are serious enough to lead to jail time, then in Illinois
they will automatically lead to a review by a sitting grand jury.

As can be seen from the excerpt below, taken from a fairly detailed
description of grand jury responsibilities, information usually comes
before the grand jury in only four ways:


The grand jury has the duty of inquiring into matters
relating to crime or corruption in the area it serves. This
information generally comes to its knowledge in the following

1. Information submitted by the Prosecutor.

2. Information that may come to its knowledge in the
course of its investigation of other matters.

3. Information called to its attention by the Court.

4. Information that it has of its own knowledge.

Most of the cases that you will consider as a grand juror will
be brought to your attention and come before you as a result of
investigation and preparation by the Prosecutor. The Prosecutor
will be either the State's Attorney, the Attorney General or an
assistant to either of them. He or she is the officer charged by law
with the prosecution of crime in the county. 

[So, as you can see, there is not, under ordinary circumstances, an
opportunity for someone outside the system to bring information before
the grand jury.  However, there are occassions when grand juries have
been known to go off on their own, independent quests.  The same
pamphlet goes on as follows:]

However, the grand jury possesses broad powers of its own to inquire
into crime and corruption in its jurisdiction. It has a right under
the law to make its
own investigation unaided by the Court and assisted by any
prosecuting attorney. On petition signed by the foreperson and 8
other grand jurors, showing good cause for same, the Court may
appoint an investigator or investigators to assist the grand jury in
inquiries. Included in this power of investigation is the right of the
grand jury to subpoena witnesses and documents.

While neither the Court nor the Prosecutor may limit the
scope of a grand jury investigation, you should remember that these
officials are available for advice and counsel in any investigation
the grand jury may wish to undertake. 

Ordinarily, the grand jury will not act independently of the Court and
the Prosecutor.  However, if these officials may be concerned in any
investigation contemplated by the grand jury, the jury has a right to
seek the advice of the Attorney General.

[I will return below to the question of bringing information before a
sitting grand jury]


The second part of your question was:  "How can a person...cause one
to be formed for that purpose?"

Again, the usual procedure is to come forward to law enforcement
officials with information about a crime that you believe has been
committed.  If the officials deem it appropriate, they will then bring
the information forward to a grand jury.

As you have not given me any context for your question -- that is, I
don't know if it's an academic interest, or if you are looking for a
way to have a possible crime investigated -- I have no way of knowing
what steps, if any, you might have taken already to bring a matter to
the attention of law enforcement.

However, one tool that is available for accomplishing either of your
apparent goals -- bringing information to, or causing the convening
of, a grand jury -- is the citizen petition.

Citizen petitions to convene grand juries have a long and honorable
history.  In some states, the right to file such a petition, and the
procedures for doing so, are written into state law.  In others, it is
more a matter of precedence.

I could find no instances of such petitions in Illinois, but that
should not be taken as an indication that such a petition would not
receive appropriate attention.  This is a well-regarded tool of
citizen action.  I have listed below some petition information from
other states that I think you will find relevant:


[Nevada state law has an explicit right to petition for a grand jury]

 NRS 6.130 Permissible summoning of grand jury by filing of affidavit
or petition by taxpayer.

      1.  In any county, if the statute of limitations has not run
against the person offending, the district judge may summon a grand
jury after an affidavit or verified petition by any taxpayer of the
county accompanied by and with corroborating affidavits of at least
two additional persons has been filed with the clerk of the district
court, setting forth reasonable evidence upon which a belief is based
that there has been a misappropriation of public money or property by
a public officer, past or present, or any fraud committed against the
county or state by any officer, past or present, or any violation of
trust by any officer, past or present. The district judge shall act
upon the affidavit or petition within 5 days. If he fails or refuses
to recall or summon a grand jury, the affiant or petitioner may
proceed as provided in NRS 6.140.

     NRS 6.132 Summoning of grand jury by filing of petition by
committee of registered voters.

      1.  A committee of petitioners consisting of five registered
voters may commence a proceeding to summon a grand jury pursuant to
this section by filing with the clerk of the district court an
affidavit that contains the following information:


[This is an example from California of an on-line petition for a grand
jury, sent to the state and county attorneys general, as well as other


Petition for grand jury probe of District Attorney approved 

[newspaper story about a successful citizen petition to a grand jury
in Oklahoma]

So, the bottom line appears to be that there is no formal way to
either bring information to the attention of a sitting grand jury in
Illinois, or a way to compel the creation of a grand jury, beyond the
traditional means of bringing information about a crime directly to
law enforcement officials.

However, there is an opportunity to pursue either goal by creating a
petition that could be modeled after the petitions I've given you
here, or you could follow a different design as best suits your needs.
 You could submit a petition as an individual, or try to collect
multiple signatures from other iterested parties.

In the cases I reviewed, such petitions were generally sent to the
Attorneys General at the state level, and perhaps at more local levels
as well.  I have excerpted below information from the Attorney
General's office for the state of Illinois that describes some of the
key organizational units within the office.  Depending on the nature
of the allegations one wished to make, a petition to the AG, with a
copy to the appropriate unit within the office, may be the best place
to start.


Attorney General's Office

[Note that the second unit listed (with asterisks) is the "Statewide
Grand Jury unit" -- these are the people in the AG's office that can
bring information before a sitting statewide grand jury, ordinarily
convened to address special categories of crime such as certain drug
offenses or gang-related crimes.  The other units can also bring
information before a grand jury pertaining to crimes in the
jurisdiction of each unit]

The Criminal Justice Division is the principal tool in the Attorney
General's fight against crime. It consists of the following units:

The Criminal Prosecution and Trials Assistance Bureau provides
experienced investigators and prosecutors to assist, at their request,
Illinois 102 state's attorneys. The bureau also prosecutes those who
defraud the state's federally-funded food stamp program(WIC).

*** The Statewide Grand Jury unit work with other law enforcement
agencies to gather, evaluate and present evidence on crimes related to
narcotics, weapons and gang operations where that criminal activity
crosses county lines.

The Consumer Fraud Strike Force investigates and prosecutes those who
have committed financial and white collar crimes defraduing Illinois

The Illinois Narcotics Nuisance Abatement Bureau uses civil nuisance
actions to assist state's attorneys in efforts to shut down drug

The Medicaid Fraud Bureau prosecutes those who defraud the Medicaid

The Criminal Revenue Bureau prosecutes those who commit criminal acts
to deprive the state of tax revenue.

The Cash Transaction Reporting Unit analyzes information on suspicious
cash transactions to identify and investigate money-laundering

The Investigations Bureau supports the prosecutorial and enforcement
activities of the Attorney General, investigating possible criminal or
fraudulent activity and coordinating the work of this office with that
of other law enforcement agencies.

The Appeals/Opinions Division, directed by the Solicitor General,
coordinates the office's appellate and legal advisory functions. Three
bureaus carry out the division's work.

The Civil Appeals Bureau represents the state, its agencies and
officers, in all matters before the appellate courts, the Illinois
Supreme Court and the United States Supreme Court.

The Criminal Appeals Bureau represents the people of the State of
Illinois in criminal appellate matters, and handles or supervises all
criminal cases in the Illinois State Court. Death penalty cases are a
particularly important part of this bureau's work.

The Opinions Bureau assists the Attorney General in carrying out his
responsibilities to consult with and advise state officers and state's
attorneys in matters related to their duties. Opinions prepared in
this bureau provide significant guidance in the operation of

The Environmental Enforcement/Asbestos Division acts to protect the
state's environment, and the health, safety and welfare of its people.
Four units carry out the work of the division.

The Environmental Bureau enforces the state's environmental laws,
working to stop pollution and to ensure that polluters not taxpayers
pay the cost of cleanup.

The Environmental Crimes Bureau prosecutes the worst polluters,
seeking criminal sanctions, including jail time, rather than civil

The Environmental Investigators Network designates and trains local
law enforcement officers to serve as area environmental enforcement
experts, expanding the Attorney General's ability to identify and stop

The Asbestos Litigation Bureau files lawsuits to recover damages from
asbestos manufacturers for contamination of state buildings.

The Public Interest Division protects and advances the rights and
interests of Illinois residents. The work of the division is carried
out by the bureaus described below.

The Charitable Trust Bureau ensures that money or assets donated for
charitable purposes are properly applied. As part of its
responsibility, the bureau monitors the activities of charitable
organizations and professional fundraisers to ensure that donations
are distributed and used in compliance with state law.

The Antitrust Bureau protects consumers and businesses by enforcing
laws prohibiting activities, such as monopoly, price fixing and price
discrimination, that restrain trade or involve unfair methods of

The Disability Rights Bureau enforces laws governing access to public
facilities, and provides legal and technical assistance to state and
local government and advocacy organizations on compliance with the
American with Disabilities Act and the Environmental Barriers Act.

The Nursing Homes Bureau assists in the enforcement of the state's
nursing home regulations and advocates for the rights of nursing home

The Public Utilities Bureau acts in the interest of Illinois consumers
before the Illinois Commerce Commission in matters involving
electricity, gas and telephone rates.

The Civil Rights Bureau brings actions to enforce state and federal
laws relating to fair housing, employment and civil rights, where
violations impact a substantial population of the state.

The Veteran's Bureau advocates for the rights of Illinois veterans.

The Freedom of Information Bureau processes requests for public
records of the Office of the Attorney General and disseminates
information on the state's open government laws.

The Government Representation Division consists of several bureaus
which represent state government in various courts.

The General Law Bureau represents the state of Illinois, its officers,
agencies, boards, commissions and employees in all general civil

The Industrial Commission Bureau represents the agencies of the state
government in workers' compensation matters, and institutes criminal
proceedings against employers who fail to comply with the Illinois
Workers' Compensation Act and the Workers' Occupational Diseases Act.

The Land Acquisition Bureau represents state government in eminent
domain matters, and reviews documents pertaining to the acquisition of
property for state use.

The Public Aid Bureau assists in child support matters.

The Revenue Litigation Bureau represents the Illinois Department of
Revenue in the enforcement of state tax laws and administers Illinois'
estate tax law.

The Welfare Litigation Bureau represents the Illinois Department of
Public Aid in civil matters.

The Unemployment Insurance Bureau handles all civil and criminal
matters for the Division of Unemployment Insurance of the Illinois
Department of Labor.

The Toll Highway Bureau represents the Illinois Toll Highway Authority
in all legal matters.

Policy/Communication examines emerging problems, advises the Attorney
General in matters of public policy and provides educational
information to the public.

Policy advisors assist the Attorney General on issues relating to
families, children, violence against women, persons with disabilities,
seniors and crime victims. They keep the lines of communication open
between the Attorney General's office and other Illinois law
enforcement officials, advocates, education personnel, social service
agencies and other public servants. Policy advisors also assist in
drafting Legislation and creating programs to address areas of

The Research Unit supports the work of the policy advisors by
examining the effectiveness of the Legislation in Illinois and in
other states. The unit also gathers statistics and research reports
which provide comprehensive, up-to-date information to assist in
drafting constructive legislative and program initiatives.

Grant Administration is responsible for allocating Violent Crime
Victims Assistance Grant funds to programs which provide services to
victims of crimes. The Attorney General distributes funds in excess of
$5 million to more than 260 victims rights groups in the state
annually. This money is collected from criminal fines - not taxpayer

The Crime Victims Bureau processes claims for compensation under the
Illinois Crime Victims Compensation Act to innocent victims of violent
crimes or their dependents. Claims must be filed within one year of
the date of injury.

The Public Affairs and Community Relations Bureau educates the public
on the services offered by the Attorney General's Office through
publications, videos, exhibits and public speakers.


Full Service Offices of the Attorney General

Carbondale Office
1001 East Main Street
Carbondale, Illinois 62901
TTY 618-529-6403

Chicago Office
James R. Thompson Center
100 West Randolph Street
Chicago, Illinois 60601
TTY 312-814-3374

Springfield Office
500 South Second Street
Springfield, Illinois 62706
TTY 217-785-2771

There are also a number of Regional Offices listed on the web site.  


I hope this information suits your needs, but as I mentioned earlier,
if you feel you would like additional information on anything I've
mentioned here, please let me know with a "Request for Clarification."

search strategy:  Google search on:  Illinois "grand jury"

Request for Answer Clarification by jack1425-ga on 18 Feb 2003 18:06 PST
pafalafa-ga, good start. Yes, I understand how the system is supposed
to work which is as real as Santa. I need to know "HOW" to circumvent
the normal route to a grandjury in ILL. Has anyone done it before and
if so "HOW"?  This is important!

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 18 Feb 2003 18:33 PST

I'm happy to continue to assist you on this question.  It would be
very helpful if you could provide a bit of context for the situation
you are asking about.  Is there anything you can say about what issue
you are concerned with, what steps you have taken already, why the
grand jury is preferable to other routes, and so on.  Any information
at all will help me to focus my response.



Request for Answer Clarification by jack1425-ga on 20 Feb 2003 08:41 PST

So, how do I get an old murder before the grand jury no one wants investigated?

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 20 Feb 2003 11:31 PST

Thanks for adding that bit of information.  I have some queries out to
different folks regarding your question, and it will probably be early
next week (say, Tuesday 2/25) before I hear back from all of them. 
Let me know if you can't wait that long for a reply.  But if the
timing isn't critical, then waiting until next week is the best way
for me to get you the best information possible.

Request for Answer Clarification by jack1425-ga on 23 Feb 2003 21:08 PST
Waiting is fine, thanks.

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 26 Feb 2003 12:54 PST
Hello again Jack.

I've pulled together some more information for you, which I've posted
below. In summary, though:

--very few states have an explicit provision to allow for citizens to
file to compel formation of a grand jury; Illinois is not one of them.

--citizens generally have a right to request that the authorities make
an "issuance of a criminal complaint", even if the police do not act.

--the legal system -- grand jury formation included -- responds to
political pressure.  The best option may be to "make some noise" if
you feel your case is not being heard.

I've posted the new information below, along with some of my own
commentary, which is included in brackets.  As always, if you feel
further explanation is needed, just post a follow-up Request for
Clarification, let me know what's needed, and I'll do my best to
provide it.


[I found this excerpt from Illinois law helpful in distinguishing
charges, complaints, etc.  Note that a "complaint" does not have to be
made by an officer of the court, or be accompanied by any other
official documents -- the presumption here is that any citizen can
file a "complaint"]

102-12 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1963


    (725 ILCS 5/102-8)
    Sec. 102-8. "Charge".
    "Charge" means a written statement presented to a court  accusing 
person   of  the  commission  of  an  offense  and  includes 
information and indictment.
(Source: Laws 1963, p. 2836.)

    (725 ILCS 5/102-9)
    Sec. 102-9. "Complaint".
    "Complaint"  means  a  verified  written  statement  other  than 
information or an indictment, presented to a court,  which  charges 
commission of an offense.
(Source: Laws 1963, p. 2836.)

    (725 ILCS 5/102-11)
    Sec. 102-11. "Indictment".
    "Indictment" means a written statement, presented by the Grand 
to a court, which charges the commission of an offense.
(Source: Laws 1963, p. 2836.)

    (725 ILCS 5/102-12)
    Sec. 102-12. "Information".
    "Information" means a verified written statement signed by a
Attorney, and presented to a court, which charges the commission  of 
(Source: Laws 1963, p. 2836.)


[This article gives some perspective on why the legal system
deliberately makes it difficult for "private persons" to initiate
criminal proceedings, because of a history of "false and malicious

Origin of the System of Prosecution by Information 

Parallel to the development of the grand jury was the development of
the criminal information. The use of the criminal information dates at
least from the time of Edward I, 1272-1307.  Other evidence tracing
the origins of the criminal information makes clear that its history
and use in certain times and cases is almost as old as that of the
indictment. Like its counterpart, the grand jury, the criminal
information was also subject to manipulation and abuse from early
,times. As stated by Dean Morse:

The king's council came to initiate criminal prosecutions based on
informations not only of the king, but also of private persons, and as
a result, there were many false and malicious prosecutions started and
then dropped. The procedure . . . came to be abused in that it was
used for political Prosecutions . . . . To check private persons from
using information to initiate false and malicious prosecutions, a
statute was passed in 1692 which required that the informations of
private citizens should be approved of by the court. . . .


[The most famous recent example of a citizen-inspired grand jury
investigation is related to the Oklahoma City bombing, and is
described below in several articles that I've excerpted.  However,
Oklahoma is one of the few states with a legal provision for citizen
action to empanel a grand jury -- Illinois has no similar law, and I
did not find any examples of grand juries in Illinois that directly
responded to citizen requests]

Oklahoma Representative Launches Separate Grand Jury Investigation of

...Here in Oklahoma, we are very fortunate to be one of only two
states that have a constitutional guarantee that the people of a
county can cause a grand jury to be impaneled whenever they feel there
is a need simply by circulating a petition. It is and always has been
a common occurrence in our state. In fact there are county grand
juries meeting as I write this letter.

The Presiding State District Judge, Dan Owens, tried to stop us from
petitioning to impanel the grand jury and we were forced to appeal his
actions to a higher court. That is where the latest and some of the
most intense criticism has come from recently. One year after our
appeal, we finally got a written opinion from the Court of Appeals in
the Tulsa district. On December 24, 1996 the court ruled not only in
our favor, but they did so unanimously.

But wait—there is more. Not only was it unanimous, but the court
issued the decision "For Publication." That means that it was such a
clear-cut case in regard to the state constitution, statutes, and
previous case law, that it constituted a precedent-setting case to be
used in lawbooks, most likely for many years to come.


McCurtain Daily Gazette, Idabel, Oklahoma 

Tuesday, July 15, 1997 


"Oklahoma County District Attorney Bob Macy, for example, asked the
Oklahoma Supreme Court to quash a citizen's petition shortly after
Wilburn and Key filed a request to empanel a grandjury to investigate
the Oklahoma City bombing.

Likewise, when Wilburn's step-daughter, Edye Smith, filed a wrongful
death suit against Tim McVeigh and others, federal prosecutors quickly
filed motions with a court in Denver. They asked the trial judge
assigned to the McVeigh-Nichols criminal trials to halt discovery in
the civil suit, claiming that it might interfere with the government's
own investigation."


[This excerpt below does an important job -- recognizing that much
information is available on the rights of those charged with crimes,
but less so on describing the rights of those victimized by crime. 
The site tries to rectify that, and describes the victim's rights --
I've excerpted those having to do with the various avenues for filing
a complaint]:

Ten Rights of Crime Victims

Many aspects of criminal law focus on the rights of the criminal.
However, recent attention has been focused on the rights of the
victims of crimes, who often suffer great emotional, if not physical,
injuries at the hands of the criminal. All fifty states and the
federal government now have laws that protect victims. In many states,
a victim is considered to be the person who directly suffers the
effects of the crimes (such as the person who is murdered) and
immediate family members who suffer the secondary effects of the crime
(such as the loss of a loved one). If you have been a victim of a
crime, you should know that there are ten major rights that you may

You have the right to seek a criminal complaint against the criminal.
As soon as you can, you should contact your local law enforcement
agency and report the crime to them. After the police investigate the
matter, they may chose to arrest the individual. A prosecutor will
then determine what crimes should be charged.

You have the right to ask for issuance of a criminal complaint if the
police decide not to arrest the alleged criminal. You can usually file
an application for such a complaint with the court in the place where
the crime occurred. If the court, after an investigation, decides not
to file the complaint, you can appeal that decision.

You have the right to testify in a probable cause hearing to determine
if a criminal complaint should be transferred to another court to be
heard. In a probable cause hearing, you will be required to answer
questions posed by both the prosecutor and the defendant's attorney.


[Lastly, is this observation -- important to remember -- that public
servants respond to public pressure, and prosecutors are no different
from other political figures in this regard]

How People Get Charged With Crimes

Prosecutors May Also File Charges to Satisfy Important Political
Constituencies and Address the Demands of Victims

Most prosecutors are elected officials. Many of them view their
position as a stepping-stone to higher office. Their charging
decisions are often, therefore, affected by public opinion or
important support groups. For example, a prosecutor may file charges
on every shoplifting case, no matter how weak, to curry favor with
local store owners who want to get the word out that shoplifters will
be prosecuted. For similar reasons, a prosecutor may pursue otherwise
weak prostitution charges to avoid alienating powerful civic groups"


The take home lesson here seems to be this.  There is no spelled out
procedure in Illinois for a citizen to ask for the empaneling of a
grand jury, nor are there examples (that I could find) of citizens
having attempted this.

However, every citizen does have certain rights, and these include (1)
the right to make a complaint that a crime has occured and (2) the
right to make some noise.

In the latter category are things like phone calls, petitions, letters
to the editor, appearances on local news shows, attendance at public
hearings and meetings (especially during audience Q&A), and so on. 
Public figures will pay attention to public noise.  Courts will pay
attention to citizen complaints.

If you feel the situation warrants it, by all means, make your voice
heard.  I would also urge you to seek the advice of a legal
professional in Illinois in order to plot out the best strategy for
doing so.

I hope this information meets your needs, but don't hesitate to post a
follow-up request for clarification if I can provide any additional
perspective here.

Good luck.

Request for Answer Clarification by jack1425-ga on 28 Feb 2003 20:35 PST
pafalafa, you have supplied lots of information however the question
has yet to be answerred.  I need to go "directly" ( by passing judges,
prosecutors, and anyone else that can be manipulated or removed) to
the grandjury, can you tell me "how" or not?  jack1425

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 01 Mar 2003 03:53 PST
It's fine to ask for more clarification, and I'll do what I can to get
you additional information.  I've used up the readily available
sources, though, so digging deeper (if possible) will take some time. 
Give me a week to get back to you, and I'll let you know what I've

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 01 Mar 2003 18:21 PST
Hello Jack.  I'm not back yet with an answer, but I do have a
question.  It would be helpful to know what Illinois county you live
in.  Also, if the crime you know about occurred in a different county,
let me know that county location as well.

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 04 Mar 2003 16:19 PST
Hello again Jack.

I've been in extensive contact with some folks in Illinois (and a few
outside the state) who are very knowledgeable about grand juries. 
Here's what I've learned:

1.  There is no formal mechanism in Illinois for petitioning -- or
otherwise requesting -- a grand jury to look into a particular matter.

2.  No one knows of any cases/examples of people who have -- through
an informal process -- initiated a grand jury investigation in
Illinois (although there is one example of petitioning to *limit* a
grand jury -- I'll get to that).

3.  This doesn't mean you're out of options -- I'll discuss two of
them below.


First, there's this, from Professor Brenner, a scholar on grand juries
at the University of Dayton -- check out her Grand Jury web site at  [ ]:

Q:  Can a citizen call for a grand jury? 

Response from Prof. Brenner: 
That depends on what jurisdiction you're in. I believe citizens in
some states (California, perhaps?) can call for the empanelment of a
grand jury by signing a petition, but I don't know which states allow
this. I suggest you call the clerk of your local court of general
jurisdiction (e.g., common pleas court, circuit court, district
court--the basic county trial court) and ask if this can be  done in
your state. If it can, you might ask how many signatures are required,
etc. As an alternative you could call the local prosecutor's office
and ask them.


I did both -- spoke with several county court clerks and States
Attorney's offices in different Illinois counties.  They confirmed
what my research had already suggested -- there is no formal means of
petitioning a grand jury, and no examples they know of where a citizen
"invented" a process on his/her own to initiate a grand jury
investigation.  I've included below a list of the contact information
for the county clerks througout Illinois, in case you want to make
some calls of your own.


There is a case I found where an attorney *did* petition a court for
his client regarding a grand jury.  But the petition was to have a
particular person head the grand jury that was investigating his
client (presumably, in fear that the grand jury might otherwise be
biased and improperly indict the client).  The case can be found here:

and here's the relevant excerpt:



...A Grundy County grand jury investigated whether members of the
Grundy County Board acted improperly concerning the bid and
eventual award of a county contract for computer equipment. 
The targets of this investigation, Wilkinson, Dollinger and
Kaufman (appellees), retained private counsel, Jeremy
Margolis, to represent their interests during the pendency of
the grand jury investigation.  ***On November 1, 1994, Margolis
filed a petition to appoint a special prosecutor to conduct
the grand jury investigation and to enjoin the Grundy County
State's Attorney's Office from any involvement with the grand
jury investigation***.  On November 7, 1994, the court ruled a
special prosecutor was necessary and upon the agreement of the
parties and of Will County State's Attorney James Glasgow, the
court appointed the Will County State's Attorney's Office to
conduct the grand jury investigation.


So, the bottom line is that it is possible to submit a petition
regarding the work of the grand jury, but it is apparently limited to
those who are the object of the grand jury's scrutiny.  There is
simply no recognized process nor any precident for a citizen in
Illinois to focus a grand jury's efforts on a particular charge.


So, where does that leave you?  As I see it, you have two options:  

(1) take a route other than the grand jury route, or 

(2) invent your own process for petitioning for a grand jury.  


(1) take a route other than the grand jury route

There's an interesting page you should look at from the "VIctims
Services Unit" at the Dupage County State Attorney's site:

Although the information here is specific to Dupage County, there is
nothing to prevent you from following these same guidelines in any
county in Illinois through the local States Attorney office.

I've included a good bit of their text here, as the discussion of the
process for filing an "informal complaint" of a suspected crime is
very relevant to this issue.  Especially important is the second Q&A
below, about what a citizen can do when the police fail to act:


The Victim Services Unit of the DuPage County State's Attorney's
Office offers citizens, who may have been victimized by criminal
conduct, the opportunity to file an informal criminal complaint.

Someone has committed a criminal act against me, where can I go for

The first place to always go when someone has committed a criminal act
against you is your local police department. Contact your local police
department and indicate that you wish to sign a criminal complaint or
make a report relating to a possible criminal offense. If your
complaint is an emergency dial 911.

The police department will not pursue with criminal charges, is there
anything else that I can do?

Unfortunately, every incident that you may become involved with does
not result in the police initiating a criminal charge. This may happen
if the situation is "civil" in nature (the matter must be handled in
civil court) or there is not enough evidence to pursue a criminal
charge. If the police have filed a report and have declined to pursue
criminal charges, you may wish to contact the Victim Services of the
States Attorney's Office to file an informal complaint.

What is an informal complaint?

An informal complaint is a request by a citizen for the State's
Attorney's Office to investigate potential criminal conduct by a
party, after the police department has declined to pursue with
criminal charges. The police investigation must be completed before
the State's Attorney's Office can assist with an informal complaint.

If a police investigation is completed and has not resulted in any
criminal charges, you may wish to have the State's Attorney's office
look into the specific incident by contacting the Victim Services Unit
of the State's Attorney's Office at (630) 682-7988, Monday through
Friday between the hours of 8:00 AM and 4:30 PM.

Once you have made an informal complaint to the State's Attorney's
Office it will be reviewed by an Assistant State's Attorney for
potential criminal conduct. The State's Attorney's Office will either
approve criminal charges or decline criminal charges based on the
police reports, any statutory requirements/limitations, and your

Once a file has been reviewed by the Assistant State's Attorney, you
will be informed in writing as to the decision whether or not criminal
charges will be filed. If an informal complaint is declined, you will
receive some information as to what other steps, if any, you may wish
to pursue.

The Assistant State's Attorney will only review the informal complaint
for criminal charges. Informal complaints concerning allegations that
are civil in nature must be handled by your own private attorney.

How long does an informal complaint take to review?

There is no formal time frame for reviewing informal complaints.
Response times may vary greatly depending on the current case load and
the nature of the incident.

I have submitted an informal complaint to the State's Attorney's
Office, who may have access to it?

Informal complaints are not of public record and are not subject to
the Freedom of Information act. Information contained within an
informal complaint will remain confidential. To obtain any documents
that you may have submitted with your informal complaint you must
contact the State's Attorney's Office Victim Services Unit to make an
appointment at (630)682-7988, Monday through Friday between 8:00AM and

Is there a way to know if an informal complaint has been filed against

The State's Attorney's Office will not confirm or deny the existence
of any informal complaint.


I recognize how important to you it is to pursue the grand jury option
and I'll discuss this below.  In your comments to my original answer,
you said:  "I need to go "directly" (by passing judges, prosecutors,
and anyone else that can be manipulated or removed) to the grandjury".

It is interesting to note, however, that not everyone share's your
apparent conviction that the grand jury is somehow less easily
manipulated than the rest of the system.  Many states have abandoned
the grand jury process because it was widely believed that the grand
juries had become nothing more than a rubber stamp to approve the
prosecutor's decisions, rather than an independent part of the
judicial system.

However, if you do want to go the grand jury route, then we are left

(2) invent your own process for petitioning for a grand jury.  

At one point in my investigation, I became quite excited because I
thought I had found an example of what you are looking for:  an
article in the June 22, 1990 Chicago Tribune, "Mom's persistence pays
off, suspect charged".  The first sentence reads:

"A man faces an extradition hearing after being charged with
kidnapping in the 1987 disappearance of a 9-year-old girl whose mother
forced a grand jury investigation."

Unfortunately, the rest of the story makes clear that the case
occurred in Nebraska...not Illinois...and was possible due to a
petition provision in state law.  The article continues:

"Frustrated by what she considered lax police work, [the woman] began
a petition drive and forced a grand jury investigation.
Under state law, a court is required to convene a grand jury if
presented with petitions from at least 10 percent of the county's
voters who participated in the last gubernatorial election. [She]
needed 1,024 signatures and collected 1,471. A Madison County grand
jury began work April 30."


It's worth being familiar with the details here because, even though
this is an example from another state, with a different set of laws,
there's an underlying principle at work here which is universal.  *The
system will respond to public sentiment*.  The mom in Nebraska didn't
have an option to empanel a grand jury entirely on her own, but could
only do it by amassing the voices of 1,471 of her neighbors -- once
she did, the system had to listen.

The justice system in Illinois does not have a legal obligation to
respond to such an outpouring of public sentiment, as is the case in
Nebraska. will respond just the same, if it hears a
concerted message from enough of its citizens.
Jack, there's no reason to choose one option or the other -- go with
both!  File an informal criminal complaint AND launch a petition
drive.  Put your commitment to this case to work by making as much
noise as you can.  Make your voice heard.  Let people know the nature
of your concerns.  Compile as many signatures as you can in a petition
drive.  Let the local newspaper hear your story.  I'm sorry the path
for doing this is not laid out clearly, with the precise actions
spelled out every step of the way.  That's how most of life is, I
suppose, but we manage to move our way through it.

The simple act of posting this question, as you did, demonstrates a
level of commitment and willingness to go forward on an issue of great
importance to you.  I urge you to take the next steps.  I've offered
some suggestions here of how to do so.  I hope they are useful.

Good luck.  


Circuit Court Clerks (by County) 

Glen F. Hultz 
521 Vermont Street 
Quincy, Illinois  62301-2934
Phone:  217/277-2100 
Fax:  217/277-2116 
Sharon McGinness 
2000 Washington 
Cairo, Illinois  62914-1717 
Phone: 618/734-0107 
Fax: 618/734-7003

John K. King 
200 West College 
Greenville, Illinois 62246-1057 
Phone: 618/664-3208 
Fax: 618/664-4676

Julie Kleive 
601 North Main, #303 
Belvidere, Illinois  61008-2644 
Phone: 815/544-0371
Fax: 815/547-9213

Doris Todd
#1 Court Street
Mt. Sterling, Illinois  62353-1233 
Phone: 217/773-2713
Fax: 217/773-2233

Michael L. Miroux 
702 South Main Street 
Princeton, Illinois 61356-2037 
Phone: 815/872-2001
Fax: 815/872-0027

Yvonne Macauley 
Main & County Roads 
Hardin, Illinois 62047-0486 
Phone: 618/576-2451 
Fax: 618/576-9541

Sherri A. Miller 
301 North Main St. 
Mt. Carroll, Illinois 61053-0032 
Phone: 815/244-0230 
Fax: 815/244-3869

Evelyn K. Trenter
P.O. Box 203 
Virginia, Illinois 62691-0203 
Phone: 217/452-7225 
Fax: 217/452-7219

Linda S. Frank 
101 East Main Street 
Urbana, Illinois 61801-2736 
Phone: 217/384-3725 
Fax: 217/384-3879

Donna Castelli 
On the Square, Box 617 
Taylorville, Illinois 62568-0617 
Phone: 217/824-4966 
Fax: 217/824-5105

Terri Reynolds 
501 Archer Avenue, Box 187 
Marshall, Illinois 62441-0187
Phone: 217/826-2811 
Fax: 217/826-1396

Rita L. Porter 
On the Square, P.O. Box 100 
Louisville, Illinois 62858-0100 
Phone: 618/665-3523 
Fax: 618/665-3543

Jeff Luebbers 
850 Fairfax 
Carlyle, Illinois 62231-0407 
Phone: 618/594-2415 
Fax: 618/594-0197

Vicki Kirkpatrick 
6th and Jackson, Box 48 
Charleston, Illinois 61920-0048 
Phone: 217/348-0516 
Fax: 217/348-7324

Dorothy A. Brown 
Richard J. Daley Ctr, Room 1001 
Chicago, Illinois 60602-1305 
Phone: 312/603-5030 
Fax: 312/603-4557

Denise Utterback 
Court Street, P.O. Box 655 
Robinson, Illinois 62454-0655 
Phone: 618/544-3512 
Fax: 618/546-5628

Tina Gabel
Courthouse Square, Box 145 
Toledo, Illinois 62468-0145 
Phone: 217/849-3601 
Fax: 217/849-3183

Maureen Josh 
133 West State St. 
Sycamore, Illinois 60178-1416 
Phone: 815/895-7131 
Fax: 815/895-7140

Kathy A. Weiss 
201 W. Washington St 
Clinton, Illinois 61727-0439 
Phone: 217/935-2195 
Fax: 217/935-3310

Julie Mills 
401 South Center, P.O. Box 50 
Tuscola, Illinois 61953-0050 
Phone: 217/253-2352 
Fax: 217/253-9006

Joel Kagann 
505 N. County Farm Rd 
Wheaton, Illinois 60189-0707 
Phone: 630/682-7111 
Fax: 630/682-7085

Janis K. Nebergall 
115 West Court St. 
Paris, Illinois 61944-1739 
Phone: 217/466-7447 
Fax: 217/466-7443

Patsy Taylor 
50 E. Main Street 
Albion, Illinois 62806-1262 
Phone: 618/445-2016 
Fax: 618/445-4943

B. Jane Schuette 
100 E Jefferson, #101, PO Box 586
Effingham, Illinois 62401-0586 
Phone: 217/342-4065 
Fax: 217/342-6183

Marsha Wodtka 
221 South Seventh 
Vandalia, Illinois 62471-2755 
Phone: 618/283-5009 
Fax: 618/283-4490

Kamalen K. Johnson 
200 West State, Box 80 
Paxton, Illinois 60957-0080 
Phone: 217/379-2641 
Fax: 217/379-3445

Donna Sevenski 
On the Square, P.O. Box 485 
Benton, Illinois 62812-2264 
Phone: 618/439-2011 
Fax: 618/439-4119

Mary C. Hampton 
100 North Main St., P.O. Box 152 
Lewistown, Illinois 61542-0152 
Phone: 309/547-3041 
Fax: 309/547-3674

Mona L. Moore 
Lincoln Boulevard, PO Box 249 
Shawneetown, Illinois 62984-0249 
Phone: 618/269-3140 
Fax: 618/269-4324

V. "Tunie" Brannan 
519 North Main St. 
Carrollton, Illinois 62016-1093 
Phone: 217/942-3421 
Fax: 217/942-5431

Karen Slattery 
111 E. Washington St, Rm 30 
Morris, Illinois 60450-0707 
Phone: 815/941-3258 
Fax: 815/942-2222

Bobbi Oxford 
Public Square 
McLeansboro, Illinois 62859-1490 
Phone: 618/643-3224 
Fax: 618/643-3455

John Neally 
Courthouse Square, Box 189 
Carthage, Illinois 62321-0189 
Phone: 217/357-2616 
Fax: 217/357-2231

Diana Hubbard 
Main & Market, P.O. Box 308 
Elizabethtown, Illinois 62931-0308 
Phone: 618/287-2735 
Fax: 618/287-7833

Sandra D. Keane 
4th & Warren, Box 546 
Oquawka, Illinois 61469-0546 
Phone: 309/867-3121 
Fax: 309/867-3207

Debra J. Doss 
307 West Center St., P.O. Box 9 
Cambridge, Illinois 61238-0009 
Phone: 309/937-3572 
Fax: 309/937-3990

Arlene J. Hines 
550 South Tenth St. 
Watseka, Illinois 60970-1810 
Phone: 815/432-6950 
Fax: 815/432-0347

Cindy R. Svanda 
10th & Walnut, P.O. Box 730 
Murphysboro, Illinois 62966-0730 
Phone: 618/687-7300 
Fax: 618/684-6378

Sheryl Frederick 
100 West Jourdan 
Newton, Illinois 62448-1973 
Phone: 618/783-2524 
Fax: 618/783-8626

Gene Bolerjack 
10th and Broadway, Box 1266 
Mt. Vernon, Illinois 62864-1266 
Phone: 618/244-8007 
Fax: 618/244-8029

Charles E. Huebener 
201 West Pearl 
Jerseyville, Illinois 62052-1852 
Phone: 618/498-5571
Fax: 618/498-6128

Jo Daviess 
Sharon A. Wand 
330 North Bench St. 
Galena, Illinois 61036-1828 
Phone: 815/777-0037 
Fax: 815/777-2229

Neal E. Watkins 
Courthouse Square, PO Box 517 
Vienna, Illinois 62995-0517 
Phone: 618/658-4751 
Fax: 618/658-2908

Deborah Seyller 
540 S Randall Rd 
St. Charles, Illinois 60174 
Phone: 630/232-3413 
Fax: 630/208-2172

Kathryn Thomas 
450 East Court St. 
Kankakee, Illinois 60901-3917 
Phone: 815/937-2905 
Fax: 815/937-3903

Shirley R. Lee 
807 W. John St., P.O. Box M 
Yorkville, Illinois 60560-0259 
Phone: 630/553-4183 
Fax: 630/553-4964

Kelly A. Cheesman 
200 South Cherry St. 
Galesburg, Illinois 61401-4912 
Phone: 309/343-3121 
Fax: 309/343-7002

Sally D. Coffelt 
18 North County St. 
Waukegan, Illinois 60085-4340 
Phone: 847/377-3380 
Fax: 847/360-6409

Joseph Carey 
119 W. Madison 
Ottawa, Illinois 61350-0617 
Phone: 815/434-8671 
Fax: 815/433-9198

Peggy Frederick 
1100 State Street
Lawrenceville, Illinois 62439-2390 
Phone: 618/943-2815 
Fax: 618/943-5205

Denise A. McCaffrey 
309 S. Galena, Bx 325 
Dixon, Illinois 61021-0325 
Phone: 815/284-5234 
Fax: 815/288-5615
Judith K. Cremer 
112 West Madison St. 
Pontiac, Illinois 61764-0320 
Phone: 815/844-2602 
Fax: 815/842-1844 
Carla Bender 
601 Broadway
P.O. Box 158 
Lincoln, Illinois 62656-0158 
Phone: 217/735-2376 
Fax: 217/732-1231

Julia A. Woodrum 
#1 Courthouse Square 
PO Box 348 
Macomb, Illinois 61455-0348 
Phone: 309/837-4889 
Fax: 309/833-4493

Vernon W. Kays 
2200 North Seminary Ave. 
Woodstock, Illinois 60098-2837 
Phone: 815/338-2040 
Fax: 815/338-8583

Sandra K. Parker 
104 West Front St., Room 404 
Bloomington, Illinois 61702-2400 
Phone: 309/888-5324 
Fax: 309/888-5281

Kathy Hott 
253 East Wood St. 
Decatur, Illinois 62523-1489 
Phone: 217/424-1454 
Fax: 217/424-1350

Mike Mathis 
201 East Main Street 
Carlinville, Illinois 62626-1824 
Phone: 217/854-3211 
Fax: 217/854-8561

Matt Melucci 
155 N. Main 
Edwardsville, Illinois 62025-1955 
Phone: 618/692-6240 
Fax: 618/692-0676

Ronda Yates 
100 Main
P.O. Box 130 
Salem, Illinois 62881-0130 
Phone: 618/548-3856 
Fax: 618/548-2358

Gina M. Noe 
122 N. Prairie
P.O. Box 328 
Lacon, Illinois 61540-0328 
Phone: 309/246-6435 
Fax: 309/246-2173

Brenda Miller 
125 N. Plum 
Havana, Illinois 62644-0377 
Phone: 309/543-6619 
Fax: 309/543-4214

Larry Grace 
Superman Square, 
P.O. Box 152 
Metropolis, Illinois 62960-1882 
Phone: 618/524-5011 
Fax: 618/524-4850

Penny Hoke 
P.O. Box 466 
Petersburg, Illinois 62675-0466 
Phone: 217/632-2615 
Fax: 217/632-4124

Jeff Benson 
100 Southeast 3rd St., 
PO Box 175
Aledo, Illinois 61231-0175 
Phone: 309/582-7122 
Fax: 309/582-7121

Aaron Reitz 
100 South Main St. 
Waterloo, Illinois 62298-1322 
Phone: 618/939-8681 
Fax: 618/939-5132

Mary Webb 
120 N. Main Street, Box C 
Hillsboro, Illinois 62049-0210 
Phone: 217/532-9546 
Fax: 217/532-9519

Theresa Lonergan
300 West State St., Box 1120 
Jacksonville, Illinois 62650-1165 
Phone: 217/243-5419 
Fax: 217/243-2009

Deborah M. Preston 
10 South Main St. 
Sullivan, Illinois 61951-1969 
Phone: 217/728-4622 
Fax: 217/728-7833

Martin W. Typer 
4th & Washington 
Oregon, Illinois 61061-0337 
Phone: 815/732-3201 
Fax: 815/732-6273

Robert Spears 
324 Main St., Rm. G22 
Peoria, Illinois 61602-1319 
Phone: 309/672-6989 
Fax: 309/677-6228

Nick Dolce 
Courthouse Square, Box 219 
Pinckneyville, Illinois 62274-0219 
Phone: 618/357-6726 
Fax: 618/357-3923

Gary  Bickel 
101 W. Washington St 
Monticello, Illinois 61856-0288 
Phone: 217/762-4966 
Fax: 217/762-8394

Ben  Johnson 
100 East Washington 
Pittsfield, Illinois 62363-1497 
Phone: 217/285-6612 
Fax: 217/285-4726

Sean Goins 
Main Street
P.O. Box 438 
Golconda, Illinois 62938-0502 
Phone: 618/683-3941 
Fax: 618/683-3018

Cindy Kennedy 
N 2nd & High Street
PO Box 88 
Mound City, Illinois 62963-0088 
Phone: 618/748-9300 
Fax: 618/748-9329

Cathy J. Oliveri 
120 North 4th Street 
Hennepin, Illinois 61327-0207 
Phone: 815/925-7016 
Fax: 815/925-7549

Barbara  Brown 
#1 Taylor Street 
Chester, Illinois 62233-0329 
Phone: 618/826-3116 
Fax: 618/826-3750

Connie Kuenstler 
103 West Main Street 
Olney, Illinois 62450-2170 
Phone: 618/392-2151 
Faxs: 618/392-8207

Rock Island
Lisa L. Bierman 
210 15th St. Bx 5230 
Rock Island, Illinois 61201-5230
Phone: 309/786-4451 
Fax: 309/786-3029

St. Clair 
C. Barney Metz
10 Public Square 
Belleville, Illinois 62220-1623 
Phone: 618/277-6832 
Fax: 618/277-1925

Jack T. Nolen
10 East Poplar St.
Harrisburg, Illinois 62946-1553
Phone: 618/253-5096
Fax: 618/253-3904

Anthony P. Libri 
200 South 9th Street, Rm. 405
Springfield, Illinois 62701-1299
Phone: 217/753-6674
Fax: 217/753-6665

Elaine Boyd
Lafayette & Congress,
P.O.Bx 80 
Rushville, Illinois 62681-0189 
Phone: 217/322-4633 
Fax: 217/322-6164

Joni  Garrett 
35 East Market St. 
Winchester, Illinois 62694-1216 
Phone: 217/742-5217 
Fax: 217/742-5853

Cheryl Roley 
P.O. Box 469 
Shelbyville, Illinois 62565-0469 
Phone: 217/774-4212 
Fax: 217/774-4109

Marian E. Purtscher 
130 Main Street, Box 426 
Toulon, Illinois 61483-0426 
Phone: 309/286-5941 
Fax: 309/286-4039

Karla Toelke 
15 North Galena St. 
Freeport, Illinois 61032-0785 
Phone: 815/235-8266 
Fax: 815/233-1576

Pam J.  Gardner 
342 Court Street 
Pekin, Illinois 61554 
Phone: 309/477-2214 
Fax: 309/353-7801

Lorraine  Moreland 
309 W. Market St., Rm 101 
Jonesboro, Illinois 62952 
Phone: 618/833-5913 
Fax: 618/833-5223

Susan  Miller 
7 North Vermilion St 
Danville, Illinois 61832-5806 
Phone: 217/431-2541 
Fax: 217/431-2538

JoAnn Green
401 Market 
P.O. Drawer 997 
Mt. Carmel, Illinois 62863 
Phone: 618/262-5362 
Fax: 618/263-4441

Jill M. Morris 
100 West Broadway 
Monmouth, Illinois 61462-1795 
Phone: 309/734-5179 
Fax: 309/734-4151

Carol Heggemeier 
101 E. St. Louis St. 
Nashville, Illinois 62263-1100 
Phone: 618/327-4800 
Fax: 618/327-3583

Sharon L. Gualdoni 
301 East Main St., 
PO Box 96 
Fairfield, Illinois 62837-0096 
Phone: 618/842-7684 
Fax: 618/842-2556

Ellen I. Pettijohn 
301 East Main St., 
PO Box 310 
Carmi, Illinois 62821-0310 
Phone: 618/382-2321 
Fax: 618/382-2322

Jane Fransen 
200 East Knox Street 
Morrison, Illinois 61270-2819
Phone: 815/772-5188 
Fax: 815/772-5187

Pamela J.  McGuire 
14 West Jefferson St 
Joliet, Illinois 60432-4399 
Phone: 815/727-8585 
Fax: 815/727-8896

Stuart  Hall 
200 West Jefferson 
Marion, Illinois 62959-2494 
Phone: 618/997-1301 
Fax: 618/998-9401

Marc A. Gasparini 
400 West State St. 
Rockford, Illinois 61101-1221 
Phone: 815/987-5464 
Fax: 815/987-3012

Carol J. Newtson 
115 North Main St., 
P.O. Box 284 
Eureka, Illinois 61530-0284 
Phone: 309/467-3312 
Fax: 309/467-4626

Request for Answer Clarification by jack1425-ga on 04 Mar 2003 20:33 PST
Wow, it seems pafalafa, you did a great job followwing the information trail.
Thanks and hope we connect agian.  Jack

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 05 Mar 2003 04:36 PST
Thank you Jack.  This was a very challenging question, and I much
appreciate your kind words.
jack1425-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars and gave an additional tip of: $50.00
Willing to dig, dig, and dig some more!
Very responsive for need to clarify!

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