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Q: Motivational theories ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   1 Comment )
Subject: Motivational theories
Category: Miscellaneous
Asked by: qpet-ga
List Price: $50.00
Posted: 20 Feb 2003 09:49 PST
Expires: 22 Mar 2003 09:49 PST
Question ID: 163965
What are the theories that explain the dynamics of motivation?
Is there any research on motivational speakers?
Any statistcs on the (lasting) value of Tony Robins'(or others)aproach
to increasing motivation?
Subject: Re: Motivational theories
Answered By: jbf777-ga on 20 Feb 2003 11:03 PST
Rated:5 out of 5 stars
This answer is not finished until you're satisfied with it.  If you
need any additional information/clarification, please ask before
rating this answer.  Thanks for your understanding.

Hello qpet-ga!

Thanks for another interesting question...

"Employee Motivation Theory And Practice

Douglas McGregor -Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor in his book, "The Human Side of Enterprise" published
in 1960 has examined theories on behavior of individuals at work, and
he has formulated two models which he calls Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory X Assumptions

The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid
it if he can.

*	Because of their dislike for work, most people must be controlled
and threatened before they will work hard enough.
*	The average human prefers to be directed, dislikes responsibility,
is unambiguous, and desi
*	res security above everything. 
*	These assumptions lie behind most organizational principles today,
and give rise both to "tough" management with punishments and tight
controls, and "soft" management which aims at harmony at work.
*	Both these are "wrong" because man needs more than financial rewards
at work, he also needs some deeper higher order motivation - the
opportunity to fulfill himself.
*	Theory X managers do not give their staff this opportunity so that
the employees behave in the expected fashion.

Theory Y Assumptions

*	The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural
as play or rest.
*	Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work,
man will direct himself if he is committed to the aims of the
*	If a job is satisfying, then the result will be commitment to the
*	The average man learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept
but to seek responsibility.
*	Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to solve work
problems by a large number of employees.
*	Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual
potentialities of the average man are only partially utilized.

Comments on Theory X and Theory Y Assumptions

These assumptions are based on social science research which has been
carried out, and demonstrate the potential which is present in man and
which organizations should recognize in order to become more

McGregor sees these two theories as two quite separate attitudes.
Theory Y is difficult to put into practice on the shop floor in large
mass production operations, but it can be used initially in the
managing of managers and professionals.

In "The Human Side of Enterprise" McGregor shows how Theory Y affects
the management of promotions and salaries and the development of
effective managers. McGregor also sees Theory Y as conducive to
participative problem solving."

Taken from 
Human Relations School of Management
[see more at link]


"ARCS - Motivation Theory 
According to John Keller, there are four major categories of
motivational strategies: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and


*   Perceptual Arousal 
Gain and maintain student attention by the use of novel, surprising,
incongruous, or uncertain events in instruction.
*	Inquiry Arousal
Stimulate information-seeking behavior by posing, or having the
learner generate, questions or a problem to solve.
*	Variability
Maintain student interest by varying the elements of instruction. 


*	Familiarity
Adapt instruction, use concrete language, use examples and concepts
that are related to the learner's experience and values to help them
integrate new knowledge.
*	Goal Orientation 
Provide statements or examples that present the objectives and utility
of the instruction, and either present goals for accomplishment or
have the learner define them.
*	Motive Matching 
Adapt by using teaching strategies that match the motive profiles of
the students.


*	Expectancy for Success 
Make learners aware of performance requirements and evaluative
*	Challenge Setting
Provide multiple achievement levels that allow learners to set
personal goals or standards of accomplishment, and performance
opportunities that allow them to experience success.
*	Attribution Molding 
Provide feedback that supports student ability and effort as the
determinants of success.


*	Natural Consequences 
Provide opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge or skill in a
real or simulated setting
*	Positive Consequences 
Provide feedback and reinforcements that will sustain the desired
*	Equity 
Maintain consistent standards and consequences for task accomplishment

Taken from: 
Penn State Web Site
[see more at link]


"Can Positive Motivation Help?
All of this theory of powerful disincentives teaches us that positive
external motivators must be carefully chosen in order to counteract
disincentive and negative motivation.
The most powerful positive motivators are probably those that
complement internal motivators that already exist.
For example, let's say Jane has decided to go to college and major in
Animal Health. Her parents would like to find ways to motivate her to
do well in school. They've offered her $100 for getting straight A's,
but this goal seems so far from reality for Jane that she's almost
given up.
Jane's school counselor suggests that her parents instead focus on the
real goal, Animal Health, and help by setting up opportunities for
Jane to visit local facilities such as the zoo and a veterinary
hospital to learn more about careers in Animal Health.
Jane starts working as a volunteer at the vet hospital, and she feels
that her goal is worthy and attainable because her parents and other
significant adults agree that it is important for her to have these
experiences. They go out of their way to drive her to her work
experience and Jane feels professional and motivated to raise her
grades in math and biology.
Surprisingly, simple things motivate people. "

A substantial research base exists to validate the power of music to
motivate people. Many describe a favorite piece of music as “moving”
or “inspiring.” These descriptors indicate that music has great appeal
to the emotional being, and that the effects of music penetrate beyond
the conscious mind to the inner self where persistence and hope
reside. Read more about the motivational power of music here"

Are you shopping for powerful motivational symbols? Have a look at
Symbols of Success, where you will find an appealing array of
motivational icons. These make great gifts, awards, and prizes for
group members who are learning to reach for the sky!
People who are successful in reaching goals are those who are able to
maintain their focus, even when the objective is years away. Many of
those successful people mention that they feel inspired to persist by
focusing on a symbol of success. The symbol itself might be one that
epitomizes success, uniqueness, or height (in our culture, reaching
for success involves reaching up or skyward!). The eagle is a great
example of a lofty, free spirit that soars above the rest and
symbolizes power and success. Other people look for symbols that help
them focus their energy. Many people consider pyramids as powerful,
stable structures that help them focus their energies. Still others
select photographs and other art forms that depict athletes or
powerful animals moving towards their goals."

Taken from:
Motivation and Motivational Tools
[see more at link]



"One of the most enduring influences in motivation theory is Maslow's
needs hierarchy. The empirical basis for the needs hierarchy was
Maslow's own studies of dominance in monkeys and humans. In both
cases, Maslow concluded that one individual's ability to be dominant
over others was due to that individual's acknowledged superiority, and
that differences in human or monkey groups occurred because of
differences in the exercise of dominance by the individuals in those
groups. The incorporation of these ideas into the needs hierarchy
explains its intuitive appeal: the hierarchy justifies managerial
power, while at the same time absolving managers of accountability for
ineffective motivational practices. However, recent primatological
research reveals serious flaws in Maslow's understanding of the nature
of dominance in monkeys and apes. As a consequence, Maslow's theory is
based on research which is no longer considered valid by the
discipline in which it was done."

Taken from:
University of Alberta Canada
[paper available at link]


Motivation Theory in the Classroom By M. Moulton 

"The classroom environment is the foundation that helps to determine
the attitudes, behaviors and motivations of the students within. If a
classroom is built around rewards, threats and final products then
this is what will motivate the students. "If I finish my science
questions then I get an extra long recess." In a classroom where high
expectations aren't conveyed (or present at all) and good enough is
acceptable, students aren't challenged to improve and can enter a
state of learned helplessness. "Oh well, these questions aren't
finished but Miss won't care." In a classroom where the students are
challenged, involved and supported in exploration they become
intrinsically motivated and excited about learning. "I wonder what we
will be doing for our next unit? Maybe I will suggest a Space theme,
Astronauts and planets are cool!"

Taken From:
Memorial University of Newfoundland
[article available at link]


"Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Herzberg (1966) attempted to isolate what motivated workers in
organizations. He reveals two groups of activities that satisfies
worker’s needs; maintenance and motivators.

Maintenance and hygiene factors are related to the context or
environment of the job, rather than the job itself. These issues are
related to pay, supervision, organizational policies, and
interpersonal relationships with peers, employers and subordinates.
When they are present there is no motivation but when they are absent
there is dissatisfaction.

Motivators are those aspects of work related to job satisfaction but
not to dissatisfaction, such as recognition of good work and granting
greater feeling of freedom and responsibility of work. In short,
Motivator-Hygiene Theory was developed by Federick Herzberg to explain
the motivations of workers in the workplace. His theory closely
mirrors Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs but diverges from him in
structure. Herzburg classified needs under two much larger categories
of, motivator (belongingness/esteem/self-actualization) and hygiene
(physiological and safety) needs."

"ERG Theory

C.P. Alderfer (1972 ) identifies three categories of human needs that
influence worker’s behavior; existence, relatedness and growth.
Existence needs include things such as hunger, thirst and sex.
Relatedness needs includes some involvement with family, friends,
co-workers and employers. Growth concerns those desires to be
creative, productive and to complete meaningful tasks.

While it is obvious that ERG theory is also very similar to Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs, Alderfer did diverge from Maslow in two important
ways. Maslow insisted that one prepotent need should be relatively
satisfied before and individual could move on to the next level.
Therefore, a person would be unable to fulfill esteem needs if they
were homeless or without the ability to feed themselves. Alderfer
argues that (1) hierarchy is not included and (2) although a need may
be satisfied that need may continue to dominate.

In short, Alderfer’s ERG theory identifies three categories of human
needs that appear to influence a worker’s behavior. These factors are
existence, relatedness and growth. Now, let’s take a closer look at
how these three theories compare."

See studies done at this link from CI Advertising:

Additional studies here:

Investment in Professional Speakers Pays Bottom-Line Dividends 
"(TEMPE, Ariz.) A myth in the business world suggests that speakers
leave corporate audiences pumped up and inspired, but hold little
lasting value for organizations. Yet, the rapid expansion of the $120
billion meetings industry and growth of the speaking profession
suggests that the benefits of hiring a professional speaker are real
and pervasive. Business managers tout the positive, long-lasting
impact on organizational productivity from qualified professional
speakers. Employees, clients and Wall Street alike view professional
speakers as a contributing factor to the long-term success of an
organization.  Qualified professional speakers know that the key is
leaving audiences feeling not only more confident and energized, but
armed with new tools, skills and ideas to make an on-going, positive
difference in both their personal and professional lives."
See remaining part of article here:

Investment in Professional Speakers Pays Bottom-Line Dividends

"The days when motivators could recite the same old up-and-at-'ems are
gone with the windbag. But as you might expect, these professional
optimists haven't taken the challenge lying down. Instead they've been
hunting for new ways to make their can-do message pertinent. Jim Mapes
thinks the current situation calls for hypnosis. "When your assumption
that you can control the future is shattered, you have to break the
old behavior patterns," he says. "That's how I do it." A favorite set
piece has Mapes convincing a volunteer that she's trapped in a box.
Finally he snaps her awake and delivers the punch line: "I didn't do
anything to her that we don't do to ourselves."

Even megastar motivator Tony Robbins has adapted his trademark take on
achievement. "At a time when individuals and organizations believe
that so much is outside their control, it's very important to
emphasize what we can control," he says, bursting with his usual
enthusiasm. "If you have enough creativity, you can find capital in
any environment."

It's this kind of optimism that keeps motivational speakers going. And
indeed, there are signs that the $102 billion U.S. meetings and
conventions industry is beginning to recover. "Each month since last
fall is better than the one before," says Jim Keppler, president of
Keppler Associates, an Arlington, Va., speakers bureau. Sounds like
that trademark motivational mantra: Every day, in every way, we're
getting better and better."

See remaining article here:

Get Happy! Please
Can-do folks in can't-do times.
Friday, May 10, 2002 
By Nancy K. Austin,15114,361402,00.html


"Q: My company provides training for our employees. It seems to help
at first, but soon it seems things are back to normal. What's going

A: There are several very effective speakers and trainers who will
motivate and offer valuable training materials for your staff. There
are few which provide personalized on-going coaching and training. Why
is this important to companies desiring long-term improvements?

Because statistics show that students forget 80% of what they learn
within 72 hours. In addition, studies show that unless training is
reinforced by continual practice and review, the knowledge gained will
be quickly lost."

See remaining Q&A here: 
Assured Success


Additional Link:
Speaker Spotlight -- Communication and Communication Skills

Search Strategy:
motivation theory
motivation theories
motivation causes
"motivation +is"
"motivational speakers" "study shows"
"+causes motivation"
motivational speakers successful

Request for Answer Clarification by qpet-ga on 22 Feb 2003 19:10 PST
not bad,jbf777, however I, love to get more info on motivational
speakers and the longterm impact they have.(any studies)? Are there
any paterns that most speakers use?

Request for Answer Clarification by qpet-ga on 24 Feb 2003 07:20 PST

Clarification of Answer by jbf777-ga on 24 Feb 2003 08:46 PST
Hi qpet-ga,
Need to have a little time on this one... I've searched quite
extensively for any official studies on this sort of thing, and am
coming up empty.  I'll get back to you soon on it.

Request for Answer Clarification by qpet-ga on 24 Feb 2003 09:59 PST
Thanks for trying- if you can't find anything else, there probably
isn't much more out there. In that case don't worry. It would,
however, be useful to get an idea of the overall size of the
motivational speaker market.

Clarification of Answer by jbf777-ga on 24 Feb 2003 10:38 PST
I'll have some more information shortly.



Clarification of Answer by jbf777-ga on 24 Feb 2003 13:01 PST
Qpet -

It doesn't look like there are any hard numbers out there which are
accessible to the general public.  I've scoured the net, as well as
having called 2 speaking associations.  All I spoke to say they have
never heard of anything published.  The more I think about it,
especially after having Frank Candy, an actual motivational speaker on
the subject, who is himself the president of a speaking association
[who also says there are no hard numbers, and if there were, he
wouldn't believe them; see more below], the reason there are no real
numbers on this is because it is extremely subjective and
individualized.  How would one really measure whether or not he is
more motivated long term due to hearing a speaker?  How could one
decipher if his motivation months and years down the road from a
speaking workshop is really the result of what he heard, or simply the
result of new circumstances in his life?  New relationships?  New job?
 New stimulus?

Frank Candy, President of National Speakers Association and
motivational speaker:

"No one can really motivate anyone. Motivation is intrinsic, it's an
inside job.  Now you can be inspired to be motivated... and that's
where the vleu of speakers, books tapes and CD's come in.  Key factor:
 you can choose your attitude. I believe the word 'Choice' is the most
powerful word in the english language. You can decide if you want to
be extremely motivated, or if you want to sit on the couch and watch
TV and play video games.  Even that is a kind of motivation, because
you "chose to do that".

I can inspire someone to change their behavior.  It depends on the
dynamics of THAT moment. Example:  You can have an average meeting,
average food, average  hotel with an incredible speaker, and people
coming away from that and going  WOW.. same group w/ great motel,
great food, great meeting, music, etc....  bad speaker.  People will
remember the closing bad speaker.

In general, there are long term effects.  They are immeasurable. It's
all individualistic.  There are no hard numbers.  It's very
Motivation is like deoderant, everyone needs it...daily... in many
cases, some more than others.

On patterns they use:

"Use your own feel good factors before a
presentation. Play a piece of music you
love just before you start. Many of the
motivational speakers use this technique
both to change the state of the audience
and change their own state."

From Ontarget


"Finally, there is the area of Neuro Linguistic Programming or NLP.
It originated in the mid 70’s from the work of John Grinder and
Richard Bandler ("Frogs into Princes", 1979).  It is often ignored in
the overall discussion of body language, but I feel it is an important
contribution worth considering. This is a very complex topic and the
practice of NLP is about modeling of specific behaviours.
Understanding eye movements is a key component of NLP. Many
motivational speakers use a variation of the techniques. One of the
most successful is Tony Robbins, author of "Unlimited Power", who
calls his similar approach by another name."

From Body Language / Ward Green & Hill Associates


"Well, perhaps you do have reasons for being angry and resentful. But
you also have a choice--although it’s not necessarily an easy one to
make. I’ve often heard motivational speakers use the pearl-making
capability of the oyster as an example to inspire higher performance.
An oyster responds to a grain of sand intruding into its closed
ecosystem by secreting a solution called mother-of-pearl, which covers
the irritant and eventually makes a pearl. It’s nice to think that
what was once an irritant can become a thing of beauty and lasting
value. The trouble is that the recipient of that oh-so-wondrous pearl
isn’t the same creature that had to suffer with the irritant for who
knows how long! I don’t believe I’ve ever heard a comment on what the
oyster gets out of the pearl-making bargain."

From: Making Pearls: A Perspective on Duty
Published Airpower Journal - Winter 1993 


"Many of my favorite motivational speakers use traffic as an example
of something that can affect us adversly. If you are stressed and
overwhelmed, feeling like there is not enough time in the day to get
everything done, angry, then you will contribute to the magnificent
traffic issue in South Florida. Stress causes bad traffic, and bad
traffic causes stress. And your chances of experiencing both at some
time are 100%. How is that for a statistic? I can't tell you how to be
the perfect person. But for no charge I can give you some ideas that
will help reduce, substantially, those bad feelings caused by stress
and traffic. Take these helpful hints and use them."

From "DO THE RIGHT THING" Written By Suzi Khani 


"The team build has become the universal panacea for all corporate
ills – it acts as a pressure valve for suppressed anger and resentment
between employees. But the effects are mostly temporary, as we cannot
reprogramme our behaviour over a weekend.

Motivational speakers use analogies with golf swings, lions in a pride
or sharks devouring their prey, and while they may provide insights
into behavioural mechanisms, understanding wildlife means little to
employees in conflict, the survivors of a bout of corporate downsizing
or newly arrived staff. 

Besides, as I once heard quoted, ‘If you want to know who someone is
not, try to motivate him."

By Mark Smith


Market size: pick what source you want to believe :)

"Amps put in a plug for his own career choice by complimenting his
articulate and outspoken audience before advising that motivational
speaking was a $160 billion industry with salaries often in the
six-figure range."

PINE BLUFF COMMERCIAL 'First in Southeast Arkansas' 120th Year, No.
306 on Friday, February 23, 2001.


"Motivational speaking is a $1 billion-a-year industry, reports
Marketdata, a Tampa, Fla. consulting firm."

Forbes Magazine
The Guru in the Vegetable Bin
Wednesday February 19, 12:14 pm ET 
By Monte Burke
qpet-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars and gave an additional tip of: $10.00
I realy appreciate the"extra mile"!

Subject: Re: Motivational theories
From: jbf777-ga on 25 Feb 2003 11:39 PST
Thank you very much for the rating + tip!

GA Researcher

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