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Q: List of companies into the transdermal drug delivery business ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   0 Comments )
Subject: List of companies into the transdermal drug delivery business
Category: Health > Medicine
Asked by: tom136-ga
List Price: $15.00
Posted: 08 May 2003 00:56 PDT
Expires: 07 Jun 2003 00:56 PDT
Question ID: 201033
I need a list of companies into the transdermal delivery of drugs
(e.g. Watson Pharmaceuticals). Please, build each record in the list
including a general paragraph mentioning that the company is in the
buccal (oral transmucosal) drug
delivery business(taken from the same website of the company)plus the
to the company. The more companies in the list, the better. I know
that it is almost impossible to cover ALL the companies around the
world, but a list of about 20 would do it.
Subject: Re: List of companies into the transdermal drug delivery business
Answered By: tehuti-ga on 08 May 2003 04:57 PDT
Rated:5 out of 5 stars
Hello Tom,

An article on PharmiWeb “Getting Past the Skin: Place of Transdermal
Drug Delivery Technology” Frost & Sullivan Posted On: Friday, January
24, 2003
has the following information:
The transdermal market is dominated by HRT patches, but patches are
also used for delivery of testosterone, nicotine, nitroglycerine, and
analgesics. “3M markets Minitran, which is the smallest daily
nitroglycerin patch in the world… Noven's Vivelle-Dot is the world's
smallest estradiol transdermal system (ERT) patch.” One of the
pioneers in this field is Alza, which developed the first patch in the
US. Its brands include Duragesic, Estraderm, Transderm-Nitro,
Transderm-Scop, and Catapress-TTS. The OTC market also has transdermal
patches, including those used for delivery of nicotine, analgesiscs
and cold and sinus remedies.
One of the technological challenges to extending this delivery mode to
other products is that proteins and peptides are too large to pass
through the skin. One way to get round this is to use electricity or
ultrasound to help push the molecules through. “Iontophoresis involves
passing a direct electrical current between two electrodes on the skin
surface. Phonophoresis uses ultrasonic frequencies to help transfer
high molecular weight drugs through the skin. ALZA is developing
E-Trans technology… Design options include disposable E-Trans systems
for delivering drug over hours or days, and reusable systems with
replaceable batteries and drug pads. E-Trans systems can be programmed
for continuous (zero-order), patterned, on-demand or
feedback-controlled drug delivery.”  Fentanyl delivered by the E-Trans
method is currently in Phase III.  “Imarx is developing ultrasound
assisted transdermal insulin system. 3M is currently evaluating a wide
range of low solubility compounds and developing transdermal systems
that have smaller size and prolonged wear periods. Buspirone patch
being developed by Elan holds tremendous potential in the transdermal
drug delivery market.”  Other products potentially suitable for this
sort of development include alprostadil, minoxidil, hormones,
analgesics, contraceptives, and antifungal agents.”

Here are details of the companies mentioned above:

1. 3M
“3M Pharmaceuticals is renowned for its inhalation technology and
transdermal drug delivery systems…. 3M Pharmaceuticals drew on 3M's
long-standing expertise in Scotch® Tape and Post-it® Notes to create
the innovative "drug-in-adhesive" technology for transdermal patches.
3M's Minitran™ (nitroglycerin) Transdermal Delivery System is the
smallest and thinnest transparent nitroglycerin patch. And today, most
transdermal patches, from hormone replacement therapies to smoking
cessation products, include components from 3M.”
“3M is a $16 billion diversified technology company with leading
positions in consumer and office; display and graphics; electronics
and telecommunications; health care; industrial; safety, security and
protection services; transportation and other businesses.
Headquartered in St. Paul, Minnesota, the company has operations in
more than 60 countries and serves customers in nearly 200 countries….
We began selling our products outside the United States in 1929, and
established an International Operations organization in 1951. More
than half of 3M's sales come from outside the United States.”
Home page from which you can move to the 3 web
sites in various countries.

2. Noven
“Noven Pharmaceuticals, Inc., headquartered in Miami, Florida, is a
leader in the development of transdermal and transmucosal drug
delivery technologies and products. Together with Novartis
Pharmaceuticals, Noven owns a women's health products company called
Novogyne Pharmaceuticals. Noven's existing products include advanced
estrogen transdermal delivery systems (including Vivelle® and
Vivelle-Dot™, licensed to Novogyne, and Estradot®, licensed to
Novartis) and combination estrogen/progestin transdermal delivery
systems (including CombiPatch™, licensed to Aventis, and Estalis®,
licensed to Novartis). With a range of additional products in
development, including once-daily MethyPatch® for Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder, Noven is committed to becoming the world's
premier developer, manufacturer and marketer of transdermal and
transmucosal drug delivery systems.”
Home page:

3. Alza
“ALZA Corporation introduced the concept of controlled transdermal
delivery to the world through seven different patches, each of which
was the first transdermal formulation on the market in its therapeutic
category. That tradition of innovation continues today, as ALZA
continually refines and improves the technology used in its D-TRANS®
transdermal systems….
ALZA Experience: Bringing the First Patches to Market in Seven
Therapeutic Categories
Transderm Scop® (scopolamine)—This product introduced the therapeutic
patch concept to the world in 1981…. Transderm-Nitro® (nitroglycerin)…
an alternative to the brief effects of sublingual nitroglycerin and
the messiness of nitroglycerin ointment…. Catapres-TTS®
(clonidine)—ALZA's rate-controlled system allows hypertensive patients
to wear one patch for a week…  Estraderm® (estradiol)—Because
transdermal delivery avoids the problem of liver metabolism, the
estradiol dose of this patch is only a fraction of that in oral
estrogen replacement and provides twice-weekly, convenient therapy….
Duragesic® (fentanyl) CII—Introduced in 1991 … NicoDerm® CQ®
(nicotine) and Clear NicoDerm® CQ®… Testoderm® (testosterone) and
Testoderm® TTS—Introduced in 1994 and 1998, respectively” 
“Macroflux® systems can be drug-coated for direct administration or
can be used in combination with passive transdermal or
electrotransport systems to significantly expand the delivery
opportunities for synthetic drugs, therapeutic proteins and vaccines….
technology incorporates a thin titanium screen with precision
microprojections that, when applied to the skin, creates superficial
pathways through the skin’s dead barrier layer allowing transport of
macromolecules…. provides the option of dry-coating the drug on the
Macroflux® microprojection array for bolus delivery…  or using a drug
reservoir for continuous passive or electrotransport applications….
allows for better control of drug distribution throughout the skin
patch treatment area and reduction in skin irritation potential.”
Home page 

4. Imarx
“SonoDerm™ Technology Ultrasound Assisted Transdermal Transport
Many drugs, particularly large molecules such as insulin, are not
absorbed by the oral route and have to be injected frequently. As an
outgrowth of the Company’s work on ultrasound contrast agents and
ultrasound mediated drug delivery (SonoRelease™ Technology), ImaRx has
developed novel ultrasound enhanced transdermal drug delivery
Patent: Gas and gaseous precursor filled microspheres as topical and
subcutaneous delivery vehicles  US 5733572  3/31/98
Home page:

5. Elan
Not very much information available on the Elan web site, and nothing
about the buspirone patch.
“Transdermal delivery systems  Validated through successful launches
of a number of smoking cessation products in Europe and the United
States    Number of patch products in late stage development for the
US market”
Elan Transdermal Technologies, Inc.
3250 Commerce Parkway, Miramar, FL 33025. TEL (954) 430 3340, FAX
(954) 430 3390 
Home page
I did find this though:
“Spring Valley, New York, October 3, 2001 — Pharmaceutical Resources,
Inc. ("PRI") (NYSE:PRX), today announced that its subsidiary, Par
Pharmaceutical, has entered into a licensing agreement with Elan
Transdermal Technologies (NYSE: ELN) to market a generic clonidine
transdermal patch. An ANDA for the product was filed earlier this year
with the FDA. A paragraph IV certification was filed along with the
application, certifying that the product did not infringe the branded
product's formulation patent, which expires May 2003. The product
launch is expected to occur in either late 2002 or early 2003.
The patch is a generic version of Boehringer Ingelheim's Catapres
TTS®, which is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Brand
sales are approximately $160 million.”
However, this seems to be the only transdermal product by Boehringer.
We also market the only transdermal antihypertensive in the U.S. —
CATAPRES-TTS® (clonidine), an adhesive patch that delivers
blood-pressure medication directly through the skin.” 
Parent company:

And some other companies below. Since you already mentioned Watson, I
have not included it.

6. Novosis AG
“Devices, adhering to skin that deliver drug through intakt skin into
the body for systemic action.
Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems (TDS, often named Patches) come in
two "flavours": * thin flexible coloured or nearly invisible matix
patches      * flexible coloured or transparent liquid or semi-solid
filled reservoir patches.  Whereas the more elegant filmlike matrix
patches in general can deliver only relatively small amounts of drug,
reservoir patches are preferred systems, when higher drug amounts (>
5mg/day) should be delivered. Reservoir systems may contain
significant amounts of liquid absorption promotors that may be
neccessary for sufficient absorption.
Incontinence TDS
Indication: Urinary urge Incontinence Licensing opportunity: Worldwide
License available
Drug substances: Oxybutynin  Intellectual property: Patent Application
 Opioide TDS
Indication: Moderate to severe Pain Licensing opportunity: Worldwide
rights available with Cooperation Partner
Drug substances: not disclosed  Intellectual property: Patent
 Back Pain TDS
Indication: Back Pain Licensing opportunity: Worldwide Rights with
Cooperation Partner
Drug substances: Local Anaesthetic  Intellectual property: Patent
Applied   There are links on this
page to further information about each of these TDS products.
“Novosis AG's conceptual and practical expertise is established in:
    * development and manufacturing of transdermal drug delivery
systems (TTS, TDS, patches),
    * development and manufacturing of epidermal drug delivery systems
(EDS, patches),
… Novosis AG is located in MIESBACH, Germany, a Bavarian Alpine town
30 km south of Munich.” 

7. Lavipharm Corp
“Lavipharm is a leading developer and manufacturer of the 3rd
generation transdermal systems. For instance, our 3rd generation
transdermal nitroglycerin patch (sold under a variety of trade names)
is popular with patients and physicians worldwide”
BTW, Lavipharm also develops buccal delivery systems:
“Lavipharm's unique Intra-Oral Delivery System (IODS) lets you control
oral delivery with extraordinary precision. The IODS films allow you
to precisely control the release of the drug by delivering active
components, which dissolve over a defined time period, to a specific

8. New Jersey Center for Biomaterials
“The main focus of the research group headed by Dr. Bozena B. Michniak
is in the area of topical and transdermal drug delivery. A major part
of the work is devoted to the tissue engineering of skin, and a human
skin co-culture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes using collagen as a
dermal matrix, has been developed and been shown to possess similar
drug permeability to human skin. This novel model surpasses those
available to date… Other major projects in the laboratory include
optimization of formulations for topical and transdermal delivery,
such as ketoprofen gels, microsphere and unimolecular polymeric
micelle formulations, and liposomal creams…. In addition, projects
include the development of transdermal patches for the U.S. Army,
development of a topical anti-papilloma formulation containing a novel
antisense oligonucleotide, and iontophoretic delivery of drugs with
and without additional chemical enhancement. Drug permeability
pathways and effect of agents as well as iontophoresis on skin
membranes are being investigated using confocal microscopy as well as
SEM and TEM…. Structure-activity relationships have been investigated
for over 200 newly synthesized compounds with both dermal enhancing
and retarding properties. The work includes chemical modeling of both
the enhancer/retardant compounds as well as the modeling of lipid
layers of the stratum corneum.”
“As a formal consortium of New Jersey's premier public institutions of
higher education working closely with industry, the Center coordinates
academic, technical and clinical resources” 

9. Ultrasonic Technologies
“Ultra-Sonic Technologies, LLC was founded in May of 2002 by Karl R.
Zurn and Dr. Ludwig Weimann. MED Associates Inc. of Georgia and St.
Albans, Vermont, is a business partner in this venture.  Ultra-Sonic
Technologies, LLC's main goal is to develop an ultrasonic device for
painless transdermal drug delivery based on Dr. Ludwig Weimann's
patented design. In addition,  Ultra-Sonic Technologies, LLC provides
custom services for the development of transdermal and topical drug
delivery patches with controlled release of the active substance from
the device. The company's laboratory is located in the St. Albans
Industrial Park of St. Albans, Vermont.” 
“Method and Apparatus for In-Vivo Transdermal and/or Intradermal
Delivery of Drugs by Sonoporation  Patent Number: 6,487,447 B1
An apparatus for performing in-vivo sonoporation of a skin area and
transdermal and/or intradermal delivery of a drug solution includes a
container having an end covered with a porous membrane and containing
the drug solution and an ultrasound horn having a tip submerged in the
drug solution.  The ultrasound horn applies ultrasound radiation to
the drug solution.”
A feasibility study of using high amplitude ultrasound to deliver
large molecules transdermally
Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology  Volume 28, No.9, pp.1173-1180, 2002 (includes
link to download a reprint)

10. Anatares Pharma
“Antares Pharma is the acknowledged leader in the delivery of drugs
using gel technology. Gels are generally well known although
developing a gel to provide for the penetration of a drug in
therapeutic amounts through the skin represents a significant
challenge….  Antares Pharma developed a proprietary gel technology
platform with two main goals: one is the systemic delivery of potent
compounds such as hormones, the other is the local dermal delivery of
active substances for treatment of psoriasis, soft-tissue infections
and local infections, management of hair loss, etc….
Antares Pharma believes that gel technology has compelling advantages
compared with patch technology.” 
Transdermal patches: “The systems designed by our Company are of the
drug-in-adhesive type and consist of transparent and flat units, which
contain the active principles in a matrix composed of acrylic
pressure-sensitive adhesive, and excipients such as permeation
enhancers, co-solvents and antioxidants. These drug-in-adhesive
systems give the Company the potential to work with drugs in several
therapeutic fields like HRT, anti-inflammatory / analgesics and
Central Nervous System agents.  Products using this technology are
marketed throughout Central and South America and registration's
approval is currently awaited in Italy.”
“Antares Pharma has developed a proprietary technology for the
Transdermal Administration of Estradiol. This transdermal system
belongs to the Drug-in-Adhesive type. Antares Pharma's Transdermal
Delivery Systems (TDS) are designed for continuous release of 17
beta-Estradiol following application to the skin, during a 7-day

11. Altea Therapeutics
“Altea Therapeutics has developed a proprietary noninvasive method to
achieve the delivery of therapeutic proteins, conventional drugs and
vaccines through the skin. Based on experience with over a hundred
human subjects, the Company believes that use of its technology can
provide a painless, convenient and effective method to deliver drugs
and vaccines that previously have been limited to administration by
injection.  The method rapidly and painlessly causes tiny openings or
'micropores' that are tens of microns in diameter, to form through the
stratum corneum, the dead outer layer of the skin. No mechanical
probes or skin puncturing devices are used. Therapeutic molecules of
all sizes and physicochemical types are able to diffuse through these
micropores for local action within the viable skin tissue or for
systemic action after uptake by the circulatory system. The 'skin
microporation' technology can be configured to achieve a variety of
drug delivery profiles including: sustained, pulsatile, rapid and
on-demand dosing.”
“The Company's corporate and research facilities of 25,000 square feet
are located in the greater Atlanta area, with additional business
offices in Europe (Stockholm) and Salt Lake City”

12.  Birch Point Medical
“The company's initial commercial product is the IontoPatch®. The
IontoPatch® is a medical device application of Birch Point Medical's
WEDD™ technology platform. It is an electronic transdermal drug
delivery device designed for the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
market. It is used primarily by physical therapists, occupational
therapists and sports medicine professionals to deliver drugs to
specific anatomical sites.”
“An innovative self-contained battery produces an electric current to
carry drug molecules non-invasively across the skin and to underlying
tissue. Drug delivery is shut off automatically when the prescribed
dosage has been administered. The IontoPatch is single use and
disposable. Since there are no external batteries or wires, patients
are able to return to their daily activities while receiving
time-released iontophoresis.”

13. Iomed
Produce electrode systems for transdermal delivery
For example “The TransQFlex electrode gives you an added advantage
over other transdermal drug delivery systems. This new shape with gel
technology increases the conformability of drug delivery, especially
to areas of the body that make traditionally shaped electrodes more
difficult to use. TransQFlex GelSponge® will increase your ability to
treat patients more comfortably, while increasing the ease-of-use for
“Numby Stuff electrodes teamed with IONTOCAINE® (brand of lidocaine 2%
HCI with 1:100,00 epinephrine topical solution) provide clinically
effective dermal anesthesia up to 10mm depth in as little as 10
“IOMED's Phoresor Iontophoretic Drug Delivery System is indicated for
the administration of soluble salts and other drugs into the body for
medical purposes as an alternative to hypodermic injection… The
Phoresor Iontophoretic Drug Delivery System is also indicated for
production of local dermal anesthesia using IONTOCAINE® brand of
lidocaine hydrochloride 2% and epinephrine 1:100,000 topical
“IOMED, Inc. is a leader in the development, manufacture, and sale of
active drug transport systems. We are pursuing opportunities to
utilize our non-invasive drug transport systems in combination with
specialty pharmaceuticals to offer unique products designed to satisfy
substantial unmet medical needs in large pharmaceutical markets.”  
Based in Salt Lake City 

14. MacroChem, The Transdermal Drug Delivery Company
“MacroChem's SEPA® absorption enhancer is capable of delivering a wide
range of drugs transdermally that are otherwise absorbed only
minimally or not at all when applied to the skin. SEPA® is an acronym
for "Soft Enhancement of Percutaneous Absorption," where "soft" refers
to the reversibility of the skin effect, and "percutaneous" means
"through the skin." MacroChem synthesizes SEPA® by condensing ethylene
glycol and decyl aldehyde (decanal). SEPA® enhances skin penetration
by altering the fluidity of the lipid layers in the stratum corneum.
Those lipids surround the skin cells of the stratum corneum the way
mortar surrounds bricks in a wall. SEPA® temporarily alters the
alignment of those lipids allowing drug molecules to slip through.”
However: “The FDA has advised MacroChem that further clinical trials
of SEPA®-based investigational drug products have been placed on
clinical hold until potential safety issues regarding a transgenic
mouse carcinogenicity study have been resolved. MacroChem is working
with FDA to resolve these issues.” 

15 Sontra
“Sontra has developed a novel; non-invasive and painless skin
permeation technique that uses ultrasound to permeate the skin.
Sontra's SonoPrep® skin permeation device provides a convenient way to
enhance permeability through a short (15 seconds) well-controlled
burst of low frequency (compared to diagnostic imaging) ultrasonic
energy to the skin that allows sustained permeability for up to twenty
four hours. The transport properties of the outermost layer of the
skin (the stratum corneum) are greatly improved after skin permeation
and the technique opens up the potential for non-invasive transdermal
diagnostics and the enhanced delivery of drugs through the skin.”
“ontra's initial studies in the area of transdermal drug delivery,
suggest that ultrasound-mediated skin permeation can enhance transport
rates across the skin up to 100-fold for both small and large
compounds. Sontra is investigating the delivery of several large
proteins and peptides by incorporating the use of the SonoPrep device
in combination with transdermal patches to deliver the drug

16. Vyteris
“Our technology uses iontophoresis to deliver drugs painlessly through
the skin without needles or other mechanical devices. It works by
inducing a low-level electrical current that repels or drives a drug
with a natural ionic (electric) charge through the skin. This delivery
method is intended to offer an alternative to oral, injection and
infusion pump delivery and to avoid problems associated with these
delivery methods” 

17 BioChemics
“BioChemics, Inc. is a drug delivery company based in Danvers, MA.
BioChemics has developed and patented a unique, powerful and broadly
applicable form of patch-less, gel-based transdermal drug delivery
technology. This technology called PENtoCORE® , may be thought of as a
"liquid needle" which is able to deliver drugs through the skin and
into the bloodstream. PENtoCORE® is a platform technology which is
directly applicable to prescriptive, over-the-counter, and veterinary
drugs…. Between 1994 and 1997, BioChemics received FDA marketing
approval on 13 pharmaceutical products (3-Human over-the-counter
medications and 10-Veterinary products)…. successfully test-marketed
its 3 new transdermal products: Osteon® (an arthritis pain blocker),
Athlete's Relief (a sports injury pain blocker), and deFEET® (an
anti-fungal medication).” 

18. L.A.M. Pharmaceuticals LLC
“In 1994, L.A.M.'s scientists discovered a phenomenon that when lower
molecular weight hyaluronic acid was combined with other polymers of
specific electric charge, it was capable of penetrating all layers of
the skin. In addition, this polymer matrix was able to surround or
encapsulate other molecules, including therapeutic drug molecules,
carrying them through the skin for systemic absorption. This
transdermal molecular transport phenomenon is known as the L.A.M.
Ionic Polymer Matrix™ technology and is proprietary to L.A.M.
Pharmaceutical, Corp.” 

19. A.P. Pharma
“A.P. Pharma, Inc. (NASDAQ NM: APPA) is a specialty pharmaceutical
company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative
medical treatments utilizing its proprietary polymer-based drug
delivery systems. The Company's primary emphasis is on advancing its
Biochronomer™ technology platform for site-specific and systemic drug
delivery. Designed to release drugs over a period of hours, days,
weeks or even months, Biochronomer systems can be fabricated into a
wide range of forms, ranging from solid strands to free-flowing gels
which erode away as they deliver the drug.”
Collaborative activities include: Site Specific Pain  NSAID Film; 
Analgesic  Anesthetic  Gel.

20. MIKA Pharma, Limburger, Germany
“MIKA Pharma GmbH was established in 1994 in order to develop and
produce primarily dermal, transdermal, and buccal application systems
for pharmaceuticals on the basis of sprayable liposomes, pre-liposomal
solutions and proprietary micellar solutions. The products developed
and manufactured by MIKA Pharma GmbH are distributed by independent
pharmaceutical firms. MIKA Pharma GmbH has patented its "MIKA™
-spraygel-technology" and has filed its "MIKA™ -SILEC-technology" for
international patent.”

21. Nex Med Inc
“NexMed, Inc., is an emerging pharmaceutical and medical technology
company, with a product development pipeline of innovative topical
drug treatments based on the NexACT® transdermal drug delivery
technology. Its two lead NexACT® products under development are the
Alprox-TD and Femprox creams for ED and female sexual arousal
disorder, respectively.”

22. Encapsulation Systems Inc.
“Transdermal patches are unable to deliver as many as 175 currently
FDA approved medicinal compounds simply because the skin pores are too
small to accept the molecule…. If a transdermal patch could be made to
transfer the larger molecule drugs through the skin the market
opportunity would not only include the projected 175 currently listed
drugs but many new formulations in development…   Enhancement of drug
transport via a modified transdermal patch to enable it to deliver
large molecule drugs through the skin. We accomplish this by using
ultrasound to transport the large molecule drugs, via a wearable,
portable and programmable drug sonic applicator device.”

23. Acrux
“Acrux Ltd is a new Australian-based company with a unique vision and
skills in transdermal drug delivery systems - ways of administering a
range of drugs for a range of needs directly through the skin.”
“Together, Acrux's ACROSS and MDTS systems represent a platform
technology with immediate ability to deliver therapies such as hormone
replacement therapy (HRT), nicotine replacement, pain control and
treatments for angina, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence,
anxiety states and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders.
Acrux's initial focus for the validation of its transdermal technology
is in the development of products for female HRT, in which ACROSS
enhancers are combined with the MDTS spray applicator to provide a new
metered-dose transdermal delivery system.”

24. Adhesives Research Inc
“Adhesives Research has supported the development of transdermal drug
delivery systems (TDDS) since 1984 and has become a leading component
developer and supplier. Advanced pressure-sensitive adhesive
technologies are integral transdermal system components for the
effective delivery of prescribed medications. We develop and
manufacture customized adhesive polymers and adhesive/film laminations
to meet clinical as well as commercial requirements. Ask about our new
dissolvable films technology for the delivery of pharmaceutical
prescription and OTC ingredients in a different, consumer friendly,
easy-to-use platform.  “

25. Jenapharm GmbH
“The Jenapharm Center of Competence for Transdermal Drug Delivery
Systems (TDDS) is dealing with patches, gels, sprays and powders with
transdermal efficacy. TDDS have many advantages and benefits in
therapy. Jenapharm´s experts in TDDS are also playing a major role in
Schering´s global chemical manufacturing control (CMC) development
process as      * worldwide communication partner for CMC aspects of
transdermal systems     * development, assessment and testing center
of transdermal formulations     * authority for handing over TDDS
projects to contract manufacturers, and for site changes     *
provider of clinical supplies (conforming to GMP)  The extensive
experience in TDDS provides improvement of product properties
regarding performance and tolerability. The capabilities for
successful development of TDDS are based on intensive cooperation with
e.g. Schering´s specialist department or the silicone know-how at
Leiras Oy (Turku, Finland).”

26. Norwood Abbey, Australia
“Transdermal - laser assisted delivery - laser technology is designed
to painlessly and temporarily alter the stratum corneum, or outer
layer of skin, to enable a wide range of drugs to be delivered
effectively and without the gastric side effects associated with oral
drug administration. Our research has indicated that a very large
range of drugs can potentially be better delivered via the use of
Norwood technology.
Transdermal micro-needle arrays - by opening micron-scale holes in the
skin, drugs that are either too large or too hydrophobic to diffuse
through intact skin may be delivered effectively. Because
micro-needles penetrate only into the upper layers of skin (where the
primary transport barrier resides), they avoid contacting nerves and
capillaries, which means they can be painless and bloodless.
Micro-needle arrays could improve administration of existing
medications, allow development of new therapeutic compounds and
ultimately be used in microprocessor-based systems for delivering
drugs continuously or in response to body needs.”

27. Novavax
“Micellar Nanoparticles (MNPs) are proprietary, submicron-sized, water
miscible, non-phospholipid structures…  derived from amphiphilic
molecules. Novavax scientists have demonstrated that MNP's are able to
incorporate alcohol soluble drugs, pesticides, vaccine adjuvants,
proteins, whole viruses, flavors, fragrances and colors. MNP's also
have the ability to entrap ethanol or methanol soluble drugs, and to
deliver certain of these drugs transdermally through intact skin….
Novavax's first target indication with MNP technology is the Hormone
Replacement Therapy (HRT) market.”

28. Genetronics
“Electroporation technology has proved to have many more applications
than can be pursued simultaneously. Genetronics has identified many of
these opportunities and developed prototypes or product concepts…. A
prototype for the Genetronics Transdermal Delivery Device was created
and testing has been initiated for applications from drug delivery to
cosmetics. Genetronics is currently engaged in a collaborative
research agreement with a pharmaceutical partner to investigate the
use of transdermal drug delivery.”

29. Adherex Technologies, Ottawa
“Current research in transdermal drug delivery is directed toward
methods and mechanisms of overcoming this low permeability. A protein
called E-cadherin is involved in the regulation of skin cell adhesion
and the maintenance of the skin permeability barrier. We have
developed several synthetic compounds that target E-cadherin to
disrupt the skin barrier. Tests show that our compounds increase the
penetration of both charged and uncharged dyes through human skin in
the laboratory.”

30. AlphaRx
“AlphaRx's proprietary technology, known as Bioadhesive Colloidal
Dispersion (BCD), overcomes drug insolubility problems of hydrophobic
drugs through enhanced oral and transdermal drug delivery and is
protected by one issued and five pending U.S. patents and
corresponding international patents pending. BCD consists of two
different platforms: Colloidal Lipid Dispersion System ("CLD") for
trans-dermal delivery and Self -Emulsifying Controlled Release Tablet
System ("SECRET") for oral delivery. .. CLD can be incorporated into
cream, gel, liquid or "patch" vehicles.”

You might also be interested in a report by Jain Pharmabiotech
Transdermal Drug Delivery - Technologies, Markets, and Companies
May 2003. 135 Pages, US$ 750
    *  Up-to-date one-stop information on transdermal drug delivery
    * Description of 59 companies involved and 46 collaborations in
this area
    * Market analysis 2002-2007/
    * Market values in major regions
    * Strategies for developing markets for transdermal drug delivery
    * A selected bibliography of 85 publications
Tom, your words “I know that it is almost impossible to cover ALL the
companies"  is music to a researcher’s ears!  Thank you for
understanding that exhaustivity is usually an unattainable ideal in

Search strategy on Google: “transdermal drug delivery”, and then
follow-up of links at various resources identified by the search

Clarification of Answer by tehuti-ga on 29 May 2003 04:41 PDT
Hello Tom,

Apologies for the fact that I am barging in on an already completed
question, but I have no other way to contact you. I just noticed today
that you had addressed a question to me on May 9. Unfortunately, we do
not get any official notification about such matters, so can only
respond if we happen to be browsing Google Answers at the right time
to notice that a question has come up or if we are alerted to it by
other researchers.  I'm afraid neither of these happened in this case.
I just wanted to let you know, so that you do not think I deliberately
ignored your request.

Best wishes

Request for Answer Clarification by tom136-ga on 29 May 2003 10:29 PDT
Dear Tehuti: Thank you for your feed-back. Excuse me that I am also
using this way to communicate with you, but I do not know of other way
so far... Anyway, thanks again lot for your feedback. Unfortunately,
the reason why I needed that information no longer exists (so far). Is
there any way to let you know that I have posted an answer exclusively
to you? For instance, If I post a question "only for tehuti", when are
you able to know about that?? Kind regards,

Clarification of Answer by tehuti-ga on 29 May 2003 13:08 PDT
Hello Tom,

That's OK about the info. I'm glad you found it elsewhere. I messaged
because I felt bad about not noticing the question and didn't want you
to think I had ignored you. Unfortunately, there is no simple direct
way to communicate with individual researchers, and I am not permitted
to give you my personal contact information. You could mention that
there is a new question in a request for clarification on a question I
have already answered for you. That way, it comes to the top of my
list with a big "requires clarification" notice. Alternatively, and
perhaps better, I can search Google Answers on my id once a day, which
will show up any questions with my id in the text. In either case, if
I don't answer, it means I'm away and unable to log on - however, you
won't know whether I'm away for a day or much longer :(  In terms of
time differences, I work on UK time and tend to dip into here at odd
intervals from about 9am until about 2am most days. So, not a perfect
solution I'm afraid, but the best I can suggest.  Best wishes, tehuti

Request for Answer Clarification by tom136-ga on 29 May 2003 15:02 PDT
Dear Tehuti,
I think that this is a good way to communicate with you, because I do
not want to make you check every day to see if I have posted a
question for you or not. I will post some questions in the near
future, probably next week or the following week, for you. And I will
let you know when they are posted, by means of an "answer
clarification" like this.
In the mean time, I send you my best regards.
PS: please, do not feel bad about not noticing the question, and know
that I never thought that you were ignoring me. : ) I supposed you
were on holiday or something. : ) Take care. Tom

Request for Answer Clarification by tom136-ga on 02 Jun 2003 01:44 PDT
Dear Tehuti:
I have posted a question for you. Its on the Health-->Medicine section.
Thank you!
tom136-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars and gave an additional tip of: $3.00
Dear Tehuti:
As always, you provided a very well-researched, to-the-point, useful
and relevent reply; in one word, and *excellent* reply! Thank you so
much, Tehuti!

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