Google Answers Logo
View Question
Q: process flow sheet for zirconium oxychloride ( Answered 4 out of 5 stars,   0 Comments )
Subject: process flow sheet for zirconium oxychloride
Category: Science > Chemistry
Asked by: poconosandman-ga
List Price: $50.00
Posted: 18 Apr 2002 11:36 PDT
Expires: 25 Apr 2002 11:36 PDT
Question ID: 1033
Provide a flow sheet for the manufacture of zirconium oxychloride including 
major process perameters such as temperature and chemicals required.

Request for Question Clarification by skis4jc-ga on 18 Apr 2002 11:44 PDT
Do you mean what are the process parameters and temperatures and chemicals 
required to process Zirconium oxycholoride?
Subject: Re: process flow sheet for zirconium oxychloride
Answered By: skis4jc-ga on 18 Apr 2002 15:10 PDT
Rated:4 out of 5 stars
Dear Poconosandman,

Thank you for your inquiry!

According to Bhabha Atomic Research Center’s Department of Atomic Energy, the 
process to manufacture Zirconium Oxychloride is:
i) Caustic fusion of the ore followed by water leaching to yield crude 
zirconium hydroxide. 
ii) Dissolution of the crude zirconium hydroxide in concentrated hydrochloric 
acid to obtain crude zirconyl -chloride solution. The zirconyl chloride 
solution thus obtained forms the feed material for the production of either 
zirconium oxide or oxychloride or both.

Link to the Bhabha Atomic Research Center:

Generally the flow sheets are proprietary and can be different for each 
manufacturer, however we were able to find for you some additional 
information.  For example, AFM produces zirconia from naturally occurring 
zircon with an energy-intensive high temperature disassociation technique to 
produce zirconia with silica fume (SiO2) as by-product. It can also be produced 
in plasma furnaces. 

Other techniques for the production of zirconia includes by its: 

*extraction using caustic soda (or at higher temperatures with soda ash) to 
produce hydrated zirconia.

*reaction with chlorine (in the presence of carbon ZrSiO4 + C + 4Cl2 > ZrCl4 + 
SiCl4 + 4CO) to produce zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) and silicon 
tetrachloride which can be separated with the very different condensation 
temperatures. As with the production of its cousin, titanium dioxide, the 
tetrachloride is hydrolysed to zirconium oxychloride (as imported by Hanwha) 
and then calcined or precipitated with the addition of alkali.

This information was found at the website for Zircon Chemicals in Australia:

Additionally, many manufacturers prefer Zirconium because of its excellent 
resistance to corrosion attack in chloride media.  Zirconium is completely 
resistant to all concentrations of hydrochloric acid to temperatures well in 
excess of the boiling point. Even in concentrated 37 percent acid, zirconium 
does not corrode appreciably until temperatures higher than 250F are reached. 
Aeration does not affect zirconium's behavior in hydrochloric acid.  However, 
Zirconium's resistance to hydrochloric acid is lowered by the presence of 
oxidizing impurities such as cupric, ferric or nitrate ions.

Zirconium has great resistance to dry chlorine gas even at temperatures as high 
as 300F. Wet chlorine gas (saturated with water) is highly corrosive to 
zirconium, causing corrosion rates of approximately 200 mils per year (mpy). 
Zirconium is also very resistant to water that is saturated with chlorine gas, 
exhibiting a corrosion rate of 0.5 mpy.

With very few exceptions, zirconium is completely immune to corrosion in 
chlorinated hydrocarbons and other organic acids.  Acetic acid, citric acid, 
ethylene dichloride, formaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloro ethylene 
are just a few examples of media where zirconium is immune to corrosion.

This information can be found at the Allegheny Technologies website:

For a great website on Zirconium by Pomona Universities Chemistry department, 

For a book on processing materials, visit the TMS website at:

For safety data on ZOC, see:

Useful links:
Zirconium Chemical Technology
Chemical Group Quarterly Process Report
Journal of Materials Research - ZOC
Millenium Chemicals data sheet

Flow chart from Stanford Materials:

Materials Safety Data Sheet:

Search terms used:
Zirconium Oxychloride
Process Zirconium Oxychloride
Zirconium Oxychloride manufacturing
Produce Zirconium Oxychloride
Zirconium Oxychloride Formation
Zirconium Oxychloride Fabrication

Thank you for using Google!

Best Regards,
poconosandman-ga rated this answer:4 out of 5 stars
Good information and links, done in timely fashion.

There are no comments at this time.

Important Disclaimer: Answers and comments provided on Google Answers are general information, and are not intended to substitute for informed professional medical, psychiatric, psychological, tax, legal, investment, accounting, or other professional advice. Google does not endorse, and expressly disclaims liability for any product, manufacturer, distributor, service or service provider mentioned or any opinion expressed in answers or comments. Please read carefully the Google Answers Terms of Service.

If you feel that you have found inappropriate content, please let us know by emailing us at with the question ID listed above. Thank you.
Search Google Answers for
Google Answers  

Google Home - Answers FAQ - Terms of Service - Privacy Policy