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Q: Phonemic Awareness Gender differences in the elementary school years. ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: Phonemic Awareness Gender differences in the elementary school years.
Category: Reference, Education and News > Teaching and Research
Asked by: touchemlh-ga
List Price: $55.00
Posted: 23 Nov 2002 14:45 PST
Expires: 23 Dec 2002 14:45 PST
Question ID: 113360
Are more boys than girls reading disabled in the area of phonemic
awareness in the early elementary years of schooling?
Subject: Re: Phonemic Awareness Gender differences in the elementary school years.
Answered By: legolas-ga on 23 Nov 2002 21:32 PST
Hi touchemlh,

Thanks for such an interesting question. I enjoy the opportunity to
answer Psychological and Educational type questions as my educational
background is in Psychology.


Journal of Educational Psychology Abstracts
This site contains an abstract that may be of interest to you

Brian Byrne, Ruth Fielding-Barnsley, and Luise Ashley  (2000). Effects
of Preschool Phoneme Identity Training After Six Years: Outcome Level
Distinguished From Rate of Response. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 92(4), 659–667.

Basically, what this study says is that Grade 5 children who had been
exposed to phoneme identity 6 years earlier in preschool were superior
to untrained controls on irregular word reading.


“Why Children Succeed or Fail at Reading” (the link below is to the
HTML formatted version of an original PDF document)

I was able to find a newsletter that contains some useful information
about your question. Specifically, on the first page, in the
right-hand column the report says that, “…reading disabilities affect
boys and girls at roughly the same rate.” (This is from a report from
the NICHD – The National Institute of Child Health and Human


I was also able to find the source document from the NICHD – talking
about the differences between the genders in relation to reading
disabilities at:
NICHD Research Program in Reading

This article contains probably the best overview of your question that
I was able to find. Essentially, what the report says is that, “While
public schools identify approximately four times as many boys as girls
as reading disabled, NICHD longitudinal and epidemiological studies
show that as many girls as boys have difficulties learning to read.”


Longitudinal studies are some of the best types of research. There are
many reasons to believe a longitudinally designed study over other
research methodologies. I have also found you some information on
Longitudinal Designs to help you understand some of what you are
reading. You can find it here:
Descriptive Longitudinal Research Design


Some other fascinating reading about the NICHD is found at:
NRRF – A Synthesis of Research on Reading from the NICHD
This page provides some of the paradigm used in the NICHD research as
well as background information appropriate to your question.

I hope this gives you the answer you were looking for: please ask for
clarification prior to rating this answer if any parts of it are



Search Terms:
“gender difference” reading phonemic
nichd girls boys reading phonemic
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