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Q: Research studies for trunk control ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: Research studies for trunk control
Category: Health
Asked by: oooo-ga
List Price: $30.00
Posted: 22 Dec 2002 18:44 PST
Expires: 21 Jan 2003 18:44 PST
Question ID: 132580
Are there any research articles studying effectiveness of any
treatment protocols/approaches/techniques for training/improving trunk

Request for Question Clarification by tutuzdad-ga on 22 Dec 2002 18:46 PST
Are you referring to the physical strength of one's torso?

Subject: Re: Research studies for trunk control
Answered By: kyrie26-ga on 22 Dec 2002 21:46 PST
Hello oooo-ga,

Thank you for your question. I have found you the following
information resources with regard to research on the effectiveness of
techniques for training/improving trunk control/strength :


The Back Clinic Help for Back Pain in London

"At The Back Clinic we use the most advanced, researched and
documented methods available for dealing with acute and chronic back
pain. Below are some extracts from some of the relevant research
papers, and responses to some of the most frequently asked questions.
There is also a full list of research articles that support our
approach to the treatment of back pain. If you would like copies of
the relevant articles please call us."

"The effect of trunk muscle exercises in patients over 40 years of age
with chronic low back pain
"In older patients with Chronic Low Back Pain (…) it was confirmed
that trunk muscle strengthening exercises are useful for increasing
muscle strength and improving symptoms…"
Handa, Yamamoto et al, Dept of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kochi Medical
School, Japan"


What is MedX? 

"MedX is computerised, non-invasive medical equipment that tests the
strength of a patient's lumbar extensor muscles, the muscles that
support the spine, and delivers specific and highly accurate results.
It is the first machine capable of isolating the lumbar extensor
muscles and producing an objective measurement of lower back strength
and range of motion."

"MedX compares your lower back strength with that of a healthy pain
free person of the same sex, weight and age. Using this information,
including the precise extent of your lower back weakness and the
limits of your range of motion, our physiotherapists are able to
devise a treatment programme for you. The key component of this
treatment is the use of MedX to strengthen the lumbar extensors and
related musculature. As a result of the increase in muscle strength,
the lower lumbar spine becomes supported which in turn leads to a
decrease in, or elimination of, low back pain."


Applied Research Review, Summer 2002

"A preliminary report on the effect of measured strength training in
adolescent idiopathic scoliosis."

"Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during dynamic
spine stabilization exercises."

"The effect of trunk muscle exercises in patients over 40 years of age
with chronic low back pain."

"Can strong back extensors prevent vertebral fractures in women with


MedX Exercise Science Update - August 2000

"Dr. Vert Mooney and associates studied 12 adolescent patients with
scoliosis who were 11 to 16 years old and had curvatures ranging from
20 degrees to 60 degrees. When tested on the MedX Torso Rotation
machine, both sides were unequal in their torso rotation strength in
all patients. Myoelectric activity was asymmetric in both sides and in
abdominal and paraspinal muscles of all patients. These asymmetries
were corrected completely with MedX torso rotation training, which was
associated with significant strength gains. Thirty percent of the
subjects had decreases in their curvatures from 20 to 28 degrees. This
preliminary study shows the MedX torso rotation exercise shows great
promise for helping individuals with scoliosis."


An Electromyographic Analysis of Fitness Plus Equipment

"Low back pain (LBP) is thought to affect approximately 80% of all
adults at some point in their life. Exercise programs have been
recommended as one of the more effective treatments for LBP, and trunk
strength is an important component of those programs. Advocates of
exercise programs feel that trunk strength is an important component
for both the treatment of LBP and the prevention of injury to the
back. Because the strength of the abdominal muscles as well as the
back and hip extensor muscles is important in protecting against back
injury, these muscles should be the target of a back exercise


The Impact of Strength Training on the Back

"Ironically, with all the muscular fitness research indicating the
strength and endurance benefits of a periodized, progressive
resistance training approach, the role of exercise in the treatment of
LBP remains unclear and problematic. Perplexing this issue is the
knowledge that 33% of patients with LBP will be pain free within a
week of the episode, regardless of any intervention.
A common theme seen in a number of LBP treatment approaches is a lack
of research supporting the intervention as well as a passive approach
of the therapy (i.e. electrical stimulation, massage, traction,
manipulation, heat, cold, etc.). Carpender and Nelson (1999) proclaim
that the underlying similarity in these passive treatments is the
failure to induce a desirable physiological adaptation."

"An exercise prescription may have a two-fold approach of challenging
damaged tissue, as in LBP rehabilitation, as well as progressively
overloading healthy supporting tissue in an effort to encourage tissue
growth. Ideally, meaningful exercises will be selected that impose
minimal load to the joint while sufficiently challenging the muscle.
The realm of LBP prevention has been inundated with a variety of
modalities and recommended interventions. Yet, scientific evidence has
recognized one chief component of the low back health exercise
prescription to be isolated lumbar extension, with pelvis
stabilization. This can be achieved with a training program consisting
of a minimum of one set of 8-15 repetitions done to muscular fatigue,
one time a week."


Mechanical Force Spinal Manipulation Increases Trunk Muscle Strength
Assesed by Electromyography

"Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if mechanical
force, manually-assisted (MFMA) spinal manipulative therapy (SMT)
affects paraspinal muscle strength assessed using surface
electromyography (sEMG)."

"Conclusions: The results of this preliminary clinical trial
demonstrated that MFMA SMT results in a significant increase in sEMG
erector spinae isometric MVC muscle output. These findings indicate
that altered muscle function may be a potential short-term therapeutic
effect of MFMA SMT, and forms the basis for a randomized, controlled
clinical trial to further investigate acute and long-term changes in
low back function."


Dynamic Trunk Splints And Hypotonia: A Case Study

"Therapists have developed many techniques to improve truncal
stability in children with cerebral palsy. Traditional interventions
include standers, corner chairs, gait trainers, plastic or rigid body
jackets, and other positioning equipment. Handling and active assisted
activities are other common strategies of intervention for improving
postural control and function. Unfortunately, direct hands-on therapy
does not always carry-over after the therapy session is over.
Furthermore, equipment does not always allow the individual freedom or
choice of movement and does not necessarily improve the individual's
quality of life. Dynamic trunk splints may assist in reducing tone in
spastic and dystonic muscles, decrease involuntary movement and
improve axial tone in individuals with truncal hypotonia (Blair,


Core stability training research and exercise programme

"In SIB 3, I put forward the idea that strengthening the back extensor
muscles is a useful preventative approach for lower back pain. The
article suggested some practical ways to strengthen the lower back,
mainly involving dynamic extension exercises. However, the current
vogue in physiotherapy and fitness training is to focus on what is
known as 'core stability' training, which specifically targets the
smaller and deeper lumbar spine and trunk muscles. The aim of core
stability training is to effectively recruit the trunk musculature and
then learn to control the position of the lumbar spine during dynamic
movements. This article will attempt to review the theory and research
that underlies core stability training and suggest a simple exercise
progression to enhance this function."


Neuromechanical Innovations - Chiropractic Patient Management

"The objective of this study was to determine if mechanical force,
manually-assisted (MFMA) spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) affects
paraspinal muscle strength assessed using surface electromyography


Cost-Benefit of Muscle Cocontraction in Protecting Against Spinal

"Objectives. To evaluate whether increased biomechanical stability
associated with antagonistic cocontraction was capable of stabilizing
the related increase in spinal load."


Strength Training Balance and Stability

"Imagine the forces on the legs and spines of the soldiers pictured
below. Without excellent control of trunk and lower extremity muscles,
these soldiers are at risk for injuries and poor mission performance.
They can develop the strength and control they need through balance
and stabilization training."

"Several exercises that develop the trunk muscles are included in the
new Calisthenic, Guerrilla, Dumbbell, and Climbing Drills.  These
drills are the center piece of the Army's "new" Physical Readiness
Training (PRT) doctrine.  To supplement these exercises and to ensure
that we train stability as well as mobility, it is recommend that
individuals add four trunk exercises to training routines. This drill
can be performed as an activity or at the end of the PRT session.  The
set of four trunk exercises is called "4-For-The-Core" and consists of
the following: The Leg Raise, The Side Bridge (L), The Side Bridge
(R), The Shoulder Bridge. "


Google Search Terms :

trunk OR torso strength research

trunk OR torso strength OR control regimen OR method OR training

I hope this answers your question. If there is anything that needs
clarification, or if there is any area that is lacking, please do not
hesitate to post a Request For Clarification and I will be more than
happy to assist. Thank you for using Google Answers.


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