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Q: Mars planet ( Answered,   2 Comments )
Subject: Mars planet
Category: Arts and Entertainment
Asked by: shoaib-ga
List Price: $5.00
Posted: 16 Jan 2003 18:35 PST
Expires: 15 Feb 2003 18:35 PST
Question ID: 144530
How much achievement 'National Aeronautics Space Administration(NASA)'
has achieved in locating 'water' in the Mars planet for future 
manned-mission to that planet?
Subject: Re: Mars planet
Answered By: hlabadie-ga on 16 Jan 2003 23:18 PST
Much of the evidence for water on Mars in the present is
circumstantial and inferential, but scientists appear confident that
the evidence does indicate that water exists in the forms of water
vapor, ice, and possibly subsurface aquifers.

A search of the NASA Home Page

for Mars water

Yields over 500 results
For instance.

Mars Present Missions

"Among key science findings so far, Global Surveyor has taken pictures
of gullies and debris flow features that suggest there may be current
sources of liquid water, similar to an aquifer, at or near the surface
of the planet. Magnetometer readings  show that the planet's magnetic
field is not globally generated in the planet's core,  but is
localized in particular areas of the crust. New temperature data and
closeup images of the Martian moon Phobos show its surface is composed
of powdery  material at least 1 meter (3 feet) thick, caused by
millions of years of meteoroid impacts. Data from the spacecraft's
laser altimeter have given scientists their first 3-D views of Mars'
north polar ice cap."

A search of The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Mars site:

for water

Yields 352 results
For instance:

Follow the Water

The Case of the Missing Mars Water

Sand Dunes
Not Vegetation!

Dark spots and streaks on defrosting sand dunes were first observed by
MOC in the northern hemisphere in 1998. Similar dark-spotted dunes in
the southern  hemisphere were described at a NASA/Mars Global Surveyor
Space Science Update media briefing in 1999. Despite the "sensation"
one gets when looking at  pictures of spotted, defrosting martian
dunes (i.e., the sensation that these images show some form of life,
like vegetation, growing on Mars) these features are a normal, common
manifestation of the springtime defrosting process on Mars. The ices
involved--because of the low temperatures at these locations--are
probably both frozen water and carbon dioxide, though it is unclear as
to whether one type of ice dominates over the other in controlling the
appearance and coalescence of the dark spots. It is known from the
first martian year of MOC operations that by summer all of the
frost--and thus all of the spots--on the dunes will be gone.

See also the gallery of water feature images.

Water Features

Other results also give plans for future exploration.

No search strategy. Simply use the NASA sites' search functions.

Subject: Re: Mars planet
From: nauster-ga on 16 Jan 2003 21:57 PST
An interesting and pertinent page:
Subject: Re: Mars planet
From: neilzero-ga on 17 Jan 2003 20:23 PST
If Mars long ago had a hotter interior than Earth now has, we would
expect that the average percent of water would halve as you went
another mile below the surface, so the water content of the crust
would be below 1% at a depth of 5 miles. This is because steam
pressure would tend to move the water back toward the surface. It is
likely now that, steam does not form until a depth of 1000 miles is
reached. The pressure is so high at this depth, the density of steam
is almost as high as the density of water, so 1% water may be typical
to depths of about 1000 miles. While extraction of this water from
almost dry crust may be impractical, it does represent an amount of
water that would cover all of Mars to an average depth of about 7
miles, if it was all on the surface. The answer may be that the water
of Mars sank deeper into the crust as the interior of Mars cooled.
While licquid carbon dioxide may exist a mile or more below the
surface of Mars, it canot exist to wet sand dunes near the surface as
licquid carbon dioxide can not exist at low pressure at any
temperature. Dry ice sublimates to carbon dioxide vapor with no
licquid state except at high pressure.   Neil

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