LIQUID CRYSTAL SHUTTERS (LCS)
The answer to original question,
"Looking for MANUFACTURER of any product (liquid, glass, crystal,
plastic etc) of which the refractive index can be adjusted acording to
the amount of electrical current applied. The product must be able to
have light pass through it."
is Liquid Crystal Shutters. LCS are similar to the ordinary LCD used
in computer displays, except that they alter their polarization axis
to transmit or block light when used with a polarized light source or
polarized filter. This is a mature technology and is relatively cheap.
It is used in photography to replace mechanical shutters, eliminating
all shutter vibration, in printer engines instead of laser scanning or
LED sources, and in computer generated stereoscopic displays. The
technology is also used in high-end windows for privacy and solar
shading. It is doubtful that it will be useful in your intended
application, however, although it does show up in spectrometers.
Purnendu K. Dasgupta
CURRICULUM VITA November, 2002
A Liquid-Crystal Shutter-Array Spectrometer. H. S. Bellamy and P. K.
Dasgupta and J. L. Lopez, and Ellis L. Loree. Spectroscopy 10 (6),
CHARACTERIZATION OF A COFLOWING METHANE/AIR NON-PREMIXED FLAME WITH
COMPUTER MODELING, RAYLEIGH-RAMAN IMAGING, AND ON-LINE MASS
One very fast switching version is the ferro-electric liquid crystal
shutter (FLCS or FLC). There are manufacturers who can produce custom
"A shutter is made from an FLC cell, formed when an FLC layer is
sandwiched between two glass substrates, each with a transparent
electrode on their facing surfaces. Voltage applied between these
electrodes switches the orientation of the FLC molecules optic axis
into one of two states, changing the polarization of the outgoing
light. FLC cells become shutters when placed between linear crossed
polarizers or alternatively by the use of a polarized light source and
one linear polarizer."
"Operating wavelength range 2 400-700 nm (center l = 510 ± 25 nm)
Angular acceptance 20° (max), 0.34 N.A. or f/1.4"
"Custom shutters can be manufactured with center wavelengths from 400
to 1500 nm."
"For price and availability, please contact the Photonics sales
department at Displaytech. Prices are subject to change without
Displaytech shutters are covered by a limited, one-year warranty.
The FLC material will be damaged by exposure to UV radiation. It is
the customers responsibility to check with the manufacturer of a
light source for UV components. If the shutter will be exposed to UV
radiation or if there is any doubt, the shutter must be used with a UV
blocking filter for the warranty to be valid."
OPTICAL PHASED ARRAYS
The answer to your clarified question is Liquid Crystal Optical Phased
Arrays on Silicon (LCOPAS).
LCOPAS are miniaturized versions of OPA that are typically used in a
large variety of optical applications, such as laser steering,
spectroscopy, network switching, etc. This is an immature technology
and has only recently emerged from the lab into production. To my
knowledge, there is one manufacturer, Raytheon. It is highly doubtful
that this is a commercially available product at this time, however.
School of Optics/CREOL School of Optics/CREOL HIGHLIGHTS
"High birefringence liquid crystals"
"Raytheons optical phased arrays"
"Similar to TFT-LCD, the phase change of each pixel in the applied
voltage. Therefore, we can synthesize the phase profile digitally. OPA
is a versatile device. It can be used to steer a laser beam for free
space communication, network switching for fiber-optic communication,
beam fanning, and electronic lens and prisms."
ALSH 1 (IEEE Lenses and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Conference
agenda) Wednesday, 13 November 2002
14.00 - 15.30
Session WT: LIQUID CRYSTALS FOR AGILE BEAMS
Session Chair: M.J. Mughal, Nuonics Inc., Orlando, FL, USA
WT1 14.00 - 14.30 (Invited)
Liquid Crystal Optical Phased Arrays: Practical Issues and
Applications, S. Harris, US Air Force Research Lab, WPAFB, OH, USA
Liquid Crystal Optical Phased Arrays (LCOPAs) are exciting, new
optical devices that promise to revolutionize a wide variety of
optical systems. However, their relative immaturity compared to other
optical components means that there is not an extensive experience
base from which to draw when an engineer is considering incorporating
LCOPA technology into a new optical design.
WT2 14.30 - 15.00 (Invited)
High Birefringence Liquid Crystals for Laser Beam Steering, S.-T. Wu,
S. Gauza and H. Wang, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
High birefringence (~0.5) liquid crystal compounds and mixtures are
developed for laser beam steering using an optical phased arrays
device. At 70C, the new UCF mixture exhibits a figure of merit 10X
higher than that of E7.
WT3 15.00 - 15.30 (Invited)
Liquid Crystal Adaptive Optics, G. D. Love and A. F. Naumov,
University of Durham, UK
This paper describes the recent progress in using liquid crystals in
adaptive optics. In particular we describe work on liquid crystal
phase modulators as lenses and wavefront controllers.
Also of interest, because micromirror OPA are also in limited use:
Session WBB: MICROMIRRORS AND OPTICAL MEMS
Session Chair: Nabeel A. Riza, University of Central Florida, Orlando,
WBB1 16.00 - 16.30 (Invited)
Agile Beams and Micromachined Membrane Deformable Mirrors, G. Vdovin
and P. M. Sarro, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Micromachined membrane deformable mirrors (MMDM) for agile control of
light are described. The applications include control of the intensity
and phase of light, fiber switching, SLM, laser intracavity adaptive
optics and femtosecond pulse compression.
WBB2 16.30 - 16.45
3-Dimensional Wide Angle Optical Scanning using Code-Multiplexed
Optical Scanner, M. A. Arain and N. A. Riza, University of Central
Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
We report a 3-dimensional optical scanner based on 2-dimensional phase
coded holograms stored in a photorefractive crystal. The optical
scanner is capable of delivering wide scan angles (e.g. > 50 degrees)
with large aperture sizes.
WBB3 16.45 - 17.15 (Invited)
Optical MEMs based on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) for Monolithic
Optical Microoptics, W. Noell, W. Sun, N. de Rooij, H. P. Herzig, O.
Manzardo, and R. Dändliker, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) combined with optical components
add optical functionality to devices and led to the terms Optical MEMS
or MOEMS. The underlying technology of the presented devices is the
silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based batch fabrication, which delivers
small, reliable and lasting monolithic bulk silicon structures for
commercial devices with the advantage of being very insensitive to
temperature changes. The particular strength of the technology are
monolithic horizontal and vertical micromirrors for a variety of
WBB4 17.15 - 17.45 (Invited)
MEMS WDM Routers Using Analog Micromirror Arrays, M. C. Wu, J. C Tsai
and S. Huang, University of California, Los Angeles, CA and D. Hah,
ETRI, Seoul, Korea
We report on the recent progresses in our MEMS
wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) Routers that employ a linear
array of analog micromirrors to perform wavelength switching among
The MACH - a novel, electrically controllable hologram
"Computer generated holograms (CGH) behave essentially as
conventional, interferometrically recorded holograms, but they are
designed by computer and fabricated using techniques more associated
with the semiconductor industry. They allow optical wavefronts to be
generated without the need for any holographic recording step. As a
consequence of this, they permit light distributions to be formed that
would otherwise be impossible to generate, e.g. generation of 3D
images of non-existent objects. Over the last few years, advances in
CGH, microstructure fabrication and liquid crystal displays have
resulted in new classes of active diffractive devices. These allow CGH
and other diffractive devices to be 'switched' under electrical
"Recently the liquid crystal/dielectric substrate idea has been
extended to produce a new class of devices which are capable of
producing independent, multiple wavefronts when specific voltages are
applied across the device."
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)
FY 97 Technology Transitions/Transfers
2303C Polymer Chemistry Lee Dr S.T. Wu, Hughes
Research Labs, (310) 317- 5901
Raytheon Company, Terry Dorschner, (617) 860-3071
New liquid crystal mixtures Laser beam steering using optical phased
arrays developed at Raytheon Company
Raytheon 2001 Annual Meeting
"Electronic Systems' Terry Dorschner, from Lexington Labs, was
recognized for leadership in optical phased array technology."
A much simpler and cheaper and more readily available solution for
your problem can be constructed from diffraction grating, beam
splitters, and polarizers, using mirrors, lenses, and filters.
University of Illinois
SPECTROSCOPY USING A DIFFRACTION GRATING MONOCHROMATOR
"The equipment used in this lab a computer-controlled diffraction
grating monochromator and PMT used in single-photon counting mode
enables one to carry out spectroscopic studies on essentially an
arbitrary (emission) source of light, such as:
1. Raman Scattering/Raman Spectroscopy.
2. Emission lines from Sodium and Mercury discharge lamps.
3. Fluorescence Studies.
4. Absorption Studies."
SMU Physics Department
Diffraction (Experiment with formulae)
Rainbow Symphony - Science and Education
DIFFRACTION GRATING MATERIALS
Rainbow Symphony Inc.
6860 Canby Ave. #119
Reseda, CA 91335
Tel: (818) 708-8400
Fax: (818) 708-8470
Toll Free: (800) 821-5122
Rainbow Symphony Inc.
Difraction Gratings for Spectroscopy and Telecom
Multi-function Optics - MEMS Optical
Short of accelerating the light source to relativistic speeds,
shifting a spectral section seems an unlikely-to-succeed experiment.
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