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Q: low-midlle temperature geothermal electricity power plant ( Answered,   1 Comment )
Question  
Subject: low-midlle temperature geothermal electricity power plant
Category: Science > Technology
Asked by: nickgr-ga
List Price: $20.00
Posted: 13 Feb 2003 17:11 PST
Expires: 15 Mar 2003 17:11 PST
Question ID: 161110
I would like to find out what are the steps,in detail, for the
development of geothermal power plant-installation that provides
electricity as a main product, using low or midlle field
temperatures(not above 200 C). A list of the locations of such kind
installations around the world (not only the countries but also how
many individual plants exists). Witch are the possible ways of
exploiting such a field.And how is every one from the previous ways
from an economic side of view evaluated.Perhaps some examples would also be usefull

Request for Question Clarification by websearcher-ga on 13 Feb 2003 18:29 PST
Hello nickgr:

With all due respect, I believe you would have a better chance at
getting answers if you split your queries into separate questions and
had a closer look at Google Answer's pricing guidelines at:

https://answers.google.com/answers/pricing

Thanks. 

websearcher-ga

Request for Question Clarification by websearcher-ga on 13 Feb 2003 18:30 PST
The link above should read:

https://answers.google.com/answers/pricing.html

Request for Question Clarification by pafalafa-ga on 13 Feb 2003 19:36 PST
Hello Nickgr-ga,

I've taken an in-depth look at some of the geothermal electric
generation material on the web, and there is a lot of infromation out
there that addresses your questions.  I hesitate to post an answer
though, because you seem to be looking for very comprehensive,
thorough and complete information, when the most I can do is steer you
towards the best of the existing sources.

For instance, there are sites that detail virtually every
geothermal-electric generating plant in the world, but the listing is
not neatly divided into low/moderate temperatures and other types.  It
would be a mammoth undertaking to sort through this to give you the
list you are seeking (along with all the other information you're
after).

Please let us know what would constitute a satisfactory answer, and
we'll do our best to meet your needs.

Clarification of Question by nickgr-ga on 14 Feb 2003 10:30 PST
The way of exploiting an already known low/moderate temperature
geothermal field and how can someone make the best solution
possible.And a detailed example of such a "how to" would be adequate.
Also about the list,i could sort such a list,with the desired
characteristics,from larger databases.Also you can forget the
economics of such an installation
Answer  
Subject: Re: low-midlle temperature geothermal electricity power plant
Answered By: kyrie26-ga on 14 Feb 2003 14:43 PST
 
Hello nickgr-ga,

Thank you for your question. I have prepared the following information
for you, focused on (1) design and construction case studies, and (2)
worldwide databases. I've also thrown in related information. Have a
look :


GEOTHERMAL PLANT DESIGNS/CONSTRUCTION
+------------------------------------------------+
+------------------------------------------------+

The Energy Story - Chapter 11 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter11.html

Good introductory article with explanation on how geothermal plants
operate.

+------------------------------------------------+

National Renewable Energy Laboratory : Small-Scale Geothermal Power
Plant Field Verification Projects
http://www.nrel.gov/geothermal/pdfs/30275.pdf

"In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(NREL) issued a Request for Proposals for the construction of
small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power
plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for
funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three,
and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects
currently under contract
represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively
enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled
Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash
plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion
dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating,
respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between
April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on
performance and costs will be taken over a three-year period."

+----

Additional documents worth looking at :

Geothermal facility siting issues 
http://www.nrel.gov/geothermal/georandd.html#geothermal

Feasibility study of geothermal applications for remote areas in
international markets
http://www.nrel.gov/geothermal/georandd.html#international

+------------------------------------------------+

Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000 : GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT IN
ICELAND 1995-1999
http://iga.igg.cnr.it/pdf/0617.PDF

"The paper gives a summary of the main utilization sectors for
geothermal energy which besides space heating and electricity
generation are: swimming pools, snow melting, industrial uses,
greenhouses and fish farming. Figure 1 showes how the uses
are divided on the different utilization sectors."

+------------------------------------------------+

Electricity from Waste Heat  Distribution of Expertise
http://www.oh.is/skjol/kynningarefni/english/electricity_from_waste_heat.pdf

"The low-heat energy plant in Husavik is the first geothermal power
plant in the world, which use the "Kalina" technology for electrical
production. The plant is generating approximately 2 MWe of electricity
by cooling 124C hot geothermal water to 80C, before the water is
used to heat the town. The power plant in Husavik fulfils
approximately 75% of the town's electricity demands."

+------------------------------------------------+

GEOTHERMAL PLANT WITH EFFICIENT ABSORPTION HEAT PUMPS DRIVEN BY
INCINERATION CHP PLANT. SUCCESSFUL INJECTION IN SANDSTONE AQUIFER.
COUNTRY UPDATE DENMARK.
http://iga.igg.cnr.it/pdf/0772.PDF

"Denmark has widespread geothermal aquifers, which can be used for
district heating. However, combined heat and power (CHP) plants cover
the heat demand on the Danish districtheating networks. The Danish
geothermal development has thus been concentrated on a single
geothermal plant in Thisted, development of the geothermal concept -
and assistance to projects abroad."

+------------------------------------------------+



EXISTING GEOTHERMAL PLANTS WORLDWIDE
+------------------------------------------------+
+------------------------------------------------+

IGA International Geothermal Association : Interactive Map
http://iga.igg.cnr.it/globe.php

A comprehensive resource on geothermal plants worldwide.

+------------------------------------------------+

World Energy Council - Survey Of Energy Resources
http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/edc/default.asp

+------------------------------------------------+

Geothermal Resources Council
http://www.geothermal.org/grcpower.html

Note - this database seems empty.

+------------------------------------------------+



GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE / MARKETS
+------------------------------------------------+
+------------------------------------------------+

Opportunities for Small Geothermal Power Projects
http://geoheat.oit.edu/bulletin/bull20-2/art3.pdf

"Opportunities for small geothermal projects exist in many areas of
the developing world, including Latin America, the Caribbean, and the
Philippines. We define small geothermal power projects as those with
less than 5 megawatts (MW) of capacity. Geothermal power plants with
less than 5MW of capacity could supply electriciy in remote areas."

+------------------------------------------------+



MORE INFORMATION / OTHER ARTICLES
+------------------------------------------------+
+------------------------------------------------+

Open Directory - Science Technology Energy Geothermal
http://dmoz.org/Science/Technology/Energy/Geothermal/

+------------------------------------------------+

EV WorldPower Tube Taps Earth's Geothermal Heat
http://www.evworld.com/databases/storybuilder.cfm?storyid=244

+------------------------------------------------+

TEENET Geothermal Energy Databases
http://www.serd.ait.ac.th/teenet/geotherm.htm

+------------------------------------------------+




Google Search Terms :

geothermal plant OR plants plans OR blueprints OR construction

installing OR building OR constructing geothermal plant OR plants

Husavik geothermal plant pdf

global OR world OR worldwide geothermal plants OR projects list OR
listing OR directory

global OR world OR worldwide geothermal fields



I hope this answer has been helpful to you. If anything is unclear,
please do not hesitate to post a Request For Clarification and I will
be happy to help. Thank you for using Google Answers!


Regards,

kyrie26-ga
Comments  
Subject: Re: low-midlle temperature geothermal electricity power plant
From: neilzero-ga on 14 Feb 2003 05:12 PST
 
My understanding is that corrosion is the main problem encountered by
these geo thermal sources. The mineral content of the water/steam
varies widely and the steam generally cannot be put directly into the
turbine. Typically a heat exchanger is used and a working fluid
(sometimes steam) propels the turbine. The corrosion failiar of the
heat exchangers is an ongoing cost. At 200 degrees C, a very large
volume of water/steam is needed to produce even one million watts. If
the cooled water from the heat exchangers is reinjected you can expect
the mineral content to increase over days or years rather than
decrease which is likely if you inject comparatively mineral free
water. If your facility produces a large volume of waste water with
high mineral content, expect trouble from enviornmentalist even if you
use a costly perk pond.
 You can expect the input water (or steam) temperature and volume to
decrease with time, perhaps to the point that the turbine efficiency
and energy output drops seriously in days to years. Earthquake
activity is usual where geo-heat is available from reasonable depth at
200 degree c or more, so earthquake damage to your facility or the
acquifer being heated is a significant possibility. The energy
required to reinject water can consume most of the output. A large
volumn of cooling water is needed or large cooling towers must be
built to produce vacuum at the output end of the turbine. The bottom
line is every geo heat pilot plant is a crap shoot with many
surprises.
Thermocoulpes could be put at the warm bottom of wells, but as far as
I know this has not been tried, so it likely is not even close to cost
effective in most situations.  Neil

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