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Q: European Union ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: European Union
Category: Relationships and Society > Government
Asked by: pasof-ga
List Price: $100.00
Posted: 24 Apr 2003 14:23 PDT
Expires: 24 May 2003 14:23 PDT
Question ID: 194994
-What, in your view, are the greatest challenges facing the European 

(My opinion) Abstract:
In the beginning i belive is better to write generally about the
process of the EU and then try to describe which is the role of the EU
in the international
and what are the major challenges which might be face. Next, I think
better to say more thinks about the globalization and make a
the EU. Finally some of the most important tasks that I want referred
the integration policy and the international trade of services and if
any kind of lack in it.

(General Example) CONTENTS:
1. Introduction: General about the EU
2. Theories:
2.1. Dynamics of the integration process
2.2. Services
2.2.1. Theoretical concepts
2.2.2. Challenges
3. Comparison
3.1. The challenge of globalization
3.2. US/EU
4. Conclusion Critical Evaluation


Request for Question Clarification by scriptor-ga on 24 Apr 2003 14:37 PDT
Dear pasof,

Is your question actually not a question, but a homework assignment or
something similar? If so, you should let the Researchers know in
detail about how extensive you expect the answer to be and what
special reqirements it should meet.


Request for Question Clarification by easterangel-ga on 24 Apr 2003 18:25 PDT
Hi! Are you looking for an essay or paper on this one to be made for

I maybe able to find relevant resources and links. I will also try to
provide snippets that directly answers your questions, from the
articles I will cite.

Would this be ok as a legitimate answer instead of providing a whole
essay by a researcher.

Just let me know. :)
Subject: Re: European Union
Answered By: umiat-ga on 26 Apr 2003 21:30 PDT
Hello, pasof-ga!

 I have provided some answers to your question in essay format, with
footnotes to the relevant references. However, I am sure you will want
to rearrange paragraphs, add more information, and put some of the
quoted material in your own words. Of course, you should add your own
opinions into the paper as well.

 Since it is not the general policy of researchers to write another's
term paper, I have provided you with enough information that you can
cull relevant facts and search additional references to add more
detail. Your question is quite broad, and the major segments are hard
to cover in a general overview. For instance, there is a lot of
information regarding integration, but most of it is specific to
individual countries and how they relate to the European Union as an

 As for International Trade of Services, the subject needs to be
broken down in more detail to get the type of specific information
that is most relevant to your particular needs. If you follow a search
for "European Union +international trade of services" you will be
better able to cull the specific information you want about that

 What follows is a general answer to your question. If you need
additional, specific information, please don't hesitate to ask. I will
try my best to answer.




 The European Union evolved after World War II, when the Cold War
threatened to shatter the tenuous peace within Europe by pitting the
eastern and western halves against each other. A relationship between
France, Germany and the European free countries was considered
essential in building a community with a shared vision.

 France initiated the process by proposing the creation of "the first
concrete foundation of a European federation." Belgium, Germany,
France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands were the original
countries to join. (2)

 Today, The European Union "is a union of fifteen independent states
based on the European Communities and founded to enhance political,
economic and social co-operation." Founded in November of  1993, the
Union currently consists of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Ten more countries
have been invited to join the European Union in January 2004 -  Cyprus
(Greek portion), the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia,
Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.(1)

 The European Union is designed to "delegate sovereignty to common
institutions representing the interests of the Union as a whole on
questions of joint interest. All decisions and procedures are derived
from the basic treaties ratified by the Member States." (2)


Five institutions within the Union play very specific roles: 

The European Parliament (elected by the peoples of the Member States);
Council of the Union (composed of the governments of the Member
European Commission (driving force and executive body); 
Court of Justice (compliance with the law); 
Court of Auditors (sound and lawful management of the EU budget)

The following institutions also work within the Union: 

European Economic and Social Committee (expresses the opinions of
organized civil society on economic and social issues);
Committee of the Regions (expresses the opinions of regional and local
authorities on regional policy, environment, and education);
European Ombudsman (deals with complaints from citizens concerning
maladministration by an EU institution or body);
European Investment Bank (contributes to EU objectives by financing
public and private long-term investments);
European Central Bank (responsible for monetary policy and foreign
exchange operations). (2)
(To read about the roles of these institutions in more depth, and
possibly include further information in your paper, refer to
"Institutions of the European Union" at )


 The European Commission, centered in Brussels, is the body which
promotes integration of the general interests of the European Union.
The Commission "proposes directions to take and implements the
measures decided on by the Council and Parliament. It is politically
answerable to the European Parliament, which has the power to dismiss
it by adopting a motion of censure." (3)

 One of the primary roles of the European Commission is "to act as a
mouthpiece for the European Union and negotiate international
agreements, mainly those relating to trade and coop." (3)

 The necessity for integration among the European countries was
realized after the Second World War. In fact, the rivalry between the
different European nations was considered "suicidal absurdity." (4)

 Europe became aware of it's inferiority as compared to the United
States and the Soviet Union. There was an awareness of the disaster
that internal European conflict would create if it were to happen
again, as it had at the during the initiation of the last two world
wars. The first step was to eliminate the opposition that existed
against France and Germany.  "Essentially, it was a question of
searching an accommodation between France and Germany. A compromise
that would be endorsed by the USA. The European integration will paved
the way to guarantee peace." Furthermore, the desire to create an 
atmosphere among the European countries which would foster the
creation of international relations on a more harmonious level was
important. (4)

Challenges Facing the European Union

 The accession of countries from varying political backgrounds is a
major challenge facing the European Union. The potential admittance of
ten new countries to the European Union, primarily former communist
east European countries, is already provoking debates.

 One worry voiced by smaller countries is the fear of domination
should the Union approve a joint proposal by the French and Germans to
install two presidents at the helm of the expanding organization. Such
a proposal could "shut out the small nations by abolishing the current
system of rotating responsibilities among the union's 15 members,"
says the Netherlands's  deputy foreign minister and secretary for
European affairs, Apzo Nicolae. (5)

 Finding a balance of power between large and small countries within
the Union is another current concern. "If attempts are made to upset
this balance," says Danish prime minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen,
"there is a risk that the E.U. will fall apart." (5)

 Another challenge facing the Union is whether the newest countries
asked to join will actually follow through and accept the invitation.
Votes will take place within the individual countries in 2003, and
country delegates are facing the problem of persuading  voters to
accept the invitation. (6)

 "So far, in terms of selling it, we are on the defensive," said Pavel
Telicka, the Czechs' chief negotiator in union talks. He was
criticized in the Czech news media for not bringing home enough money
from Brussels. But, he said, "it's not just about money but about
other issues that will have to be communicated." Czechs are among the
most Euro-skeptic candidates, with only 43 percent of respondents
supporting membership in a recent poll. (6)

 Voters in small countries like Estonia fear that their 1.4 million
citizens could be "swallowed up" by a Union of almost 450 million.
Foreign Minister Kristiina Ojuland said: "The most important questions
will be questions of employment, salaries, social care. These kind of
things should be explained by the government as simply as possible."
Pro-union campaigners face an uphill battle with Easterners, who fear
they will simply end up with West European prices on the same old East
European salaries. (6)

"People are starting to realize that this is going to be very costly
for them, that prices are going to rise, that foreigners will be able
to buy property, which will send home prices higher," said Michael
Shafir, a senior analyst at Radio Free Europe in Prague. (6)

 Poland is another country whose "farmers and workers fear that their
land and factories will be bought up cheaply by the neighboring
Germans, relegating the Poles forever to second-class status. While
surveys show that 70 percent of Poles will turn out for the
referendum, on June 8, with a 55 percent yes vote, pro-union activists
say their greatest enemy is complacence." (6)

"Krzysztof Bobinski, publisher of the pro-union magazine "Unie &
Polska," said opponents of union entry are highly motivated. "They
will turn out and vote," he said. "The pro campaigners are not very
motivated; they just feel that somehow it is going to happen. If we
don't work hard, the referendum will be lost." (6)

 Another argument concurrent with the looming expansion of the
European Union is the question of whether the organization needs a
President." Should power lie with national governments, or should "the
framing fathers" opt for a more federal vision?" Another proposal is
to reduce the present number of European commissioners and replace
them with a European "Congress" of national MPs.  These, and other
questions will lie within the draft of the EU's constitution - "a
document that will profoundly alter the balance of power and set out
the new EU order in painful detail." (7)

 Contention over the new proposals has been swift to come. Many
smaller countries fear they will lose power and influence if power is
relegated to a few key figures. However, "the big five - Britain,
France, Germany, Italy and Spain - are all in favour, and their
collective population dwarfs that of the smaller countries." (7)



 The European Union, and it's latest decision to admit 10 new member
countries to bring the total to 25, is a big step toward integrating
into the global community. The move toward lessening the divisions
between Eastern and Western Europe represents "our common
determination to put an end to centuries of conflict and to transcend
former divisions on our continent," said the summit declaration.
"Accession is a new contract between our peoples and not merely a
treaty between states." (8)


 The following excerpt is from "
 "The Commission of the European Union asserted the importance of
globalization as a challenge to Europe in the preface to its work
programme for 1999 (COM604). ‘These objectives (of the Commission)
were set against the backdrop of the fundamental challenges
confronting the European Union in a changing world. One of these
challenges is that of globalization, bringing growing interdependence,
global circulation of information and the emergence of a world-wide
market for trade and production ... concerted regulatory efforts will
have to be made in order to limit the negative effects of this
phenomena’. The document also asserted that ‘The European Union must
be capable of exercising political responsibilities on the
international scene to match its economic and commercial stature. In
order to mobilize its full potential, the Union should not only
promote an approach which integrates the various aspects of its
external action to a greater extent but also exploits the links
between its internal and external policies’. Finally it asserted ‘The
Commission will also seek to ensure greater coherence in its human
rights policy, a vital component of the relationship between the Union
and the rest of the world." (10)

(Read the entire article, including "The impact of globalization:
summary," "The contribution of the EU to a socially responsible
globalization: summary," "The impact of the social policy for Europe
on the external dimension of EU social policy: summary," and
"Recommendations for improved EU global intervention: summary." (10)


International Trade

 "The European Union is today the leading player in international
trade, ahead of the United States and Japan. At a time of strong
growth in international trade, it accounts for a fifth of world trade.
However, the EU's capacity to play a key role in global negotiations
depends more on the effectiveness of its common commercial policy than
on its volume of trade." (11)

 The continued position of the European Union as a strong trading
entity is contingent on it's ability to trade as a "single entity,"
which is provided by Article 133 of the EC Treaty. (11)

The US and the EU

 A recent poll of citizens in the 15 member states of the European
Union revealed "half the union's citizens see Washington as a danger
to world peace rather than a force for good. Citizens in all 15 member
states believe it does more harm than good when it comes to promoting
world peace, fighting poverty in the developing world and protecting
the environment." In the fight against terrorism, however, over 50%
felt that the US's role was positive. (9)

 The poll revealed "widespread anger at Washington's forsaking the
Kyoto climate change protocol, and deeply held suspicion that the US
oil lobby has the White House in its pocket. America fared little
better on the humanitarian scale: 49% felt that US efforts to combat
global poverty were substandard, only 20% thought them positive.
America's role as an economic powerhouse which helps spur global
growth was, however, grudgingly and narrowly conceded: 38% said they
agreed with that, 34% said they did not." (9)


References Cited

 1.  "European Union."

 2.  "The European Union at a Glance." Europa.

 3.  "Institutions of the European Union."

 4.  "The European Union: Integration Process and European

 5.  "Small Nations Criticize Plan for 2 Chiefs Over Europe," by
Thomas Fuller, International Herald Tribune. The New York Times

 6.  "Not Everyone Is Rushing to Accept European Union's Invitation,"
by Peter S. Green. The New York Times. (December 2002)

 7.  "Battlefield Europe," by Andrew Osborne. Guardian Unlimited 
(April 2003),7369,943652,00.html 

 8. "EU leaders hail their new frontiers," by Ian Black. The Guardian.
(April 2003),7369,938361,00.html
 9. "Europeans think America does more harm than good," by Andrew
Osborn. The Guardian. (March, 2003),7369,907695,00.html

10. "Chapter Seven: Europe's Contribution to a Socially Responsible
Globalization." Socially responsible globalization: a challenge for
the European Union. (1999)

11. "External trade: introduction." Activities of the European Union.


Additional references to flesh out your paper:

"A Chronology from 1946 to 2003." The History of the European Union. 

"Citizen's Rights."

"Seven key days in the making of Europe," by Neytcho Iltchev.

"EU leaders hail their new frontiers," by Ian Black. The Guardian.
(April 2003),7369,938361,00.html
(For a breakdown of the newest countries invited to join the EU, their
population, and the percentage in favor of joining)

"Socially Responsible Globalization: A challenge for the European
Union." Prepared by Bob Deacon, Director of the Globalism and Social
Policy Programme for the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health of
Finland. (May 1999)


Google Search Strategy
what is the European Union
European Union AND international roles
European Union +integration
European Union +globalization
European Union +international trade of services

Clarification of Answer by umiat-ga on 27 Apr 2003 06:41 PDT
Under "Globalization," I left you hanging with an unfinished sentence,
although you can figure it out, I'm sure.

 It should read:

 The following excerpt is from ""Chapter Seven: Europe's Contribution
to a Socially Responsible Globalization." Socially responsible
globalization: a challenge for the European Union. (1999)

Request for Answer Clarification by pasof-ga on 27 Apr 2003 10:28 PDT
my friend hello i want 3.000 words about this

Clarification of Answer by umiat-ga on 27 Apr 2003 18:57 PDT
Hello again, pasof!

 You did not mention that you wanted a 3000 word answer in your
original question. I dissected your question carefully, and tried to
cover all the points you mentioned.
 As the answer currently stands, there are 1600 words in the text,
minus footnotes. I have also given you numerous references so that you
might add information to the paper to flesh out the topics of major
importance to you.
 Again, you original question did not include any mention of a 3000
word essay. Therefore, I answered your question as originally asked.
 If you want to put forth another question on GA, with the futher
points you want covered, and an additional word count desired, I or
another researcher will do our best to provide an answer. Please be
explicit about your needs, however. It is impossible for a researcher
to "guess" how many words one desires in an answer unless it is stated
clearly in the question.


Request for Answer Clarification by pasof-ga on 03 Jun 2003 10:03 PDT
hello my frien i put another one question about the e.u

Clarification of Answer by umiat-ga on 03 Jun 2003 10:09 PDT

 I believe you will find few researchers willing to actually "write"
your essay for you. Compile information...yes. Write the actually
essay for you to hand in?
Not very likely.
There are no comments at this time.

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