3) a) "demand curve (or demand schedule). A schedule or curve showing
the quantity of a good that buyers would purchase at each price, other
things equal. Normally a demand curve has price on the vertical or
y-axis and quantity demanded on the horizontal or x-axis." Page 734
So, we plot Bert's demand by placing dots at the intersection of $7
and 1, $5 and 2, $3 and 3, and $1 and 4, and then drawing a line
connecting them.
b) " Consumer surplus. The difference between the amount that a
consumer would be willing to pay for a commodity and the amount
actually paid. This difference arises because the marginal utilities
(in dollar terms) of all but the last unit exceed the price. Hence
the monetary equivalent of the total utility of the commodity consumed
may be well above the amount spent. Under rigorous assumptions, the
money value of consumer surplus can be measured (using a demand-curve
diagram) as the area under the demand curve but above the price line."
Page 732
A line drawn across the graph at $4 intersects the demand curve at a
quantity of 2.5, so Bert buys two bottles. Using the definition of
consumer surplus, we find that Bert has obtained a surplus of four
dollars.
c) a line drawn across the graph at $2 intersects the demand curve at
a quantity of 3.5, so Bert buys three bottles. Using the definition
of consumer surplus, we find the Bert has achieved a surplus of nine
dollars.
4) a) "supply curve (or supply schedule). A schedule showing the
quantity of a good that suppliers in a given market desire to sell it
each price, holding other things equal." Page 747
So, we plot Ernie's supply by placing dots at the intersection of $1
and 1, $3 and 2, $5 and 3, and $7 and 4, and then drawing a line
connecting them.
b) a line drawn across the graph at $4 intersects the supply curve at
a quantity of 2.5, so Ernie sells two bottles. His producer surplus
is four dollars.
c) a line drawn across the graph at $6 intersects the supply curve at
a quantity of 3.5, so Ernie sells three bottles. His producer surplus
is nine dollars.
5) a) the demand curve and the supply curve intersect at four dollars.
This is the equilibrium point. At two dollars, four dollars, and six
dollars, Bert demands three bottles, two bottles, and one bottle,
respectively. At two dollars, four dollars, and six dollars, Ernie
supplies one bottle, two bottles, and three bottles, respectively.
b) at equilibrium, both the consumer surplus and the producer surplus
are four dollars, making the total surplus eight dollars.
c) if Ernie produces and Bert consumes one fewer bottle of water,
assuming the equilibrium price is maintained at four dollars, each
achieves a three dollar surplus, resulting in a total surplus of six
dollars.
d) if Ernie produces and Bert consumes one additional bottle of water,
assuming the equilibrium price is maintained at four dollars, each
incurs a deficit of one dollar, yielding a total deficit of two
dollars.
Source: "Economics" 14th edition by Samuelson & Nordhaus, McGraw-Hill
Inc., 1992
Sincerely,
Wonko |