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explanation of five theories according to your instructions. I also
provided an added profile of the founder. Please notice that both of
your questions have been answered and the reference of the data and
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Following is the answer.
FIVE SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY DISCUSSED
Functionalism is among the early theories of Psychology that developed
late ninteenth century. It's founder is William James who was a
the Harvard University and taught the very first course at the
William James studied Darwin's theory of evolution extensively and was
fond of Darwin's explanation of the theory. Inspired, William James
his theorey,called Functionalism on the basis of Darwin's study.
William James was impressed with Darwin's idea that physical
among human being developed because they served a certain puropose.
to William's Theory of Functionalism, human traits such as thinking,
learning and remembering evolved and developed overtimes because these
charracteristics served a certain puropse. According to William James,
were able to survive because of these characteristics. It is also a
fact that these functions are related to conciousness and help
mind, therefore the theory of William James was called, Functionalism.
The member of this group, Functionalism, beleive that it is important
the functions of the brain rather than studying its structure.
these Psychologists, it is important to pay study the brain as a
They compare the brain with a flowing stream. If we look at the stream
whole it is easy to not only appreciate its beauty but also we can
the basic functions that the stream serve. On the other hand, if we
individual particles (molecules) of the water and try to study them,
not provide us any indication of the usefulness of the stream. We can
benefit from the stream by studying its practical uses i.e. how may we
to irrigate land and how may we use it in a landscape architectre?
individual particles will provide us with little information and waste
natural asset that can be put to many practical uses.
Similarly, in his world reknown book, 'The Principles of Psychology',
James elaborated his idea of 'Pragmatism' which states the practical
the things in our world. Functionalism, according to his book is a
reasons the usage of every human actions in the real world. Behind
action there is an underlying reason and the role of the functionalism
find out that reason and how did the brain function to come out with
underlying reason. In fact, parts of functionalism very much survive
to this day as scientist use the term 'cognitive process' to describe
functions of human conciousness.
About the Founder
William James not only graduated from the Harvard but taught there for
thirty five years. He came into the public limelight by writing his
book, 'The Principles of Psychology', in 1890. He mass produced other
works in the later stages of life which became the basis of
and were adopted by such great psychologists as Edmund Husserl,
Russell, John Dewey, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Despite ill health,
his lifetime James believed in resolving issues by pragmatism and look
the world through a practical approach to life. It is these principles
allowed William James to work tirelessly and at the same time posses a
and a playful personality.
Behaviorism is one of those groups that was also influenced by the
theorey. According to this group of Psychologists, human reaction are
part due to the learning that comes from experiencing different
The foundation of behaviorism is associated with the Russian
Pavlov, at the same time when William James was writing his famous
book in the
1890's. Behaviorism is a theory that was founded on the basis of an
experimental incident. Ian Pavlov and his team was working on the
Dog's sliva in the mouth during eating. This experiment was being
study the digestive system of the human beings. During the
Pavlov noticed a pecularity that after some experiments, whenever the
brought for the dogs, the dogs began to slivate even before the food
in their mouth. This simple reaction fascinated the scientist so much
devoted his whole life to guage its implications on human reations. In
case of the dog, he learned from many experiences that the food that
brought into the room was for him. He could have learn this either by
timing of the food provided or by some other means.
Ian Pavlvov called this reaction, conditioning and went to conduct a
of experimetns each proving that even the inherited reflex can be
experiencing a certain stimuli. Ian Pavlov and his team thus founded
field of Psychology called behaviorism that stated that human behavior
generally not inborn but it is learned from the experience of its
Although, Ian Pavlov is said to be the founder of Behaviorism but it
of his admirers, John B. Watson who in writing explained that human
effected by their experiences. He also popularised the term,
publishing many research papers. According to John B. Watson,
need only to study the reactions of human beings to better understand
personalities, they do not need to ponder over the conciousness and
working becasue human mind is very complex and it just cannot be
About the Founder
Ian Pavlvo was born in a strict christian family in 1849. His initial
to follow his father as a priest in Russian Orthodox church but he
relinquished his plan to study medicine. He got his medical degree in
the age of thirty three and extensively studied the human digestive
twenty years. He recieved the Nobel prize for his contribution to this
in 1904. But, what really made Ian Pavlov famous around the world was
study of classical conditioning which later became the basis of
He published more than 500 research papers on classical conditioning
his lifetime to lay the groundwork of Psychology's new theory.
Many German scientists are known to help Gestalt Theory evolve. Among
are Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler. The most
these was Max Wertheimer whose studies helped bring the theorey to the
The Gestalt Psychologists believe that the human psychology can only
understood as a 'Whole' not by dividing the human actions and than
them part by part. Gestalt is a German word that means,
The theorey was developed by the psychologists who did not beleive in
early theory of structurilsm where the idea was that the human
can be studied by examining individual reactions of the human mind.
proponent of this theory dictates that the human mind can only be
as a whole.
Gestalt Psychologists conducted many experiments to prove their point.
of the most famous experiment was the 'Phi Phenomenon'. In the
the scientists exposed their subjects to two lights that were
a rapid succession (On and Off). Both of the lights were stationary
and at a
distance from each other. The subjects, thaught that there was only
light that moved from place to place where In fact there were two
The psychologist proved that the perception of movement was caused by
lights rather than one. According to them, movement was a part of the
whole perception of the human conciousness and it can only be studied
examining the interaction of both lights on the human mind. In this
the lightening phenomenon tricked the human mind and it could only be
understood by telling the subjects the 'whole' process.
About the Founder
Max Wertheimer taught Psychology at the University of Frankfurt. He
born in Czech Republic but travelled througout Europe in the persuit
intellectual studies. Eventually, he settled in Germany and after
recieving his doctorate degree in 1904, started conducting research in
field of Psychology. Never impressed by the early theories of
strived to prove the contamporary theorist wrong and came out with the
of the Phi Phenomenon in 1912, to elaborate his viewpoints. Dr.
was involved im many experiments on the evolution of 'Gestalt' where
co-workers and famous psychologists Koffka and Kohler helped him.
his life, he moved to the United States to get rid of the Nazi Regime
Germany and did research on the theory of learning.
Sigmond Freud is considered to be the founder of this vastly different
the earlier theories. According to the baiscs of this theorey, it is
human conciousness that play a part in forming a personality but
hidden unconcious part of the mind. Unlike, other psychologists,
Freud worked with hundreds of patients who were being diagnosed with
illness and stress.
Sigmond Freud theorized that humans, as a child, face many problems
difficult situations that remain imbeded in their mind and play a
significant role later in their lifetime. During the lifetime, if
problem persist,they continue to haunt the human mind. The actions of
are mostly dependent on two motives, sexual and aggressive ones. If
motives are not fulfilled the humans can not live a balanced life.
later psychologist in this field believed that other factors such as
acceptance play as much a role as these two.
The basis of the Psychoanalysis is the concept of unconcious mind. The
researchers believe that we should study the innate and hidden motives
the human mind rather than studying outward bahavior such as the
learning and thinking. To these psychologists, problems can be
diagnosing the repressive feelings of the human subjects. For example,
important to learn what is the cause of the problems associated with a
patient. Once the problem is identified, psychoogists than can work
patient to try to resolve the negative feelings of the patient.
It is noteable that the modern followers of the Psychanalysis have
different views from its founder but they all agree on one point that
unconcious or hidden part of the brain is responsible for the behavior
certain individual. Psychic therapies are famous in Western Countries
patients are asked to reveal their feeling in multiple sessions with
psychologists. The high cost associated with these therapies resulted
being popular only in the developed countries. Even in these developed
nations, the theory is far from being very popular.
About the Founder
Sigmong Freud was born in 1856 in Austria where he spent most of his
He started his medical career as an assistant to a famous
Joseph Breuer. His theory of Psychoanalysis has deep roots in the
of Dr. Breuer and one of his patients Anna O. Sigmond saw Ana O's step
treatment by Dr. Breuer and was a witness to their love affair. This
affair very much formed the basis of Sigmond's theory that the sexual
aggressive motives play the foremost role in the unconcious mind. He
to work in the same hospital for years where he drew many sympathisers
helped him gain popularity by dictating his point of view. In 1933,
Freud moved to London due to the unrest against Jews in Austria where
continued to preach his theory unitl his death, six years later.
Humanistic psychology is a modern concept that is similar to
The main difference between the Humanistic approach and Psychoanalysis
the followers of Humanistic Approach beleive that unconcous as well as
concious min, both play an equal role in shaping up the human
founders of this new theory is said to be Abraham Maslow and Carl
The humanistic psychologist agree that there are repressive feelings
unconcious part of the brain that have to be overcome in order to
healthy lifestyle but they also beleive in the fact that humans create
own fortune by their reactions. Therefore, it is vital to study human
that evolve from a mix of unconcious and concious part of the brain.
Abraham Maslow was the first one who brought this idea into the public
He was a firm proponent of the self-fulfilment of the human being.
stated in his studies that every human being tries to fulfil his
need for acceptance, love and relationship, among others. When these
not met, they feel stress and harsh emotions. He also beleived that
society doesn't provide enough chances to everyone for total
fulfilment, as a
result we push such troubling information into our subconciousness
resides until someone comes to fulfil the need.
About the Founder
Abraham Maslow is credited to be the first psychologist who wrote
need of 'fulfilment' in the human beings. His theory of Human
published in 1943 which attracted attention of masses. In 1954, his
'Motivation and Personality' confirmed him as the leader in Humanistic
approach. Abraham Maslow died in 1970 but his work has inspired many
modern league of Psychology.
WHERE MODERN PSYCHOLOGY IS HEADED?
Psychology has seen many changes over the years. From the earliest
structuralism to the modern psychology, scientists have presented
point of views. Although, different but most modern psychologists
the focus of attantion is the human mind and if somehow we can control
actions by understanding even a part of the complex pattern of
we may be headed towards a much better world.
The twenty first century experts beleive that it is the concept of
self-actualization that one need to understand. If a patient can
his behavior and is motivated to produce a change, it will work.They
beleive that the human mind is a complex machine and its functions
dreams, supernormal experiences, creativity play vital role in the
Whatever, the field of Psychology they belong to, the advancement in
science and technology has provided these scientists new tools that
enhance their understanding of the functions of the brain. Not only,
technology but new data gathering techniques are helping psychologists
gather more accurte data of the subject.New methods of dealing with
patients have gained acceptance, which include physical and mental
excercise and mediation. It is the first time in the history of
that medicines have been approved to control the behavior of the human
beings. These advanced medicines not only subdue the patient but help
fight the negative feelings originating in the brain cells.
With the advent new tools and computer technology, psychologist are
reluctant to believe in the complete accuracy of the earlier theories.
are of the view that there is much more in the human mind that is
Most of them now believe that there are mainly three main reasons for
behavior change in humans. These are Physical, Social and
The physical structure of the body influence the behavior to a greter
Thus a person with a physically fit body is likely to experience a
normal or a
healthy lifestyle. Another reason is the self-concept that a person
has of his
personality. If a person thinks that he is socially accepted in the
is better able to face the problem with the help of social
third being the Psychological factor that constitute concious and
mind and is relatively complex to understand.
Modern Psychologists are using such techniques as Yoga, Dance, Music
Breathing Excercises to subdue the negative energies. They also think
social techniques such as manipulating social factors and altering
relationships can help the person achieve satisfaction.
We are seeing the future of Psychology change. With the advent of
new research methods and advance medicine, psychologists are persuing
limits of human anatomy. Equiped with new technology we might see a
wave of expansion which might be very different from the early
understand the human mind.
Myers G David (2003), Psychology 7th edition.
Lahey B. Benjamin (2001), Psychology - An Introduction 7th edition.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2001), An Introduction to the History of
Psychology 4th edition.
Modern Psychology and its future