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Q: Analysis of book contents, reviews of content. ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: Analysis of book contents, reviews of content.
Category: Arts and Entertainment > Books and Literature
Asked by: esojleafar-ga
List Price: $85.00
Posted: 21 Feb 2004 09:43 PST
Expires: 22 Mar 2004 09:43 PST
Question ID: 309209
I would like analysis or discussions about two books. First one is
"Getting To Yes-Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In" by Roger
Fisher and William Ury. The second one is "Martin Luther King, Jr. On
Leadership" by Donald T Phillips.
The analysis should focus on the major leadership concepts discussed.
I don't want the catchy phrases on the cover of the book made by
journalists. I would like in depths reviews made by academicians or
experts on the leadership subject.

Request for Question Clarification by answerguru-ga on 21 Feb 2004 10:27 PST
Hello esojleafar-ga,

I have completed my research on "Getting To Yes-Negotiating Agreement
Without Giving In" by Roger Fisher and William Ury and have found
several in-depth analyses based on this book.

You second book, however, has turned up only limited commentary and
discussion results.

I didn't want to post an inadequate answer, so I wanted to ask hwo you
would like to proceed. One option is to split this question into two
in case another researcher can find significant information on the
second book and post a question directed to myself for the first book.
The other option is for me to post all the information I have on both
books. with the understanding that the second book's results are
somewhat limited.

Please let me know :)


Clarification of Question by esojleafar-ga on 23 Feb 2004 19:07 PST
Please post the information for both books. Thank you.
Subject: Re: Analysis of book contents, reviews of content.
Answered By: answerguru-ga on 23 Feb 2004 23:52 PST
Hello again esojleafar-ga,

As you've requested, I am posting the analysis/discussion pertaining
to the two books in your original question.

Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In

One of the authors of this book, Roger Fisher, offers the following
more in-depth description of the negotiation principles found in the
book through his non-profit organization, the Conflict Management

"They present four fundamental principles of negotiation and offer
some suggestions on how to overcome some of these obstacles to

Separate the people from the problem: Fisher, Ury, and Patton argue
that negotiators need to distinguish between people problems and
substantive issues. People problems or relationship issues include
misperceptions, emotions, and communication issues; they are most
easily overcome if the parties recognize that people interpret reality
differently. These problems can lead to a breakdown in negotiations
even if there is room for agreement on substantive issues,
demonstrating the importance of recognizing the other side?s
perceptions and interests in order to overcome the people problems.

Focus on interests, not positions: Often in negotiation, people take
extreme positions in order to counter the argument of their opponent.
A position is something already decided at the beginning of a
negotiation, whereas an interest is the need, hope, fear, motivation
that underlies the position.  A negotiation that focuses on interests
gives parties an opportunity to create value at the table and leads to
more durable solution.  If one side takes the other parties? interests
into account, the other side will be more motivated to do the same.

Invent options for mutual gain: By inventing options for mutual gain,
the negotiators commit to satisfying the interests of all parties in
the best way possible. Multiple options that allow both sides to
benefit will result in an outcome that is less likely to break down.
Fighting over original positions assumes that there must be a winner
and a loser in the process of negotiation. Creating options for mutual
gain will ensure that parties? interests are met and a larger pie is
created, which can be divided between the parties.

Insist on objective criteria: Objective criteria give both sides more
guidance as to what is a fair outcome from the negotiation. For
example, objective criteria could include the market value of a
product or a scientific judgment that provides guidance for the
reasonable outcomes from negotiation."

Here are some reviews of the book that are very detailed and provide a
good idea of what the book embodies:

"This book provides many practical examples on the art of negotiation.
The author begins by encapsuling a negotiation into a tri-parte

o It should produce a wise agreement if such a thing is possible
o It should be efficient.
o It should not damage the relationship between the parties.

A successful negotiation will meet the underlying concerns of the

There are four points to a successful negotiation:

o Separate the people from the problem.
o Focus on interests and not positions.
o Generate a variety of possibilities.
o Insist that the result be based on an objective standard.

In addition, a good negotiation will present the various options
fairly. The parties should develop objective criteria and fair
procedures. When the other side attacks,
consider it as an option and improve upon it. Remember that
affirmative answers generate resistence and questions elicit answers
(thoughtful or otherwise). The essence of a principled negotiation
lays the foundation for a discussion of facts and basic principles.

This work is a gold mine of advice on the art of negotiation. It will
help you to navigate through difficult situations artfully while
deflecting as much resistence as possible. This book will help you
because it points out the pitfalls of negotiations between parties;
namely, adherence to rigid positions, unwillingless to hear the other
side and
attacks on people. The objective of a good negotiation is to produce a
fair result and to set forth rational guidelines and rule structures
for the parties to follow. This work
teaches contrary to the way people typically behave. As such, it
provides readers with scenarios that may not be in their domain of
everyday experience. The author emphasizes the futility of adherence
to rigid positions without exploring alternatives and agreeing on fair
rule structures to evaluate the issues presented."

Review #2

"This is a basic book on how to resolve things as peacefully as
possible. It is not the sort of advanced text you'd expect if you are
studying to become a professional mediator, but is rather aimed at
people who could benefit from an introduction to (or review of) basic
negotiation skills.

Some of these things are the sort of common sense people frequently
think of (alas!) in hindsight - for instance, it talks about your
'best alternative to a negotiated solution'(before you demand that
raise, ask yourself: how hard would it be for me to find a new job?
Then: how hard would it be for my boss to replace me?) and how to set
expectations against an objective standard - your position is much
stronger if you are arguing based on the 'going rate', the usual
practice, or some other outside measurement that an unbiased observer
might consider a fair and reasonable expectation.

If you are divorcing, have a conflict with your landlord or neighbor,
or want to get a better deal from your public schools with regards to
your highly gifted or learning disabled child, it would definately pay
off to read this book."

This next book analysis is perhaps the best resource available on
"Getting to Yes..." - it provides the three major sections of the
book; the problem, the method, and "Yes, but..". Far more detail is
provided at the link below, however a brief description of each
section is outlined here.

The Problem

"The problem, as defined by the authors, is that people negotiate over
positions.  Their contention is that bargaining over positions is
counterproductive to a wise agreement.  This does not mean a solution
will not be reached or that it will not be an amicable agreement.  The
key is that it is a wise agreement. "

The Method

"The four strategies for negotiation are covered in-depth in this
section.  Each strategy will be critiqued in the order presented in
the book.

1)  Separate the people from the problem
2)  Focus on interests not positions
3)  Invent options for mutual gain
4)  Insist on using objective criteria"

Yes, But...

"Each party in a negotiation will use whatever resources at their
disposal to gain leverage over the other parties.  The authors contend
that you need to use whatever resources at your disposal to protect
your own interests and see that any agreement you reach satisfies your
interests as well as possible."

This last resource is perhaps the most academically framed, and
contains a different perspective on the book's goals:

"Fisher and Ury explain that a good agreement is one which is wise and
efficient, and which improves the parties' relationship. Wise
agreements satisfy the parties' interests and are fair and lasting.
The authors' goal is to develop a method for reaching good agreements.
Negotiations often take the form of positional bargaining. In
positional bargaining each part opens with their position on an issue.
The parties then bargain from their separate opening positions to
agree on one position. Haggling over a price is a typical example of
positional bargaining. Fisher and Ury argue that positional bargaining
does not tend to produce good agreements. It is an inefficient means
of reaching agreements, and the agreements tend to neglect the
parties' interests. It encourages stubbornness and so tends to harm
the parties' relationship. Principled negotiation provides a better
way of reaching good agreements. Fisher and Ury develop four
principles of negotiation. Their process of principled negotiation can
be used effectively on almost any type of dispute."

Martin Luther King, Jr. On Leadership

This book proved to be a challenge to find viable analyses and
commentary, however you requested I post whatever information I could

The following link, although providing a cut-and-paste overall
description of the book also gives a flavour of the book by providing
column excerpts of each of the eight chapters.

The following is a summary of the book, including a list of techniques
that are described as part of the text:

"Do you have a dream?

Find out how Martin Luther King, Jr., became the right leader for his
time-and you can too!

What does it take to be a leader? Why do people listen to one voice
and ignore another? During the twentieth century, no American
exhibited more powerful leadership skills than Martin Luther King, Jr.
MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., ON LEADERSHIP examines the choices he made,
the people he trusted, and the methods he used to turn a small crusade
into a movement-and change history forever. Apply the lessons of his
life to yours, learn the secrets of leadership, and turn your dream
into reality.

? Get your message across by learning to "speak" your listener's language
? Forge coalitions, build consensus, and achieve strategic alliances
based on the self-interest of each party
? Obtain the right information from the right people-and keep the
channels of communication open inside the organization
? Have the courage to change directions when necessary
? Handle defeat within the organization and turn setbacks into positives"

There is also a small amount of critical review material available
that you may be interested in as well:

"Captures the essence of how one man can lead powerfully, yet
peacefully, during times of social upheaval."
-Dexter Scott King, chairman, president and chief executive officer,
The Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc.

"The skills and strategy outlined in this book are applicable to
anyone wishing to take on a leadership role."
-Tampa Tribune-Times

The main problem I found with finding quality analysis material on
this particular book is due to the fact that is is in partial
biographical. This alone is enough to cause the academically-motivated
to look at it deeply since very little new work was done to develop
new theories. Rather, history was examined and from it came
interpretations of a leadership philosophy. However, that's just my
two bits on the issue :)

Hopefully the above information satisfies your request - if you have
trouble understanding any of the information above please do post a
clarification request and I will try to respond promptly.


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