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Q: Alternative energy sources ( Answered 4 out of 5 stars,   1 Comment )
Subject: Alternative energy sources
Category: Science > Technology
Asked by: sarahcat86-ga
List Price: $20.00
Posted: 25 Jun 2004 18:00 PDT
Expires: 25 Jul 2004 18:00 PDT
Question ID: 366482
I am doing a speech on the corruption and environmental hazardousness
of oil companies. I would like to know what some of the most
effective, non polluting sources of energy are and how much money the
government is spentding researching them. My speech is due on the 28th
(of June) so I if you could respons asap that would be really great.
thank you.
Subject: Re: Alternative energy sources
Answered By: bobbie7-ga on 26 Jun 2004 12:27 PDT
Rated:4 out of 5 stars
Below you will find the results of my research regarding alternative
energy sources and funding.

From the Department of Energy - Budget 2004:

Alternative sources of energy

Hydrogen Technology
Solar Energy
Wind Energy
Geothermal Technology
Biomass and Bio refinery Systems
Zero Energy Buildings

Hydrogen Technology: 
?Develop hydrogen production, storage, and delivery technologies that
are more energy efficient, leaner, safer, and lower in cost. The
long-term aims to accelerate progress toward an energy future for the
Nation where hydrogen plays a more significant role as an energy
carrier in all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country.
The program supports the new Freedom Fuel initiative.?

Solar Energy: 
?Develop lower cost, higher performance, more reliable solar energy
systems for the production of electricity, space heat and hot water.
Activities include more efficient photovoltaic (PV) materials and cell
devices, lower-cost thin-film PV technologies, improved manufacturing
and large-area processing, and more reliable PV modules and systems as
part of an industry-led research effort. Solar thermal activities are
focused on cooperative industry efforts to reduce costs and
effectively use advanced solar technology for water heating and space

Wind Energy: 
?Develop in partnership with industry low wind-speed technology to
allow wind power to be cost-competitive in more prevalent, lower-wind
resources areas, and support related technology base advances.?

?Continue development of turbine systems to address the primary
environmental issues associated with licensing and sustaining
hydropower production.?

Geothermal Technology: 
?Continue development of an enhanced geothermal system that will allow
the broader use of geothermal energy throughout the western United
States and conduct cooperative research with industry to reduce the
cost of geothermal development and to identify new resources.?

Biomass and Biorefinery Systems: 
?Continue R&D to achieve further reductions in the costs of bio-based
products and biofuels production and to develop high-efficiency
thermochemical and biochemical conversion technologies.?

Zero Energy Buildings: 
?Develop affordable zero energy homes, which produce as much energy as
they use on an annual basis. ZEB activities include partnering with
industry to evaluate and monitor first generation ZEB homes,
developing whole house energy controller, and developing modeling
tools and technology to optimize and integrate energy systems. This
year, ZEB activities begin a transition into the Building Program
under the Energy Conservation account.?

The purpose of Energy Supply Research and Development activities is to
develop new energy technologies and improve existing energy
technologies. Included in this mission are basic and applied research
and targeted programs in technology development.

Budget 2004

Program and Financing (in millions of dollars)

Hydrogen technology ................................  88
Solar energy  ......................................  80
Zero energy buildings ..............................   4
Wind energy ........................................  42
Hydropower .........................................   7
Geothermal technology ..............................  25
Biomass and biorefinery systems R&D ................  70
Intergovernmental activities .......................  12
Electric reliability ...............................  77

Budget 2004


From the Department of Energy - Budget 2003:

?Biopower R&D activities will increase the testing, verification, and
demonstration of the component systems of cost-effective and efficient
biomass gasification combined-cycle systems from 0 percent in 2000 to
75 percent in 2006.?

?Biofuels R&D activities will reduce the production cost of
cellulose-based ethanol to $1.20 per gallon by 2005, and to $1.07 per
gallon in by 2010.?

Geothermal Energy
?Geothermal Energy R&D activities will result in twice as many States
with geothermal electric power facilities.?

?Hydrogen R&D activities will demonstrate a conversion technology that
will improve the cost of hydrogen production from natural gas from
$3.75 per kilogram in 2000, when produced in large quantities, to
$2.50 per kilogram in 2006.?

?Hydropower R&D activities will ensure commercialization of a fish
passage technology capable of reducing turbine-induced fish mortality
to 2 percent or less by 2010 in new fish-friendly turbines.?

Wind Energy
?Wind Energy R&D activities will provide the technologies to reduce
the cost of wind powered electricity generation in Class 4 wind areas
(13 mph annual average) from 5.5 cents per kilowatthour in 2002 to 3
cents per kilowatt-hour by 2010.?

Solar Technologies
?Solar Technologies R&D will reduce the price paid for a photovoltaic
system by the end user (including operation and maintenance costs)
from a median value of $6.25 per Watt in 2000 to $4.50 per Watt in
2006 (equivalent to reducing from $0.25 to $0.18 per kilowatt hour).?

High Temperature Superconductivity
?High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) R&D activities will develop
HTS wire capable of carrying 100 times the power of comparable copper
wire ? with zero electrical resistance by 2007.?

Distributed Energy Systems
?Distributed Energy Storage Technology R&D activities will increase
the share of new distributed energy electricity-generating capacity
from 5 percent in 2000 to 7 percent in 2005.?

See funding on page 25 -27 of the following publication.



Federal Renewable Energy Research and Development Appropriations,
Fiscal Years 1978-1999 (Billion 1999 Dollars)

Federal Funding for Energy-Related Research and Development by
Program, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1999 (Million 1999 Dollars)

Additional information:

Read an informative overview of federal energy research and
development at the following link:

Search criteria:
Alternative energy
Renewable energy research
Renewable energy research billion OR million expenditures OR spending government
Federal energy R&D

I hope you find this information useful! 

Best regards,
sarahcat86-ga rated this answer:4 out of 5 stars and gave an additional tip of: $2.50

Subject: Re: Alternative energy sources
From: bobbie7-ga on 26 Jun 2004 16:18 PDT
Thank you for the tip!

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