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Q: PhD's ( Answered,   1 Comment )
Subject: PhD's
Category: Business and Money > Consulting
Asked by: outofseattle-ga
List Price: $200.00
Posted: 18 Jul 2004 09:44 PDT
Expires: 17 Aug 2004 09:44 PDT
Question ID: 375747
How many students graduate with a PhD each year WW?
Divide the above number by country and within country by major and university.
Why are technology companies such as Yahoo and Google placing an
emphasis on hiring PhD's in their technical jobs? Explain the value
these PhD's bring to the table. Please go beyond the obvious. Explain
the pros and cons of hiring PhD's. Feel free to discuss the question
with professors before you give me an answer.
Is there value in hiring PhD's for marketing and sales jobs? What are
the pros and cons? Provide examples of success stories where a PhD in
marketing or sales helped.

Request for Question Clarification by nancylynn-ga on 18 Jul 2004 12:35 PDT
An organization like the IAU may be able to give me an estimate of the
number of people who completed their Ph.Ds, say, this past year.

"Eeach year" is very ambiguous. It's extremely difficult to find
statistics on the number of global Ph.D graduates, and I doubt there's
a graph out there listing multiple years.

I think the best I can do is get an estimate of recent Ph.D graduates
around the world; I don't think I can get a breakdown by country and
major.(I am finding some breakdowns by majors, but only for U.S.

The second part of your question, why tech companies are emphasizing
hiring Ph.Ds, is something I can definitely research.

Would that be acceptable? If not, I'll release my lock and let another
researcher give this a go.

Best regards,
Google Answers Researcher

Clarification of Question by outofseattle-ga on 19 Jul 2004 17:12 PDT
Hi. Thanks for your prompt response. By each year, I meant 2003.
Please try to breakdown 2003 by country, major and university.

On the question about the value of PhD's, I want you to go beyond the
obvious. I really want to understand the heart and soul of the value
they bring. Some people would say they are too theoretical and don't
know how to include customer insight and make a marketable product.
Why are Google and Yahoo fascinated with them? And the other questions
in my original query. Thanks

Request for Question Clarification by nancylynn-ga on 19 Jul 2004 19:13 PDT
Hello again outofseattle-ga: 

I have talked to several agencies/organizations that track education
statistics and they are in the process of helping me find data on Ph.D

However, I don't believe this data can be broken down to specific
universities. (I have to think there are thousands -- well, at least
hundreds! -- of universities around the globe that offer Ph.D.

At best, I believe I can give you stats on country and field of study
for doctoral graduates. (And, right now, it looks like the most
current data is 2001-2002.) So, if you want it broken down beyond
that, I really don't think I can help you.

As to the second part of your question, my professional background is
journalism, and I can certainly talk to technology companies about why
PH.Ds are so valued, etc.

But again, statistics regarding doctoral graduates worldwide are rather limited.  

I will update you again when I know more about available statistics to
see if that information will be satisfactory to you.


Clarification of Question by outofseattle-ga on 20 Jul 2004 15:37 PDT
Hi. Thanks again for your help. Could you give me the numbers for the
top 10 schools in the USA, by major? I'm sure you could even call each
of them and get answers. And, its great to know that you are a
journalist by background. I look forward to the phone calls you make.
Again, please go beyond the obvious of technical expertise, etc. What
makes their technical expertise so important? Do they come up with
inventions that help a company design a better architecture than
masters level employees? What is the soul of this hiring strategy?

Request for Question Clarification by nancylynn-ga on 21 Jul 2004 08:19 PDT
I'll try to get the best data I can. It's debatable as to just which
American colleges are the top ten, but I can use a widely used list,
like U.S. News & World Report's, then e-mail those schools for a
breakdown of Ph.Ds by major. I'll try to get some international data

I won't be making a lot of phone calls; mostly, I communicate with
sources via e-mail, as I'm not reimbursed for expenses.

So, since I'll have to wait for replies from schools and company
executives, this could take awhile. I hope you're not in a hurry
because it could take me 10 - 14 days to complete this assignment.

Google Answers Researcher

Clarification of Question by outofseattle-ga on 22 Jul 2004 07:13 PDT
10 to 14 days is fine. Thanks.

Request for Question Clarification by nancylynn-ga on 22 Jul 2004 19:18 PDT
Thanks for your patience. I've contacted organizations like UNESCO
(the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
and the NCES (National Center for Education Statistics) and even they
can't provide quite the detailed break-out you'd originally hoped for,
but I'll get you what I can regarding stats.


Request for Question Clarification by nancylynn-ga on 02 Aug 2004 18:08 PDT
Hi outofseattle-ga:

No, you haven't been abandoned! I just need to check something: today
I finally received a major international survery; however, it has to
be downloaded in XLS.

As it happens, I can't download XLS, so I thought I'd better check and
see if XLS is OK with you! (If not, I'll ask this agency if there's
anyway we can retrieve it online in another format.)

I have collected quite a bit of data. I'm still awaiting a few more
stats, but am mostly waiting to hear back from experts (professors,
employers, economists). One of the very few bad things about summer is
that vacations tend to delay responses.

Google Answers Researcher
Subject: Re: PhD's
Answered By: nancylynn-ga on 16 Aug 2004 18:10 PDT
Hello outofseattle-ga:

I was able to collect quite a few surveys of doctoral students;
however, as to this aspect of your question:

"Explain the value these PhD's bring to the table. Please go beyond
the obvious. Explain the pros and cons of hiring PhD's. Feel free to
discuss the question with professors before you give me an answer. Is
there value in hiring PhD's for marketing and sales jobs? What are the
pros and cons?"

Unfortunately, my inquires to professors, employers, and various
professional associations were mostly ignored. In fact, this is the
most dismal response I've ever had on a Google Answers research
project. One professor wrote back to say simply, "I deal in supply;
not demand." Other experts told me they didn't have any additional
information other than the data they had already published (data I
cited in my answer).
Part of the problem may simply be that it's summer and my e-mails were
re-routed to people who were on vacation or even semester break. In
some cases, there were busy: For instance, the American Marketing
Association said they'd be happy to talk to me, but they've been
immersed in their annual educators' meeting. Another reason for lack
of response may be that, as you're about to see, there isn't exactly
total consensus on these issues!

There's a chance some will get around to responding, and I did e-mail
some additional sources over the weekend. If I hear back, I'll post
that information as an "Answer Clarification." Fortunately, I was able
to find quite a few pertinent articles that provide color for the
ever-changing trends in graduate education.

First, to the statistical trends themselves -- and the actual trends
are somewhat different than you'd expected, in some cases. Delving
into the numbers; first generally, and then more specifically:

You had asked for a breakout of field of study in doctoral programs
for the Top Ten colleges in the U.S. Actually, this may be the least
helpful data I collected, as several schools didn't respond, and
several others don't have detailed break-outs.

I referenced U.S. News & World Report, Sept. 1, 2003 issue "The top 50
public National Universities - Doctoral," then contacted the
universities that were listed.

Here are the Top Ten, along with links to their student/graduate statistics pages:

Tied at first place:

1. Univ. of California-Berkeley
(No response.)

And, the University of Virginia
"Of the 19,000-plus students enrolled at the University, more than
6,000 are students in one of the graduate or first-professional (law
and medicine) degree programs."

Here's the totals for degrees (disciplines aren't noted):
See pages 70 --71 for a slightly, but only slightly, more detailed breakdown.

You can find more links to data review at UVA here:

3. Univ. of Michigan-Ann Arbor
Here's a chart of graduate students by general field of study:

4. U. of California-Los Angeles
At this page:
You can see a breakdown of masters and doctorates awarded, by subject, from

5. Univ. of N. C. -Chapel Hill

I found navigating UNC's statistics very confusing! I'm going to quote
the instructions that Rachell Underhill, Fellowship Coordinator at
UNC-Chapel Hill, very kindly gave me:

"I believe that you will find all the statistics you were looking for
from this webpage:
Here you will be able to create the statistics for graduates:"

I told Ms. Underhill that I was still struggling with the stats page,
and she advised: "If you go to the selector for "Degree", you can
scroll up and down and select the degrees you are interested in. You
can select multiple degrees by holding down the "control" button as
you select. Then you can select PhDs, DrPH, EDD, or any other degrees
you are interested in. Select your degree(s) for a row and then select
"Major 1" for a column. For an explanation of any abbreviations, check
Degrees are awarded four times a year, make sure that your date range
(at the top of the page) is a full year long (May 2003-May 2004.)"

6. Col. of William and Mary (VA)
(No response to my inquiry.)

Tied at 7th place:
Univ. of California-San Diego

According to Bill Borton, Institutional Research Officer at UCSD:
"The Office of Graduate Studies and Research at UCSD publishes on-line
statistics for graduate students at
At this page, you will find nine years of data, and clicking on the
year will bring up a table of contents for that year.
Total enrollments are found in section III; degrees conferred in
section VI Most all data is reported by department/program and
subtotaled by discipline."

Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison
(No response to my inquiry.)

9. Georgia Institute of Tech:
Here's a rundown of Georgia Tech's Ph.D programs and, as you can see,
they're all related to technology (of course): architecture, urban

10. U. of Ill.--Urbana-Champaign
(No response to my inquiry.)


From UNESCO (the United Nations' Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
See page 112 of
Note "tertiary" refers to all schooling beyond high school. (Also,
this template takes approximately forever to load, so please be

From the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES): "Doctor's
degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by discipline
division: 1970-71
to 2000-01":

From the OCED  (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) :

Stéphane Guillot,  Directorate for Education replied:
"The Education database is freely accessible at the following address:
You can find a large description of our new edition of the EAG at the
following address, including all the tables of this year edition:
Graduation rates are in Chapter A. [You] will find in this chapter
some indicators on tertiary graduates (ISCED 5A/6 and 5B, ISCED 6
refer to Phd students).

I found the above instructions difficult to navigate, so I clicked on
"Education at a Glance" link and brought up this page:,2340,en_2649_34515_14152482_1_1_1_1,00.html
You'll see quite a few studies there.

You have the choice of opening or downloading these files: "Table
A2.1. Tertiary graduation rates (2001)" and "Table A3.1. Tertiary
graduates, by field of study and level of education (2001)"

This survey may be of interest to you:
Science Students: Breakdown By Gender:

The Association for Women in Science (AWIS) provides the following
statistical resources on women employed in the sciences:
"Much of the data comes from the National Science Foundation, with
additional information from a variety of sources. Data range from
several issues regarding women in science and engineering, including
education, the workplace, and international statistics."

Scroll down to the header "Tables" and then to "Doctorate" for links
to such studies as: "Earned doctoral degrees, by field and sex:
1970-1999" and "Doctorates awarded to women, by field of study and
year of doctorate: 1992-2001."


These links will give you some good background, as well as
comprehensive stats on how American Ph.D graduates have been skewing
by field by study, from the 1970s to 2000.

"Beyond supply and demand: Assessing their Ph.D. job market," a report
by Elka Jones (economist at the Office of Occupational Statistics and
Employment Projections), published in Occupation Outlook Quarterly,
Winter 2002-2003 issue:


This article provides a good overview of current conditions in the
general job market for Ph.Ds, along with very comprehensive statistics
on recent Ph.D. graduates from American schools.

The article notes that people who hold Ph.Ds generally enjoy lower
unemployment rates and earn above-average salaries. However, "The
Ph.D. job market has been characterized for years by ups and
downs.These fluctuations are caused by imbalances in the supply of and
demand for Ph.D. recipients in the labor force. Imbalances occur for a
number of reasons, including the fact that the length of time required
to earn a makes it difficult for the supply of workers
with doctorates to respond quickly to changes in the demand for them.
. . ."

". . .The oversupply problem is further aggravated by the incentive
that universities have to continue training doctoral students even if
the labor market is unable to absorb them upon graduation. Doctoral
candidates often provide their department and university with benefits
that include assistance with research and other tasks. In many
research universities, graduate students do much of the teaching of
undergraduate students.Ph.D. supply concerns are not entirely
attributable to the actions of universities, however. Some doctoral
labor market woes stem from the high level of specialization that
earning a Ph.D. entails-which makes it more difficult for Ph.D. job
seekers to find a job that is a perfect fit."

Another section of the report "discusses the supply of Ph.D.
graduates,first by field of study and then by demographic
characteristic. 'Field of study Survey of Earned Doctorates' data show
that, between 1970 and 2000, there have been changes by field of study
in the numbers of Ph.D. degrees granted. Generally, fields with the
greatest increases in the numbers of doctoral degrees awarded also had
the most job growth: Natural sciences and engineering. . . . .
Computer science, first measured in 1978, showed similar increases,
demonstrating particularly strong growth from 1980 to 1990. . . ."

Scroll down to the last chart, chart number 8, to see the percentages
of shifts in doctorates by area of study. The fastest-rising Ph.D rate
between 1996 --2000 is in the biological sciences an increase of 44%
from 1996 to 2000. The increase in computer sciences, in that same
time-frame, was 22% (the fourth-fastest growing field).

As for business/economics, which includes marketing: "Ph.D. graduates
in economics and psychology had rates of involuntary, out-of-field
employment that were slightly higher than those of the majority of
natural sciences and engineering fields. The unemployment rates of
Ph.D. graduates in economics and psychology were comparable with those
in natural sciences and engineering fields. Involuntarily accepting
employment outside a Ph.D. graduate?s field of expertise may suggest
that obtaining employment within the field is difficult. Similarly,
the increasing length and prevalence of postdoctoral appointments may
also signal an inability of graduates to find other employment.
However, both indicators are vulnerable to subjective interpretation."


Supply and demand for computer science PHDs (abstract)

I contacted Ms. Jones at the Office of Occupational Statistics and
Employment Projections at the U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS):
and she referred me to this NSF Resource Statistics site:
"Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United
States," at:

There, you'll see links to detailed studies, such as

"Employment Sector, Salaries, Publishing, and Patenting Activities of
S&E Doctorate Holders (NSF 04-328)"

"Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: 2001 Profile Tables (NSF 04-312)"

"Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States:
2001 (NSF 03-310)"

Also try this page:
You'll see a number of surveys there, including: " Survey of Doctorate
Recipients." Also see: "Graduate Enrollment Increases in Science and
Engineering Fields, Especially in Engineering and Computer Sciences,"
by Joan S. Burrelli, April
2003 issue of InfoBrief:

This data covers 1994-2001:
"Enrollment By Citizenship:
An increase of students with temporary visas accounts for much of the
recent increase in graduate science and engineering enrollment.
Enrollment of students with temporary visas increased 9 percent from
approximately 121,800
in 2000 to approximately 133,300 in 2001 (table 1). Increases for such
students were greatest in engineering (up 11 percent) and computer
sciences (up 16 percent) (figure 1)."

"Enrollment By Field of Study:

Graduate enrollment rose in most science fields in 2001, although the
numbers of students remained lower than in the early 1990s. *The
greatest gain in enrollment (10 percent) was in computer sciences*.
The only major field experiencing declines in enrollment was earth,
atmospheric, and ocean sciences (down 1 percent) (table 2)."

I contacted Ms. Burrelli who directed me to this updated study:

"Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Fields Reaches New
Peak; First-Time Enrollment of Foreign Students Declines," by Lori
Thurgood, published in the NSF's InfoBrief, June 2004:

"Field of Study
Graduate enrollment in 2002 grew in all major S&E fields and in nearly
all subfields (table 2). Engineering and mathematical sciences led in
percentage gains, both rising more than 9 percent over the previous
year. *Other fast-growing fields were computer sciences* and
biological sciences, which each increased by 6 percent . . . ."

So, enrollment in computer science has increased significantly, even
over the past two years.

Ms. Burrelli also directed me to the Computing Research Association (CRA):
The CRA is "an association of more than 200 North American academic
departments of computer science, computer engineering, and related
fields; laboratories and centers in industry, government, and academia
engaging in basic computing research; and affiliated professional

According to the CRA Taulbee study:
it appears that job demand for Ph.Ds in computer science wasn't as
strong going into 2003. At the bottom of that page see a graph that
shows a decline in new Ph.Ds in Computer Science/Engineering finding
employment in the private sector, in contrast to an increase in
enrollment in that field.

In the table above that, "Table 1," see that, for example, in 1999 50%
of new Ph.Ds in Computer Science/Engineering found work in Industry;
today, that figure has dwindled to 29%. That's in contrast to
increased enrollment in Computer Science.

So, in computer science, it appears supply is now far out-pacing
demand in the industrial sector. Currently, more newly graduated Ph.Ds
in computer science are going into academia than into industry.

Also see the BLS's Occupational Outlook Handbook report:  "Computer
Systems Analysts, Database Administrators, and Computer Scientists":

"Employment is expected to increase much faster than the average as
organizations continue to adopt increasingly sophisticated
technologies. Job prospects are favorable.

"The rapid spread of computers and information technology has
generated a need for highly trained workers to design and develop new
hardware and software systems and to incorporate new technologies.
These workers?computer systems analysts, database administrators, and
computer scientists?include a wide range of computer specialists. Job
tasks and occupational titles used to describe these workers evolve
rapidly, reflecting new areas of specialization or changes in
technology. . . ."

However, when you check out the section "Training, Other
Qualifications, and Advancement," you'll notice there isn't
necessarily a demand for Ph.Ds in this sector. Even those with
associate degrees from community colleges should be able to get jobs
as designers and systems analysts.

Also, specialists in this field are being shifted into the role of
contract employees: "A growing number of computer specialists, such as
systems analysts and network and data communications analysts, are
employed on a temporary or contract basis; many of these individuals
are self-employed, working independently as contractors or
consultants. . . . the company might contract for such employees with
a temporary help agency or a consulting firm or with the systems
analysts themselves. Such jobs may last from several months up to 2
years or more. . . ."


That forecast from the BLS on systems analysts ties into this 2002
report. One area of technology where there is unarguable growth is
homeland defense/ security. See the article "Where the jobs are," from
Black Enterprise, Feb., 2002  written by Winifred DeSouza and  Sonya
A. Donaldson:

"Because of the United States war on terrorism, there will be an
increase in the need for technology experts, particularly engineers,
systems analysts, and scientists. In fact, a good portion of the
Department of Defense's budget, roughly 10% of the $25 billion
allotted, is expected to be spent on counterterrorism efforts, which
would also include security technology and software development.

"Likewise, corporations will need to protect their records,
information systems, and intellectual properties with advanced
hardware and software applications. Tools such as antivirus programs
and security software, such as firewalls, will be in high demand as
the adoption of handheld hardware and home networking is expected to

" 'Government and small business contracts will definitely increase,"
says Vincent L. Lewis, an information technology consultant in
Washington, D.C. "There will be a strong demand for individuals with
math and science backgrounds. Currently, more than 1.5 million people
work as systems analysts, engineers, and scientists; and the BLS
projects a 36% (or greater) increase in such jobs over the next six

Other Articles Of Interest:

The article "Linux Skills in High Demand as IT Jobs Pick Up, by Sharon
Gaudin, published August 11, 2004, at IT Management:

" . . . . And employers don't appear to be looking for certifications
as much as they're searching for on-the-job experience.

'' 'What's selling is experience,'' says [Scot] Melland [CEO of DICE].
 'Our customers are really looking for someone who has been there and
done that. They want to hire that developer who just did the six-month
Linux conversion rather than hiring someone who might have just been
trained in Linux. They want the systems administrator who can run
those systems that have been converted.'"

Also at IT Management, see "IBM Hiring Forecast Brightens,  by Roy
Mark, published August 12, 2004:


"IT Morale Lifting Out of 'All-Time Low'," by Angela Doody, published
August 6, 2004:

From Cnet, August 6, 2004, "Brain drain in tech's future?" by Ed Frauenheim:

The first part of the article explores the demographic shift to more
foreign-born students than Americans pursuing doctorates at American
universities, then examines American students' declining interest in
technology studies:

"As for why U.S. students aren't going after doctorates as they used
to, one need merely follow the money, suggests Eric Weinstein, who has
analyzed the issue of high-tech labor for the National Bureau of
Economic Research. He says Americans are shunning technology-related
doctoratal [sic] programs because of low wages and poor career
prospects. Graduate students in science and engineering can spend five
to 10 years earning their doctorates, all the time scraping by on
$15,000 to $20,000 annually, he said. Many who earn their degree then
end up in post-doctorate research fellowships, which may mean a salary
of $30,000.

" . . . Indeed, NSF data shows that graduate enrollment in science and
engineering programs reached a record of nearly 455,400 students in
fall 2002, up 6 percent from 2001. Graduate enrollment includes both
master's and doctoratal students, but the statistic could signal that
doctoratal production is about to rise, [Rand analyst Donna] Fossum
said. 'Were they people that got laid off by AOL and decided to go
back to school?'"

" . . .There's also debate about how important those credentials are
to the country's future. Industry leaders also proclaim the importance
of the doctoratal degree. Computer maker Hewlett-Packard, for example,
runs a summer intern program that includes about 50 doctorates and
doctoral students. The company continues to hire doctorates,
especially in its HP Labs research division, said Wayne Johnson, the
company's executive director of university relations." [Yet,
conversely, I noticed that Seagate canceled its internship program
this past summer:]

"Some critics, though, doubt the country needs more PhDs. Much of the
important work in technology companies can be handled with people with
less training, the argument goes, and there are plenty of
still-unemployed techies in the U.S. work force. . . ."


This category includes marketing.

From the Center For Business and Economic Research at Sam M. Walton College
of Business:
"Survey of the Labor Market for New Ph.D.s in Economics":
(Scroll halfway down that page to the link.)

See header "Outcomes of the Labor Market for New Ph.Ds in 2003-2004":
"Seventy-six departments reported 469 new Ph.Ds who sought employment
for the 2003-2004 academic year. Of these job seekers 417 (88.9%) were
successful. Within the reported supply, 182 (38.8%) were from 17 Top
30 departments responding to the survey. Among the successful job
seekers [of that 88.9%], *62.6% found employment in academic
instituitons* as opposed to 59.8% in the 2002-2003 year.

From the Consumer Information Center (can't find a date, but it
appears to be quite current):
"Job Outlook
"Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is expected
to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the
year 2006. Most job openings, however, are likely to result from the
need to replace experienced workers who transfer to other occupations,
retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons."

"Demand for qualified marketing research analysts should be strong due
to an increasingly competitive economy. Marketing research provides
organizations valuable feedback from purchasers, allowing companies to
evaluate consumer
satisfaction and more effectively plan for the future. As companies
seek to expand their market and consumers become better informed, the
need for marketing professionals is increasing.

"Opportunities for marketing research analysts with graduate degrees
should be good in a wide range of employment settings, particularly in
marketing research firms, as companies find it more profitable to
contract out for marketing research services rather than support their
own marketing department. . . ."

As to academic level of training: " . . . Those with only a bachelor's
degree but who have a strong background in mathematics, statistics,
survey design, and computer science may be hired by private firms as
research assistants or interviewers . . . ." As the first IT
Management article I cited notes, experience appears to be out-pacing
degree level in quite a few jobs in the tech sector.

On a related note: the demand for job candidates with MBAs is
diminishing. See this Aug. 1, 2004 AP article by Justin Pope:

Also see the Bureau of Labor Statistics most current Occupational Outlook


See these 2004 jobs reports from the BLS's Occupational Outlook Handbook:

"Market and Survey Researchers":
"Employment of market and survey researchers is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occupations through 2012. Many job
openings are likely to result from the need to replace experienced
workers who transfer to other occupations or who retire or leave the
labor force for other reasons. Opportunities should be best for those
with a master?s or Ph.D. degree in marketing or a related field and
strong quantitative skills."

". . . . Bachelor?s degree holders may face competition for the
limited number of market and survey research jobs for which they are
eligible. However, they will qualify for a number of other positions,
however, in which they can take advantage of their knowledge in
conducting research, developing surveys, or analyzing data. . . .
Ph.D. degree holders in marketing and related fields should have a
range of opportunities in industry and consulting firms. As in many
other disciplines, however, Ph.D. holders are likely to face keen
competition for tenured teaching positions in colleges and

Also see these forecasts for marketing careers:

"Market research managers, Advertising, marketing, promotions, public
relations, and sales managers":

Competition for these jobs will be "keen."

Under "Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement," you can see
that a Ph.D isn't generally required for these jobs, "but many
employers prefer those with experience in related occupations plus a
broad liberal arts background. A bachelor's degree in sociology,
psychology, literature, journalism, or philosophy, among other
subjects, is acceptable. However, requirements vary, depending upon
the particular job. For marketing, sales, and promotions management
positions, some employers prefer a bachelor's or master's degree in
business administration with an emphasis on marketing."

"Employment of advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations,
and sales managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through 2012, spurred by intense domestic and global
competition in products and services offered to consumers. However,
projected employment growth varies by industry. For example,
employment is projected to grow much faster than average in
scientific, professional, and related services such as computer
systems design and related services and advertising and related
services, as businesses increasingly hire contractors for these
services instead of additional full-time staff."


Going back to at least 1995, there had been dramatic fluctuations
within the job market for doctorates, and lively debate about
supply/demand issues.

"Universities granting too many doctorates - study shows that US
universities are granting 25% more doctorates than the economy can
from the Dec.1, 1995 issue of USA Today Magazine:

"Is there a crisis in graduate education? Sorting through the myths
and realities - Special report: graduate & professional degrees," by
Kendra Hamilton, published in Black Issues in Higher Education, July
3, 2003:

"The doctoral degree in the sciences and engineering can open doors to
a wide variety of career choices and pursuits, observers note. Science
and engineering expertise at the doctoral level can be richly
rewarded, and allows its recipients entry into corporations,
government and nonprofit research employment.

"Nonetheless, 62 percent of the students in the NAGPS study said they
received little or no information on non-academic careers. Even more
students, 64 percent, said placement services were lacking as well.

" 'We hear again and again from students: 'My department doesn't talk
to us about alternative careers,' or 'I could never tell my adviser I
don't want to be a professor,' Nerad  [Dr. Maresi Nerad, associate
research professor and director of the Center for Innovation and
Research in Graduate Education at the University of Washington] says.
'Our faculty still pretend everybody who does the Ph.D. wants to be a
professor and will become a professor, but that is untrue and is quite
ahistorical, too.

" 'I've found study data from 1950s and '60s on the career paths of
Ph.D.s, and even in those days, it was not true. Even in the
humanities, 25 percent of Ph.D.s were in business, industry,
government.' "

Btw, this article references Dr. Maresi Nerad's classic 1999 study, "Ph.D.s:
Ten Years Later," which revealed the diverse paths doctorates take:

" A Practical Turn in Ph.D.'s," by Miriam Horn,  March 29, 1999 issue of
U.S. News & World Report:

"Wall Street has been recruiting for some time among Ph.D.'s in math,
finance, economics, and computer technology. And now, high-tech and
management consulting firms are beginning to venture beyond business
schools in search of students with doctorates in such varied fields as
literature, sociology, and psychology. Such companies, say recruiters,
recognize that many individuals with Ph.D.'s are trained to solve
poorly defined problems and to function independently.

I started this section by referencing a 1995 article that announced a
Ph.D  glut. The August 2004 issue of University Business ponders the
pending shortage of Ph.Ds.

That's how quickly the tide can turn within a few years:

"Trends & Trendsetters in Graduate Education There have been
interesting twists and turns for graduate ed in recent years: a move
away from business degrees and a dramatic drop in Ph.D.s, to name two.
Maybe that's why
graduate ed administrators have gotten so darn creative," by Tim Goral:

"' Most recently, psychology seems to be the focus of the greatest
interest, surpassing even business in our top 20 list," says Lori
Faunce, marketing manager of (She points to
disillusion with the business sector, and the growing prevalence of
psychopharmaceuticals in society, as two possible drivers of the

"In the site's latest survey, clinical psychology was followed in
order of interest by electrical engineering, social work, school
psychology, and mental health therapy. Business administration, once
considered the 'most practical' of graduate degrees, showed up in the
number seven spot. 'Business is usually number one, but it has fallen
out of the top five,' says Faunce. 'Another trend we see is that a lot
of the technology-based curriculums like computer science and
information technology have fallen,' she says. 'Since the dot-com
bubble burst and technology companies were forced to lay off workers,
interest in these programs appears to have slowed.' "

Here's a great resource: The San Francisco Chronicle's weekly "The
Chronicle of Higher Education":

See the Review's forums:
For some personal anecdotes about job seeking, leaving academia, and
other topics. You'll see a search box (use the one at right, after you
bring up a particular forum) and you can try searching the forums via
various terms. At the forum "Job-Seeking Experiences," I typed in
"Computer Science" and came up with a litany of disappointing reports
from people who were winding up  their doctorates in that field;
they're not getting the volume of job offers they'd expected.

At this page:
You can search for available jobs by letter, such as "C" for computer
science -- nearly all those jobs are in academia. I found only 38 jobs
under Marketing, mostly in academia.


"Vested Development, Inc. and Bios Group, Inc. Develop B2B Trading
Engine; Collaboration links Moscow and Santa Fe Software Development
and Scientific Teams," from Business Wire,  August 21, 2000:
 "VDI became our natural choice because of the high proportion of
Ph.Ds on their staff with expertise in mathematical programming, and
their familiarity with the type of algorithms that run our Automated
Markets product . . . ."

From the August 22, 2002 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, "Seagate technology
research center opens in Strip District," by Donald I. Hammonds:
"Seagate is the world's largest maker of computer disk drives, and its
research facility employs about 140, including 80 holding doctorates.
Its employees come from 22 countries."

One major reason why Seagate opened a Pittsburgh office is the city is
home to Carnegie-Mellon which boasts a world-renowned Computer Science

I contacted both Carnegie-Mellon and Seagate, but neither replied.

So, at the moment, enrollment in computer science is up, yet private
sector demand for Ph.Ds in computer science actually appears to be
down. (Demand for workers for such jobs as systems analysts may stay
on the rise, but Ph.Ds won't necessarily be required.)

The picture is somewhat brighter right now for Ph.Ds in most business
disciplines. According to the BLS, the job market for Ph.Ds in
marketing research is expected to be particularly strong, although the
competition for the top jobs will be strong, too.

Search Strings:
increasing demand Ph.D technology companies
demand Ph.Ds technology companies
demand doctorates technology companies
statistics PH.D. graduates
technology job prospects doctorates
hiring trends doctorates
"employment trends" AND technology AND doctorate OR Ph.D
"increasing demand OR need" AND Ph.D AND "technology companies"
"job market for Ph.Ds OR doctorates"
job recruiters technology companies Ph.D marketing
Job market demand doctorates
hiring consultants IT
"marketing" AND Ph.D AND employment
job growth Ph.Ds Homeland Security

I hope my research is of help to you. Again, if any of the sources I
contact do reply to me, I will post that information as an Answer

Best regards,
Google Answers Researcher
Subject: Re: PhD's
From: macaonghus-ga on 21 Jul 2004 14:38 PDT
I would imagine that data such as this, worldwide, would require the
help of a professional company, who might have the kind of global
resources to research this. It could be a case of calling universities
across the world; either way it sounds like a pretty challenging job
to me.

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