Google Answers Logo
View Question
Q: Highest fidelity flight/driving simulators? ( Answered 4 out of 5 stars,   2 Comments )
Subject: Highest fidelity flight/driving simulators?
Category: Science > Technology
Asked by: stormforge-ga
List Price: $100.00
Posted: 13 Aug 2004 05:57 PDT
Expires: 12 Sep 2004 05:57 PDT
Question ID: 387325
I need to find out who has (in a research lab, training facility, or
for sale) the world's best (or the most "state of the art") vehicle
simulator.  I'm particularly interested in very high fidelity
simulators which provide an experience which is almost "real".  These
simulators would have 3D motion bases, very high resolution
wrap-around screens and highly realistic graphics.  I'm familiar with
the simulators which they use for most flight training and in these
the displays are large, but are relatively low-detail since only a
simplified view is actually needed to train pilots.  I hope to find
examples of simulators which are much more realistic than these
standard professional training setups.

If possible, it would be great to find (or compile) some sort of
ratings for simulators.  Can they be ranked according to display
resolution?  Display update rate or computing power?  Capability of
the motion base?

I'd be interested in any very-high-fidelity simulator for aircraft,
driving, ship navigation, etc...

Here are some example web sites:

My sense is that these are good simulators, but not extremely realistic.

Please let me know if you have any questions.


Request for Question Clarification by omnivorous-ga on 13 Aug 2004 12:53 PDT
Stormforge --

How do you handle a Flight Simulator like Flight Unlimited 2?  It's a
PC-based flight simulator, meaning that it operates at standard PC
resolutions.  But it allows zooming to the point that you can pick out
houses on real streets in the San Francisco Bay Area:

Sticking with the criteria that you're using is clear enough. 
However, knowing that most of Flight Safety International simulators
are custom-built, I'm not optimistic about getting a good answer.

Best regards,


Request for Question Clarification by maniac-ga on 14 Aug 2004 08:06 PDT
Hello Stormforge,

Hmm. I am not quite sure what you are looking for. Most simulator
customers are looking for some form of "best value" for a specific
budget. The capabilities will also be tuned for the training need as
well. The FAA has a "National Simulator Program"
that describes the level of detail / capability required for several
levels of performance. Some higher level devices allow the pilot to
replace time in the aircraft with simulator time.

In the area of visual displays - again the detail / realism will vary
by type of training device and the training need. Several recent
military procurements require geospecific imagery but the resolution
of 2 to 30 meters (for higher flying aircraft) is realistic at
altitude but not a low levels. It is completely inadequate for a tank
simulation which needs much more detail at a more limited range.

We could certainly give you a summary of the "state of the industry"
with references to more information, but somehow that does not appear
to be what you are asking for.

Please clarify the kind of data you need / how you expect to use it so
we can provide a more specific answer.


Clarification of Question by stormforge-ga on 14 Aug 2004 09:36 PDT
Here's some clarification.  I'm actually designing a new system which
is similar in many ways to a flight or driving simulator.  I've been
charged with making it as highly realistic as possible.  I'd like to
find the most realistic simulated control environment I can for 2

1. To give me some ideas about how to implement a very high-fidelity system
2. To allow me to test out some ideas I have

I would hope to contact whoever owns the best system in the world and
convince them to let me try it out and maybe conduct some experiments
with it.

Does this help?

Request for Question Clarification by maniac-ga on 15 Aug 2004 08:53 PDT
Hello Stormforge,

Let me put some concepts / questions by you to see if we can bound the
range of solutions.

[1] Do you have a single person using the system (viewing the images)
or multiple people?  It is often simpler to deal with a single person
than having an accurate image for two people.

[2] Do you need to combine an image such as a "Heads Up Display" (HUD)
with the out the window image? Alternatively, do you need to also
support night vision images with the normal image? This would
typically be a military application - but with recent HUD's in
automobiles, this is becoming more commonly used. A particular
constraint in this area is if the optics of the HUD are focused at
infinity - that requires collimated displays or simulator specific HUD

[3] What is the minimum distance needed between the person and image?
For example, a number of older simulators used 40 foot domes to help
reduce artifacts for the two person cockpits and provide a huge field
of view, but the brightness was quite poor. Some modern simulators use
faceted displays (with 8 projectors) provide the same field of view
with better brightness but only handle a single person. The new
simulators are a little harder to enter / exit as well.

[4] Will you be flying [relatively low detail, long distances] or
driving [high detail, relatively short distances]? Of course, a visual
display for a helicopter combines both and generally "solves" this
using some transition between levels of detail.

[5] For motion cues, what are the significant effects and how much
force is needed? For example, Mission Space (at Epcot) uses a
centrifuge with pivoted cabins for G forces including launch and
"weightlessness". It does have an odd rotational side effect (causing
motion sickness); felt it and saw people affected by this. [actually
wished they rotated the image at launch slightly to make it feel more

For comparison, the Shuttle Mission Simulators (SMS) at NASA do not
attempt to replicate those effects. Two of the SMS systems are fixed,
primarily for on orbit training sessions and the third has a 6 DOF
motion base (with a 7th axis to raise the cabin for launch) for launch
and landing training sessions (treating this more like a commercial
flight simulator).

[6] Will there be a lot of interaction with devices within the
vehicle? If so, this tends to rule out head mounted displays.

[7] Do you also want to consider a less capable (but compatible)
system for visualization (or testing) on a standard PC or laptop? This
can be very helpful to take on the road for demonstrations and for in
house tests (when you have more people than systems to run tests).

On your last clarification, getting into a simulator facility will likely require:
 - visiting at off hours (weekends, late at night)
 - knowing someone personally at the facility (or being famous)
 - may require bringing $$ (or having a contract with the facility) if
you need more than an introduction to the system
because the systems are often used 12-16 hours a day. NASA used to
have on site public visits to several simulator facilities as part of
an annual open house or business outreach program, but those have been
pretty much cancelled. The "contract" does not necessarily mean you
buy simulator time. It could be a teaming agreement on some pursuit
such as the recent NASA broad area announcement on Human and Robotic

Getting into a development lab may be a little easier but can require
similar preparation [knowing someone] due to concerns with proprietary

If you specify answers / constraints to the system use - I should be
able to help identify technologies to pursue as well as which
facilities / companies would be best to start working those personal


Clarification of Question by stormforge-ga on 15 Aug 2004 15:06 PDT
Here are some more clarifications.  The work we're doing is a
real-time teleoperation system for a ground vehicle.  We don't know of
any very-high-fidelity teleoperation systems so we're looking to the
simulator world for examples.

Answers to your questions:

1. A single operator is fine.

2. There's no need for a HUD.  Maybe a few video overlays.

3. No minimum viewing distance (as long as it's practical).

4. Driving -- but with a strong requirement to be able to see detail
at greater distances and to support high-speed driving in off-road and
complex terrains which will require a high degree of detail and

5. We'd like realistic motion -- not clear if higher frequency motions
are useful or not.

6. HMDs are ruled out because they are low resolution.  We're shooting
for 8000 pixel horizontal resolution in a 180 degree field of view.

7. No low-capability version is needed.

I don't expect to have too much trouble getting access to most
simulators. (I have a charming smile :-) ).

Subject: Re: Highest fidelity flight/driving simulators?
Answered By: adiloren-ga on 16 Aug 2004 18:42 PDT
Rated:4 out of 5 stars
Hello, thank you for the question. I have outlined the most
sophistacted simulators for each respective category below. For
flight, boat and military simulation, CAE and THALES are the world
leaders in the technology. In regards to driving simulators, the
National Advanced Driving Simulator is considered the most advanced
and realistic simulation. Auto Sim also produces very realistic high
fidelity driving simulations.

Please let me know if you need more specific information. There is a
lot of information out there, so I provided you with a more general
response to start. Feel free to request clarification if necessary.

Flight Simulators:

CAE Flight Simulators

"As the world leader in flight simulation, CAE has supplied more than
400 flight simulators and training devices to more than 100 airlines
and training centres worldwide. CAE has simulated the entire range of
large civil aircraft as well the leading regional and business
aircraft and some helicopters. CAE offers flight and maintenance
training equipment including full flight simulators (FFS), visual
systems, and CAE Simfinity?a full suite of desktop products, 3-D
trainers and simulation based courses."

" Pilots around the world regard our simulation as the closest thing
to the true experience of flight. We deliver breakthrough visual
realism, precise cockpit replication, high-fidelity avionics
simulation and flight and ground-handling characteristics
indistinguishable from the aircraft.

We have supplied major and regional airlines, aircraft manufacturers
and independent training centers with over 400 full flight simulators
for more than 50 different aircraft types and helicopters.

Unsurpassed Reliability
CAE simulators achieve the highest reliability rates in the industry
and contribute to improving the training effectiveness of your

Superior Maintainability
Our simulators are the fastest, cheapest and easiest to maintain. The
host computers use the latest state-of-the-art technology and are
based on single processor architecture. CAE is constantly improving
the maintainability of its simulation equipment by using the latest
technology and a lower number of hardware components."

Technology of CAE Sims

"CAE Sim XXI? Techologies

CAE produces the industry?s most-technologically advanced full flight
simulators, CAE has simulated almost every modern major, regional and
business aircraft as well as helicopters. All our full flight
simulators meet FAA and JAA designated levels as well as their
international equivalents.

Launched in 2002, CAE Sim XXI? is the next generation of full-flight
simulators. It has a modular design and is based on the popular
Windows and PC technologies. CAE Sim XXI is designed to simplify
assembly, test and integration, and to reduce life cycle cost. It
represents the latest advances in simulation technologies and has
significantly impacted the company?s manufacturing processes, which
have helped reduce simulator build-time by more than 50 per cent.
Features of the CAE Sim XXI technology are now being applied across
CAE?s entire family of training products, covering both the civil and
military markets.

CAE Tropos? Visual System
CAE?s new visual system is called CAE Tropos?. It is the only image
generator in the market that uses commercial off-the-shelf graphic
processors. It is a proven visual system, which has already received
Level D certification worldwide. It employs the latest technology and
provides unmatched realism."

THALES Full Flight Simulators

They claim to offer lifelike fidelity for a realistic simulation experience. 

"Full-flight simulators: the evolution continues

The life-like fidelity that training crew's experience and once
required rooms-full of computers now comes from a single PC. Moore's
Law and the power of the PC software industry will now ensure the
performance, functionality and usability keeps on growing."

"The Thales Training & Simulation Full Flight Simulator:

    * PC-based technology
    * simplified computer architecture
    * instructor's station runs on standard PC
    * browser-based software
    * sub-systems built around off-the-shelf hardware
    * re-targeted aircraft avionics vendor's code"

Fidelity Flight Simulation

"By simplifying cockpit space and swapping costly hydraulic bases for
electric ones, Fidelity Flight Simulation created a motion-based
simulator of comparable quality for one one-hundredth the cost. Motus
hits realistic price points for general aviation flight academics and
training programs, Limbach says. At $150,000, cost is similar to that
of the static training devices currently in use.

Size is also reduced: the Motus offers the motion quality of a
commercial simulator but fits in a 12x15x15-foot room. Control panel
instruments were moved to LCD monitors, creating further space
reduction. An overlay panel helps maintain cockpit realism.

Six computers drive the flight simulation software, motion base and
visual displays. An Integrated Power Console that houses all
electrical and computing capabilities together in a single, convenient
power cabinet operates the simulator."

Viper I Cockpit Simulator

"From the realistic panels and switches, to the accurate ACESII
ejection seat. The Viper I breathes life into every simulated mision
you fly."

Fast Jet Sims from Real Sim


Driving Simulators:

National Advanced Driving Simulator
(NADS) State-of-the-art driving simulator housed at the University of Iowa.

"The National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) is the most
sophisticated research driving simulator in the world. Developed by
the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the NADS offers
high-fidelity, real-time driving simulation. It consists of a large
dome in which entire cars and the cabs of trucks and buses can be
mounted. The vehicle cabs are equipped electronically and mechanically
using instrumentation specific to their make and model.At the same
time, the motion system, on which the dome is mounted, will provide
400 square meters of horizontal and longitudinal travel and nearly 360
degrees of rotation in either direction. The effect will be that the
driver will feel acceleration, braking and steering cues as if he or
she were actually driving a real car, truck or bus."

"The latest in visual display technology and a high-fidelity audio
system will complete the driving experience.  The test subject will be
immersed in sight, sound and movement so real that impending crash
scenarios can be convincingly presented with no danger to the

Auto Sim

"AutoSim develops, produces and markets to the international market
High Fidelity Driving Simulators, Simulator Software Platforms and
Simulator Modules"

"AutoSim has delivered one of the most advanced academic simulators in
North America to University of Minnesota."

"A number of features make VESTR one of the most advanced academic
simulators in North America:

    * A 2002 SC2 full-vehicle cab (donated by Saturn) that provides
realistic operation of the controls and instrumentation, including
force-feedback steering and the feel of power-assisted braking.
    * High fidelity simulation for all sensory channels. The visual
scene is projected to a high-resolution, five channel, 210 degree
forward field of wiev. Rear and side mirrors are provided by a rear
screen and LCD monitors.
    * Software (provided by OKTAL) that can generate any type of road
environment, including precise reproduction of geospecific locations,
and produce a range of weather and lighting effects.
    * Auditory and tactile feedback provided by a three-dimensional
surround-sound system, car body vibration, and a three axes electric
motion system. These systems generate natural sound and motion cues to
increase the perceived realism of the simulation."

The simulator is build around SCANeR II. The simulator software,
developed by Renault Research, and used in several other research
installations around the world."

Virtual Environment for Surface Transportation Research (VESTR) Simulator

"VESTR provides high fidelity simulation for all sensory channels to
generate a realistic presence within the simulated environment.  The
visual scene is projected to a high-resolution five-channel 210-degree
forward field of view with rear and side mirror views provided by a
rear screen and LCD panels. This allows for the simulation of
intersection scenarios and sufficient resolution for legibility
studies such as hazard detection, sign recognition, or designing road

"Overall, VESTR is an extremely versatile and realistic simulation
environment for a variety of theory and application based research
domains in surface transportation."

The Kookmin University Driving Simulators for Vehicle Control System
Development and Human Factor Study

Development of a Driving Simulator

"During the past decade, driving simulators have begun to proliferate
in the automotive industry and the associated research community. The
driving simulators have been effectively used for studying the
driver-vehicle interaction and developing vehicle systems and
components in a highly controlled and repeatable test environment.
This paper describes our effort to develop a prototype driving
simulator, which will be used for design and evaluation of a
full-scale driving simulator and for driver-vehicle interaction study.
The simulator consists of a real-time vehicle simulation system, a
motion system, a visual system and an experiment console. The
real-time vehicle simulation system, based on a personal computer with
a digital signal processor, supervises overall operation of the
simulator. It also simulates dynamic motion of a multibody vehicle
model in real-time. The motion system generates realistic motion cues
using a six degree of freedom stewart platform driven hydraulically.
Thanks to a high performance 3D graphic accelerator, the visual system
generates high fidelity visual scenes, which are displayed on a
monitor on the motion platform. The experiment console monitors the
status of the simulator in operation and also collects and manages
experiment data. This paper also describes major applications of the
driving simulator."

Specializes in realistic truck driving simulators

"TRUST is a fully dedicated training simulator that reproduces, in
every detail, the full sensory environment experienced by truck
drivers in real driving conditions. The simulator provides tailored
training and evaluation in driving heavy goods vehicles, using an
interactive programme developed by training experts. The TRUST
simulator can be supplied as a permanent installation or as a
transportable training device with a special trailer.

TRUST (TRUck Simulator for Training) was designed in collaboration
with major road transport training organisations to meet three needs:

    * Basic truck driving skills
    * Advanced truck driving training
    * Truck driver performance assessment"

"The simulator features:

    * a real vehicle cab
    * different vehicle configurations
    * a visual system with 180° field of view
    * accurate movement and driving sensation
    * a real sound environment
    * realistic simulation of road conditions
    * a large and complex road network featuring mountain roads to town centres
    * all weather conditions
    * an instructor station with advanced training software"

Ship Simulators:

Real Sims

CAE Naval Systems
"CAE is a world leader in the supply of automation and control systems
for the naval market. CAE marine systems are used by 18 navies around
the world, on more than 130 warships, and have provided for more than
3 million hours of reliable performance at sea. CAE pioneered the
integration of ship platform systems, and has remained a market leader
for more than 20 years."


Military Simulators:

CAE Land Training

"Today's modern armies have available to them more sophisticated,
complex and interrelated weapons and systems than ever before. Within
the digitized battle space, Command, Control and Communications
systems have become important tactical tools. Sophisticated weapons
systems, integrating state-of-the-art battlefield radar tracking,
sighting systems with Image Intensifiers (II) and Infra Red (IR), are
becoming commonplace. Coupled with the increased emphasis on
collective and combined arms operations, the technical challenges
place unique demands on land-based simulation and training.

CAE is uniquely qualified to handle all your land-based simulation and
training needs. From stand-alone utility applications to the
networking of advanced weapons simulators operating in an interactive
threat environment, we've earned our reputation as the leader in
weapons, vehicle and communications simulation. Our experience,
technology, and focus ensure we address all your training objectives
and provide best value. The result is a training system that plays a
key role in the mission readiness of your land-based forces."

Tank Gunnery
"CAE designs and manufactures a range of simulators to meet all direct
fire training needs. Our solutions provide progressive training for
basic gunnery, crew and turret skills with fully interactive training
at the troop/detachment/platoon level in a realistic simulated

Thales Land Based Military sims

"Synthetic Environments bring live forces, simulators and
computer-generated forces into a single networked environment for
effective training in teamwork, tactics and mission rehearsal. Thales
Training &  Simulation has been at the centre of Synthetic Environment
research and development for more than ten years. Synthetic
Environments are also being used increasingly as part of the
development and procurement cycle for military equipment"

Combined Arms Tactical Trainer


Reviews and Research:

AutoSim - winner of Information Technology award for 2003.

Pioneering Simulation
At the Forefront of Virtual Reality

"One of the best kept secrets in Canadian aviation has been the
phenomenal national and international growth of Canada?s CAE Inc. It
is a major Canadian story of triumph....

Canadian Aviation Electronics Ltd. (CAE) was founded in 1947 by RCAF
Group Captain Ken Patrick (Ret.). With continued expansion and growth,
a corporate structure evolved into CAE Inc., today respected globally
as an all-Canadian electronics company that innovatively conceives and
designs, among other matters, aeronautical apparatus for flight

"The simulator cockpit, to this day, contains an accurate replication
of all the hardware of the actual plane, including flight controls,
all instruments, radio, lighting, and windscreen vision. Not the least
are the seats of the Captain and First Officers which are the exact
simulation of the real thing. Movement of the cockpit comes from a
motion system to provide six degrees of freedom including roll, pitch
and yaw for all movements the aircrew might expect in flight including
landing bumps.

The instructor has for his use a number of ?faults? or ?events? which
he can create at any time to assess the capability of pilots to
recover from unwanted incidents that might occur during actual flight.
These include: a) engine out on take-off; b) engine fires; c) loss of
hydraulics; and d) undercarriage glitches and electrical faults
including those induced by lightning strikes. All simulated incidents
are accompanied by realistic sounds and noises."

"Diversification of product line is ongoing at CAE. The MAXVUE? visual
flight system found ready acceptance in the commercial field with 13
systems sold in 1995. Since its introduction, five years ago, an
astounding 45 orders representing 46 percent of the world commercial
flight simulator visual system market has been acquired."

"Unquestionably CAE Inc. is ready for the twenty-first century. It has
proven itself as a significant world-leader advanced technology
company with sound, sustainable development ahead."

Diving Simulators: Reviews and Overview

from the Australia Department of Defence-- Overview of new simulators

Boeing 707 full flight simulator

"2.9 Defence started the B707 and C-130J-30 simulator acquisition
projects as separate projects. They were subsequently combined as the
Air Lift Simulator (ALSIM) Project to gain savings from joint
management. Both simulators are being manufactured by CAE Electronics
in Montreal, Canada, under a single contract. The combined budget for
both simulators is $61.8 million.6

The decision to buy

2.10 The decision to buy a B707 simulator was based on a cost:benefit
analysis of options - including training aircrew overseas - for
extending the service life of the aircraft and safety considerations.
Although some training needs were identified and taken into account, a
formal TNA was not undertaken at the time."

C-130J-30 simulator 

"2.25 As mentioned earlier, Defence is acquiring the C-130J-30
simulator and the B707 simulator from CAE Electronics by means of one
project team - as the Air Lift Simulator (ALSIM) Project.

The decision to buy

2.26 The decision to buy a C-130J-30 full flight simulator was taken
in 1994 at the same time as the decision to acquire the new aircraft.

2.27 The provision of a simulator was included in the original
contract for the 12 aircraft being bought initially. This approach
should have a number of advantages, including the timely training of

2.28 Realising that the C-130J-30 aircraft would require significant
aircrew training, Air Force undertook an initial TNA which indicated
that the acquisition of a full flight simulator would be an effective
training aid that would bring a number of other benefits including the
lengthening of the service life of the C-130J-30 aircraft. This
indicates prudent planning and management.

2.29 An individual cost:benefit analysis was not conducted for the
C-130J-30 simulator as it was a replacement capability and was
embedded in the major capital equipment development process for the
C-130J-30 aircraft. It was accepted that aerospace simulators provide
a clear benefit because of the reduction in flying hours. Defence
estimated the cost of operating both the B707 simulator and the
C-130J-30 simulator at around $454 per hour9 per simulator, a fraction
of the cost of operating an aircraft."

F-111C simulator 

"2.34 In contrast to the previous two simulators, the F-111C simulator
is a tactical mission trainer designed for aircrew to practise
tactical missions and associated combat flying activities. Training
capabilities encompass a vast array of activities including action to
counter simulated hostile activity from missiles, radar, other
aircraft and so on. The F-111C simulator it is not a ?full flight?
simulator, does not have ?motion?, and is specified with only a
low-fidelity graphics system. Although it provides basic flying
training, it is not intended as an ab initio flight trainer. The
simulator is being manufactured by Wormald in Australia at a cost of
$44 million."

Black Hawk simulator 

"2.54 The simulator is being built by CAE Electronics in Montreal,
Canada, at a contract price of $28.1 million for the simulator, $3.7
million for a facility to house it, and $6.9 million for five years of
management support and replaceable items. A Black Hawk helicopter
costs around $6_300 per hour to fly.14 The simulator will cost around
$480 per hour to ?fly?."

Perceptual and Engineering Evaluation of High-Fidelity Flight
Simulator Visual Displays

"Researchers measured the spatial resolution of an M2DART display,
configured with a Silicon Graphics® Onyx 2®, with IR3 graphics. Line
rates of 1280 (x 1024) and 1700 (x 1360) were tested, each providing a
60 Hz noninterlaced image. The projector was a Barco Model 808 and the
size of the projected image was 53" (horizontal) x 42" (vertical).
Researchers used a measurement technique similar to that described in
a Video Electronics Standard Association (VESA) standard.1 The
technique involves displaying grille (i.e., square-wave grating)
patterns of alternating light and dark vertical lines, each consisting
of an integer number of displayed pixels. Researchers measured the
resulting light distributions with a spatial scanning photometer and
calculated an image contrast as follows: Contrast = (Maximum Intensity
- Minimum Intensity) / (Maximum Intensity + Minimum Intensity).

Researchers obtained perceptual data by asking observers to determine
the heading (left or right) of F-16 targets presented on a blue-sky
background in the M2DART. The luminances of the target and background
were about 10.5 fL and 5.5 fL, respectively. The aircraft images (see
Figure 1) were white, untextured, and simulated at ranges between 3315
and 8818 feet by appropriately varying their displayed size. The
aircraft were located directly ahead of the observer and had a heading
of either ±15° and a bank of either ±30° relative to the observer.
Researchers tested one line rate (either 1280 or 1700) in each
experimental session. They randomly presented each combination of
aircraft range and aspect angle twenty times in each experimental
session. The relevant data were the proportion of the twenty trials in
which the observer correctly recognized the aspect angle of the target
aircraft. They tested the two line rates twice for each observer, and
the testing order was randomized."

U.S. Military Simulators:

Request for new simulators

"This notice is a Request for Information only. The Government may or
may not issue a solicitation as a result of this announcement. The
Government will NOT pay for any information given in response to this
call for information. BACKGROUND: To satisfy increasing training
demands without significantly impacting the training budget, the U.S.
Army Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM) is
conducting market research by seeking innovative business
solutions/training approaches to develop, maintain, operate, upgrade,
and support flight simulation training for the Army Aviation Objective
Flight School XXI (FSXXI), U.S. Army Aviation Center (USAAVNC), Ft.
Rucker, AL. The flight simulation training requirement consists of
three parts: TH-67 High Fidelity Flight Simulators (HFFS), Advanced
Aviation Institutional Training Simulators (AAITS), and a
multi-function training staff. The number of devices, functionality
and fidelity (including motion cues) of the manned modules, visual
system, and training environment capabilities for the TH-67 High
Fidelity Flight Simulators (HFFS) must support individual/crew task
training to standard in accordance with the Initial Entry Rotary Wing
(IERW) course, Flight School XXI curriculum, and an estimated annual
throughput of 1200 flight students. The TH-67 simulators will be
installed in Pratt Hall with the installation including the tear-down
of 24 of the simulators currently installed in that building and
shipping of those simulators to locations directed by the government.
A minimum of 24 AAITS are required and will be installed in the
Aviation Warfighting Simulation Center (AWSC) (currently undergoing
final construction). The AAITS must be reconfigurable to the AH-64A
Apache, AH-64D Longbow, UH-60A/L Blackhawk, CH-47D Chinook, and OH-58D
Kiowa Warrior aircraft initially, and the RAH-66 Comanche aircraft
eventually. The AAITS functionality and fidelity (including motion
cues), visual system, training environment, interoperability, and
C4ISR capabilities must support individual/crew, collective, combined
arms, and joint training requirements to include training
individual/crew and collective tasks to standard in accordance with
aircrew training manuals (ATM) and mission training plans (MTP). A
multi-function training staff is required to manage, support,
schedule, maintain, operate and upgrade the TH-67 HFFS, the AAITS, and
their associated facilities; develop training support packages (TSPs)
and associated training scenario generation tools; develop tactics,
techniques, and procedures (TTP); develop combined arms training
strategies (CATS); and provide training support in terms of
battlemaster, semi-automated forces, role play, and
instructor/operator activities. This announcement seeks innovative
acquisition strategies for the development, operation, maintenance,
and life cycle support and upgrade of the flight simulators required
for the Army Aviation Objective Flight School XXI (FSXXI) at
reasonable pricing with increased efficiencies. All interested
business concerns shall indicate interest by providing company name,
business size, mailing address, phone number, electronic mailing
address, and a brief synopsis of company capabilities and your
innovative approach to this potential acquisition to both Mr. Larry J.
Grauert, Contracting Officer, and to
Mr. Bernard Gajkowski, Deputy Product Manager Air and Command Tactical
Trainers, Upon receipt and review
of your interest, the Government may allow your firm to schedule an
appointment with a Government team at STRICOM, Orlando, FL, during the
month of January 2002 to fully brief your innovative approach to these
flight simulator requirements."

MIT program on transportation simulation

Scholarly Documents on Driving Simulations


Google Search Strategy:
"high fidelity" and 
-"flight simulator"
-"driving simulator"


Thanks again for your question. Please let me know if you need me to
follow this up at all. Feel free to request clarification if need be.

Anthony (adiloren-ga)
stormforge-ga rated this answer:4 out of 5 stars
Good job!  Thanks for the research, it's a big help!

Subject: Re: Highest fidelity flight/driving simulators?
From: littlerubberfeet-ga on 13 Aug 2004 11:42 PDT
I heard that the X-Plane flight sim recently got FAA approval as part
of a motion simulator.
Subject: Re: Highest fidelity flight/driving simulators?
From: maniac-ga on 17 Aug 2004 17:13 PDT
Hello Stormforge,

Let me add something to Adiloren's answer. CAE is certainly a good
company to deal with, providing a wide range of products. There are
however a number of other companies you should consider. Using one

Link Simulation and Training (part of L-3 Communications)
In particular, if you contact the company I suggest trying to talk to:
  Mike Fortin
for a reference, see
where he is listed as an instructor at SUNY Binghamton for their 2004
Flight Simulation course.
  Steve Baker
for a reference, see
which has a top level summary between cost of hardware / performance
of a visual system. Both have good expertise in putting together
visual databases and visual systems respectively.

There is also a good description of Link's Simusphere at
which goes into some of the design involved in this product.

Other simulator builders include:
  Flight Safety
  Northrop Grumman
  Lockheed Martin
and so on. A search using the company name at other sites will help
identify names for contacts. Each tend to have a particular area of
expertise but can be contacted for more information on their products.

Do not forget to talk with visual simulation vendors such as:
  Evans and Sutherland
  RSI (Redifun)
  Lockheed Martin
since their products will be a necessary part of the system you put
together. There are a number of smaller vendors but a quick search
  "image generator"
find plenty of links. Since you ask for 8000 pixels horizontal, I
would suggest five displays horizontally that are synchronized,
blended, etc. Of course the company you deal with will know how to do

As a side note - do not rule out head mounted solutions until you talk
with these companies. I know Link in particular was looking at head
mounted projection and/or display systems a few years ago that had
good resolution and brightness. They wanted to get to eye limiting
resolution (roughtly 2000 lines) but the technology had not reached
that level. I know IBM has been doing some research in high resolution
display technology as well that may be worth pursuing.

Good luck with your work.


Important Disclaimer: Answers and comments provided on Google Answers are general information, and are not intended to substitute for informed professional medical, psychiatric, psychological, tax, legal, investment, accounting, or other professional advice. Google does not endorse, and expressly disclaims liability for any product, manufacturer, distributor, service or service provider mentioned or any opinion expressed in answers or comments. Please read carefully the Google Answers Terms of Service.

If you feel that you have found inappropriate content, please let us know by emailing us at with the question ID listed above. Thank you.
Search Google Answers for
Google Answers  

Google Home - Answers FAQ - Terms of Service - Privacy Policy