Yes, all these countries can issue passports to their citizens. Each
of the small states you're asking about has its own government and its
own citizenship laws.
Citizens of these states are not entitled to passports from their
larger neighbours despite close relationships between the countries. I
wondered if people might, in some cases, have dual nationality, and
thus two passports, since France and Italy both permit this. However,
I found that this could not happen except for citizens of the Vatican.
This is the only one of the small countries which would allow its
passport-holders to keep a passport issued by another government. The
"other" country would not necessarily be Italy, as the Pope (or his
advisors) may grant Vatican passports to church envoys who have no
particular connection with Italy beyond the Holy See (Vatican).
It is certainly possible for an Italian citizen with an Italian
passport to acquire a Vatican passport too, but please note that the
right to a Vatican passport may not last a lifetime. Citizenship of
the Holy See is quite limited and can lapse for various reasons, and
it is a rather different sort of country from most. Vatican passports
seem to be mainly limited to church officials. I found no sign of
"ordinary" people having Vatican passports.
Even though the Vatican is a special case, the answer to your
questions is clear: it is indeed possible to have a Vatican passport,
but this does not mean the holder is entitled to an Italian passport.
Andorra is not a member of the EU, but it is part of the European
customs union and uses the Euro. Despite its economic ties with the EU
countries around it, its independence allows it to be a "tax haven"
and attract hordes of shoppers from France and Spain where prices are
Passports in Andorra, Monaco and San Marino
Passports for all three countries are mentioned in this document:
Andorran nationality and passport information
San Marino passport rules
Monaco rules on nationality
The Monaco government website has been unusable for hours, but this is the link:
Vatican citizenship and passports
"As of December 31st 2002, there were 555 persons having the Vatican
citizenship, of which 57 Cardinals, 293 of the Clergy having status as
members of the Pontifical Representations, 57 other members of the
Clergy, 104 members of the Pontifical Swiss Guard and 44 other lay
The persons authorized to reside in the Vatican City maintaining their
original citizenship were 255, of the aforementioned numbers."
Law on Vatican citizenship and residence
"Formally, the Vatican city-state has a tiny population of citizens
?less than 1,000 ?consisting primarily of cardinals and diplomats
whose work requires a Vatican passport."
"It proved helpful to have a Vatican passport. I was traveling with
Brother Basilio going to visit our Marists in South Africa, and
authorities would not let Basilio in because of his Mexican passport.
. . . So I picked up our national passports and handed the border
police our Vatican passports. Everyone was happy! These Vatican
passports proved to be a blessing many times over."
Dual nationality: two passports?
San Marino requires its citizens to renounce any right to a second
nationality before they reach adulthood.
Countries allowing dual nationality do not include Monaco or Andorra
"Spanish law does not recognize dual nationality for adults"
Dual nationality allowed in Italy
"France recognizes dual nationality"
EU, the Euro, and Andorra, Monaco, Vatican, San Marino
On the EU website you will see that these states are treated as
separate countries with which the EU has "external relations".
"Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU
member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU
member for agricultural products."
"Third countries having adopted the Euro:
Monaco, the Vatican City and San Marino have each concluded
monetary agreements with the Community.
These agreements notably allow them to issue limited quantities of
euro coins with their own national sides, while they use the same
banknotes as the euro area. "
"Andorra uses Euro banknotes and coins in the same way that it used
to use the French franc and Spanish peseta. Andorra has neither its
own currency nor a monetary issuing authority."
Well, Mongolia, I hope this is a full answer to the questions you
asked. Please do let me know if you feel there is anything which is
unclear, or if any of the links let you down. I'm afraid I had to
include some non-English-language websites to support my answer, but I
don't think they're essential reading!
Best wishes - Leli
Searching government sites of the countries concerned.
Searching the EU website.
Google searches with the relevant terms in English and other languages:
Restricting some searches by country suffix, e.g.