I?m providing one example of each. Note that investors can be
individuals, corporations, pension funds, mutual funds, venture
capital groups ? and that in certain situations each can also be an
intermediary. Even individuals, playing the role of arbitrageurs,
COULD be considered an intermediary.
1. Investor to financial intermediary, to financial markets, and to the corporation
* Investors put money in a venture capital fund. At IPO it purchases
newly-issued shares, with proceeds going directly to the company
2. Investor to financial markets to a financial intermediary, and to
* Investor holding stock (perhaps a founder) sells shares in an IPO
and they?re purchased by a mutual fund. Later the company does a
buyback of those shares directly from the mutual fund, putting the
shares back in the treasury.
3. Investor to financial markets, to a financial intermediary, back to
financial markets, and to the corporation.
We can use the previous example but rather than have the company do a
direct buyback, they can purchase shares in daily market trades. So
it?s investor holding stock ? sale in IPO to mutual fund ? company
authorizes buybacks at the market ? shares put back in treasury.