Thank you for accepting my references as a formal answer. I have
added a few more below, under Additional References, although they go
off in a slightly different direction.
While there are numerous references to the fact the humans react
differently to the same events, the problem is finding the staged
experiments to back up the statements! I was sure there would be case
studies on different individual reactions to the same traumatic
events, or individualized perceptions of twins to the same
circumstances - or even positive vs. negative reactions of survivors
to the same violent crime or terrorist activity - but I could not find
If you would like to refine your research further in a follow-up
question, I would be happy to pursue this in another direction.
To recap my earlier references:
Different perceptions and realities for individuals watching the same
football game can be found in the following article:
"Selective Group Perception - They Saw a Game: A Case Study." Hastorf and Cantril.
A number of brief descriptions of experiments involving differences in
perception among members of the same group can be found in the
"Individual Differences, Purposes and Needs." Daniel Chandler. Visual
Perception 4. UWA. Last modified: 12/22/2004.
The following article explains various reasons why eyewitnesses to the
same event may perceive and remember the situation differently:
"Experiencing, Remembering and Reporting Events." Ralph Norman Haber
and Lyn Haber. University of California at Santa Cruz and University
of California at Riverside
An exploration into whether "Own Race Bias" plays a part in perception
of events is explored in the following experiment:
"THE EFFECTS OF SAME-RACE BIAS ON MEMORY AND PERCEPTION Yuhan Dong,
Larry Kwon, George Lin, Katarina Madiraca, Ahmed Meleis, Elizabeth
Ortiz, Daphne Oz, Nilay Patel, Anam Qureshi, Patrick Rastelli, Dipal
"How Events Are Reviewed Matters: Effects of varied focus on
eyewitness suggestibility." Lane S. M.; Mather M.; Villa D.; Morita S.
K. Memory & Cognition, 1 October 2001, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 940-947(8)
(You can access full document for free)
SOME ADDITIONAL MATERIAL
How emotion and memory affect perception of events:
Excerpt from "MEMORIES: Constructed, Confused and Confabulated," by
Robert Novella. The New England Journal of Skepticism Vol. 1 Issue 3
"Memories are often contaminated or distorted by information acquired
after an event. This so called post-event-information can come from
suggestions or facts that are unconsciously integrated into the
original memories. Once this is done the memories form a cohesive
story that is impossible to separate into its true and false
components. Dr. Elizabeth Loftus describes in her book The Myth of
Repressed Memory experiments in which subjects were exposed to a film
of a bank robbery followed by a television account of the event that
contained erroneous details. Many of the subjects incorporated the
incorrect details into their memory of the robbery and steadfastly
refused to believe that they could be wrong. Loftus has performed
hundreds of similar experiments with thousands of people and claims
that post event information has been clearly shown to have an
influence on memories (Loftus, 1996). As a practical application of
this information, police officers should never show a single suspect?s
photo to the victim of a crime. If this individual is then picked out
of a line up, it would be difficult to determine if the victim is
remembering the assailant or the person in the photograph."
"Emotions can have an effect in creating and recalling memories.
Emotions felt as we recall an event can reshape memories, imbuing them
with our current emotional state even though the original memory had
no trace of the emotion. This is the opposite of attempting to lift
your mood by remembering pleasant past experiences. Intense emotional
reactions to memories do not necessarily mean that they are accurate,
it just means that there is a greater likelihood that we will perceive
them to be true. (Ofshe, Watters, 1994)"
Also read "How Eyewitnesses Talk about Events: Implications for
Memory," by Elizabeth J. Marsh, Barbara Tversky and Michael Hutson.
The way "memory selection" is used to remember specific situations is
another aspect of how individual reality and meaning is ascribed to an
Read "CAS Research project 2003-2004 - Towards a comprehensive model
of human memory, with special reference to eyewitness testimony."
Tore Helstrup & Svein Magnussen. Department of Psychology, University
"The factual accuracy of an eyewitness report depends first of all on
how the target information was perceptually registered. There is a
large research literature showing that the processing of information
for focal attention (conscious perception) depends on capacity limited
processes of attention and mechanisms of information selection
(Pashler, 1998). These mechanisms are coupled to information
processing in short-term memory and, thus, to declarative memory. A
central issue is the unitary versus multiple-factor account of the
so-called working memory system (Baddeley, 1983), but all current
models of attention and short-term memory agree that system
constraints imply severe capacity and resource limitations on ongoing
information processing. The result is information selection. In
eyewitness contexts, one important question is how such selection may
lead to distorted memory reports. Personality factors like cognitive
styles have been found to affect the selection and processing of
information (Sternberg, 1997), mood and emotion likewise (Kaufmann &
Vosburg, 1997). Evidence suggests, for instance, that emotional stress
in forensic situations leads to a narrowed but reliable attentional
focus to the expense ofperipheral information (Christianson, 1992)."
I hope you can use these references to your advantage!
two people perceive same event differently
experiments AND two people perceive same event differently
do twins see the same event differently?
ascribing different meanings to the same event
experiments AND different meanings ascribed to a staged event
experiments AND different emotions OR reactions to a staged event
research studies on individual perception to the same event
joint interviews AND different perception of same event
social situation elicit different reactions
why individuals react differently to the same event
Research AND two people react differently to same event
and many more...