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Q: Urine Reagent Values for Dogs and Cats ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   1 Comment )
Subject: Urine Reagent Values for Dogs and Cats
Category: Family and Home > Pets
Asked by: jollydog-ga
List Price: $25.00
Posted: 16 Jun 2005 18:19 PDT
Expires: 16 Jul 2005 18:19 PDT
Question ID: 534037
What are the normal urinary values for 1) pH, 2) protein, 3) ketones
4) bilirubin, 5) glucose and 6) nitrite for dogs and for cats?
Subject: Re: Urine Reagent Values for Dogs and Cats
Answered By: hummer-ga on 16 Jun 2005 20:01 PDT
Rated:5 out of 5 stars
Hi  jollydog, 

Summary taken from the websites below.

1) pH:  about 5.5 - 7 depending on diet.
2) protein: negative to trace
3) ketones: negative 
4) bilirubin: trace in dogs, negative in cats
5) glucose: negative
6) nitrites: negative

I've copied and pasted some of the relevant bits but please click on
the links for more information and to view the graphics.

1) pH: Most normal dogs and cats have a urine pH of 5.5 to 7.0;
however, some normal pets may have higher or lower values.
2) protein: Protein - Healthy animals will usually not have any
protein in their urine, although in some cases small, trace amounts
may be normal.
3) ketones: Normal dog and cat urine should be negative for ketones.
4) bilirubin: Small amounts of bilirubin may sometimes be found in the
urine of healthy dogs. Bilirubin in the urine of a cat is a concern
and calls for further investigation.
5) glucose: Normal dog and cat urine should be negative for glucose on
a dipstick. There are several reasons why glucose in the urine may
falsely appear elevated, so it is important that any suspicious test
results be repeated, and followed (or verified) by a blood glucose
6) nitrite: Nitrites - Nitrites may be produced by the bacteria
present in some infections. However, this test often shows false
negative results, and is considered inaccurate in cats and dogs.

1) pH: Varies and changes rapidly.
Urine pH is a measurement of the kidney's ability to conserve hydrogen
ions.  This provides a rough estimate of the body's acid-base status. 
Many factors, however, can affect urine pH and changes can occur
rapidly.  A better assessment of body pH is obtained by performing a
blood gas evaluation.
2) protein: Negative to trace.
3): ketones: Negative to trace.
4) bilirubin: Negative to trace.
5) glucose: Negative to trace.
6) nitrites: Some dipsticks also include a reagent pad to detect
nitrites (nitrituria), formed by urinary bacteria from nitrates. 
However, this transformation is very slow and doesn't indicate the
number or kind of bacteria.  It is not considered sensitive or
reliable in veterinary medicine.

1) pH: Between 5.0 - 6.0  depending on diet.
The pH of urine can vary depending on an animal?s diet as well as its
acid-base status. For example, animals that primarily eat high protein
meat-based diets will have acidic urine. On the other hand, animals
that eat more vegetable-based diets will have an alkaline urine.1,5
2) protein: Negative or trace.
Dogs and cats normally have small proteins that pass through the
glomerular filter, however a majority of these proteins are resorbed
by the renal tubules. The renal nephron does excrete a small amount of
Tamm Horsfall protein. Thus, only a very small amount of protein is
normally excreted in the urine, which is not usually clinically
3) ketones: Negative.
Acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid are ketones.
Glomeruli freely filter ketones and the tubules then resorb them
completely. If the tubular resorptive capacity is saturated, then the
ketones are incompletely resorbed, resulting in ketonuria. Ketonuria
occurs quickly in younger animals and is more easily detected than
ketonemia. Ketonuria does not signify renal disease, but rather
excessive lipid or defective carbohydrate metabolism.1
4) bilirubin: Small amounts in dogs, none in cats.
Positive test results may be observed in concentrated urine of healthy
dogs. In dogs, the renal threshold for bilirubin is low and renal
tubules are able to break down heme and produce some renal bilirubin,
therefore slight bilirubinuria can be a normal finding in dogs with
concentrated urine.4 However, bilirubinuria is always abnormal in
cats. Bilirubinuria may indicate: liver disease, bile duct
obstruction, starvation, hemolysis, or pyrexia. Bilirubinuria in bile
duct obstruction is often more severe than that of hepatocellular
5) glucose: Negative.
Glucose is not detectable in the urine of healthy dogs or cats. In a
healthy animal, glucose passes freely through the glomerular filter
and is resorbed by the proximal tubules. If glucosuria is present, it
is due to either an excess amount of glucose reaching the tubules that
cannot be resorbed or, less commonly, decreased tubular resorptive
6) nitrites: Negative.
The nitrite portion of the dipstick analysis has limited value in
veterinary medicine. This is due to the high number of false negative
test results in small animals. Nitrites occur in urine during some
bacterial infections. In order to achieve an accurate positive test
result, the urine must have been retained in the bladder at least 4
hours. Therefore, it is best to collect a (first) morning sample or
ensure the patient has not urinated in at least 4 hours.1,5

1) pH: Normal pH is between 6 and 8 for most animals depending on their diet.
2) protein: Protein in the urine is a difficult assessment to make. 
It is a qualitative measurement rather than a quantitative
measurement, and interpretation can vary between technicians.
3) ketones:   In the normal animal there will be no ketones in the urine.
4) bilirubin:  Normal dogs can have detectable bilirubin in their
urine, but large amounts should not be present.
5) glucose:  in the normal animal there should not be glucose in the urine
6) nitrites: n/a

Normal values for dog and cat temperature, blood tests, urine tests,
weights and other physical parameters are displayed below for your

I hope this is what you were hoping for. If not or if you have any
questions, please post a clarification request *before* closing/rating
my answer and I'll be happy to reply.

Thank you,

Google Search Terms Used:

urinalysis dogs cats
urine test results dogs cats

I also searched our own "Merck Veterninary Manual".

Clarification of Answer by hummer-ga on 16 Jun 2005 20:10 PDT
Jollydog, I just noticed you specified "reagent values". The following
link may be just what you are looking for (my third link) because it
is illustrated with photos of the reagent strips, so start with that
one first.

jollydog-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars
right on the money. well worth it. posting another related question
right after these words of praise.

Subject: Re: Urine Reagent Values for Dogs and Cats
From: hummer-ga on 17 Jun 2005 16:59 PDT
Thank you, jollydog, I'm happy you are happy. I hope your dog and cat
are alright! Sincerely, hummer

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