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Q: Emulsifiers and Stabilizers in Frozen Desserts ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   1 Comment )
Subject: Emulsifiers and Stabilizers in Frozen Desserts
Category: Science > Agriculture and Farming
Asked by: rbottner-ga
List Price: $17.50
Posted: 05 Aug 2005 16:45 PDT
Expires: 04 Sep 2005 16:45 PDT
Question ID: 552241

I am working on a new concept for a soft-serve frozen dessert. I am
trying to learn about emulsifiers and stabilizers.

In particular, I am trying to figure out if there are all-natural
ones, and where I can purchase them to add into a soft-serve mix
(ready to go... in either powder or liquid form).

Thank you!

Clarification of Question by rbottner-ga on 05 Aug 2005 16:57 PDT
More than one source to purchase them would be preferred to just one.
Subject: Re: Emulsifiers and Stabilizers in Frozen Desserts
Answered By: crabcakes-ga on 05 Aug 2005 19:59 PDT
Rated:5 out of 5 stars
Hello Rbottner,

  You said the magic word - frozen dessert! Mmmmm.

?Ice cream has the following composition:
·	greater than 10% milkfat by legal definition, and usually between
10% and as high as 16% fat in some premium ice creams
·	9 to 12% milk solids-not-fat: this component, also known as the
serum solids, contains the proteins (caseins and whey proteins) and
carbohydrates (lactose) found in milk
·	12 to 16% sweeteners: usually a combination of sucrose and
glucose-based corn syrup sweeteners
·	0.2 to 0.5% stabilizers and emulsifiers 
·	55% to 64% water which comes from the milk or other ingredients?

?The stabilizers are a group of compounds, usually polysaccharide food
gums, that are responsible for adding viscosity to the mix and the
unfrozen phase of the ice cream. This results in many functional
benefits, listed below, and also extends the shelf life by limiting
ice recrystallization during storage. Without the stabilizers, the ice
cream would become coarse and icy very quickly due to the migration of
free water and the growth of existing ice crystals.?

?The stabilizers in use today include:

Locust Bean Gum: 
"Soluble fibre of plant material derived from the endosperm of beans
of exotic trees grown mostly in Africa (Note: locust bean gum is a
synonym for carob bean gum, the beans of which were used centuries ago
for weighing precious metals, a system still in use today, the word
carob and Karat having similar derivation)
Guar Gum: 
from the endosperm of the bean of the guar bush, a member of the
legume family grown in India for centuries and now grown to a limited
extent in Texas
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC): 
derived from the bulky components, or pulp cellulose, of plant
material, and chemically derivatized to make it water soluble

Xanthan gum: 
produced in culture broth media by the microorganism Xanthaomonas
campestris as an exopolysaccharide, used to a lesser extent

Sodium alginate: 
an extract of seaweed, brown kelp

an extract of Irish Moss or other red algae, originally harvested from
the coast of Ireland, near the village of Carragheen but now most
frequently obtained from Chile and the Phillipines?

The emulsifiers are a group of compounds in ice cream which aid in
developing the appropriate fat structure and air distribution
necessary for the smooth eating and good meltdown characteristics
desired in ice cream. Since each molecule of an emulsifier contains a
hydrophilic portion and a lypophilic portion, they reside at the
interface between fat and water. As a result they act to reduce the
interfacial tension or the force which exists between the two phases
of the emulsion. The emulsifiers actually promote a destabilization of
the fat emulsion which leads to a smooth, dry product with good
meltdown properties.

The original ice cream emulsifier was egg yolk, which was used in most
of the original recipes. Today, two emulsifiers predominate most ice
cream formulations:

mono- and di-glycerides: 
derived from the partial hydrolysis of fats or oils of animal or vegetable origin 

Polysorbate 80: 
a sorbitan ester consisting of a glucose alcohol (sorbitol) molecule
bound to a fatty acid, oleic acid, with oxyethylene groups added for
further water solubility

Other possible sources of emulsifiers include buttermilk, and glycerol
esters. All of these compounds are either fats or carbohydrates,
important components in most of the foods we eat and need. Together,
the stabilizers and emulsifiers make up less than one half percent by
weight of our ice cream. They are all compounds which have been
exhaustively tested for safety and have received the "generally
recognized as safe" or GRAS status.?

?Ice-cream makers use a different emulsifier that replaces the surface
proteins and aids in forming the network. Egg yolks were originally
used as this destabilizing emulsifier, but now, ice-cream
manufacturers use mono- and diglycerides as well as the sorbitan ester
Polysorbate 80.
Whipping the mixture introduces air bubbles and also helps the fat
globules to coalesce. These fat globules, in turn, help stabilize the
air bubbles.?
?? manufacturers add stabilizers such as plant-derived guar gum and
carageenan. The stabilizers also prevent the air bubbles from
collapsing and promote good flavor release.?

It appears that carrageenan IS natural!
?Carrageenan is the name given to a family of linear sulfated food
grade polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds. They have the
unique ability to form an almost infinite variety of gels at room
temperature, rigid or compliant, tough or tender with high or low
melting point. The gelation requires no refrigeration and the gels can
be made stable through repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Carrageenan
solutions will thicken, suspend and stabilize particulates as well as
collodial dispersions and water/oil emulsions. The solutions shear
thin (providing ease of pumping), but quickly rebuild viscosity and
suspending power on standing.?

The above site also sells carrageenan, but you need to contact them via e-mail:

How carrageenan works:

Suppliers of carrageenan:




Guar Gum is a natural product too!
Suppliers of guar gum:


Gum Arabic
?Derived from the sap of the African acacia tree, Gum Arabic is one of
the world?s most common gums with the longest history. Also known as
Gum Acacia, it was used in ancient times for purposes as varied as
mummification and inks for hieroglyphics. In 1949, TIC Gums added Gum
Arabic to its growing line of tree exudates.?

Sodium Alginate is a natural product!
?Sodium Alginate is pure kelp (sea weed) - it's commonly used to
thicken food. It is the recommended thickener for Procion dyes and it
works as a thickener for other liquids as well.?. Note-This is not
food grade.

?Sodium Alginate is a natural amylose carbohydrate distilled from
alga. It is widely applied to food, medicine, textile, printing and
dyeing , paper-making and daily chemicals as thickener , emulsifier,
stabilizer and binder etc. Sodium Alginate is exploring more in food
application, especially since 1980s forward. It is not only a safety
food additive, but also a basis material of modelling food or dietary
food. As the natural cellulose, it can slow the absorption of fatty
sugar .and bilesalt , reduce serum cholesterol , triglyceride in the
blood. and blood sugar to prevent high blood pressure , diabetes and
adiposity, the modern diseases, as well as control the accumulation of
noxious metals , such .as Sr , Cd and lead . Its importance has been
increasingly recognized by home and abroad, so Japanese call the food
rich in sodium Alginate " longevity food ", while Americans call it
"magic food additive?

Buy here:

Locust Bean gum is a natural product too!


Polysorbate 80
?Polysorbate 80 is a nonionic surfactant and emulsifier derived from
sorbitol which comes from fruit and berries. Polysorbate 80 is a
highly viscose water-soluble yellowish liquid used as a dispersing
agent -mixes oil and water, stabilizer and lubricates.? You can
purchase it at this site:

?Polyethylene sorbitan monooleate is derived from the fatty acids from
vegetable oil that has undergone "esterification," a chemical process
that changes the oil molecule, which keeps other ingredients from
Polyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Polysorbate 80) belongs to a general
class of emulsifiers called Polyoxyetheylene Sorbitan Fatty Esters or
Polysorbates. Other common polysorbates include polysorbate 20
(polyoxyethylene [20] sorbitan monolaurate) and polysorbate 65
(polyoxyethylene [20] sorbitan tristearate).
Polysorbates are made by reacting ethylene oxide (a gas) with sorbitan
esters (derivatives of sorbitol, another sugar alcohol similar in
function to mannitol). Polysorbates are generally used in combination
other emulsifiers such as mono- and diglycerides or sorbitan
monostearates for various purposes such as to disperse flavors and
colors, to make essential oils and vitamins soluble and to improve
volume and texture in baked goods. Typical Usage level ranges from
0.05 to 0.10 percent.?

Organic Emulsifiers

?As an irony for vegetarians, most emulsifiers which are not vegetable
based are produced from pig fats. So even if you avoid eating pig fat
you will absorb it from cosmetics. The only way to avoid this is to
make the creams yourself.

There are no officially qualified organic emulsifiers in the market so
to claim skin care products are 100% organic is misleading. There are
ingredients which come close but are still not organic. The true
picture is much more complex and requires a good understanding of raw
materials. Some which are currently used in commercial skin care
products and cosmetics need to be avoided.?

?Derived from egg whites, soybeans and other vegetables, emulsifiers
are molecular components that can both cling to water and oil. When
dispersed, emulsifiers restructure oil droplets and air bubbles that
create favorable texture and taste in foods. Used in chocolate, candy,
ice cream, cake, pastries and pasta, Taiyo manufactures more than 600
emulsifiers that maintain the consistency, texture, shape, taste,
appearance, and shelf life of chocolates, candy, chilled desserts,
cakes, pastries, pasta, processed foods, and cosmetics products.?



Rika Vitamin

?Phospholipids such as soybean lecithin and those in egg yolk are
natural emulsifiers that promote mainly O/W emulsions. Egg yolk
contains 10% phospholipid and is used to help form and stabilise
emulsions in mayonnaise, salad dressing and cake. Commercial soybean
lecithin contains approximately equal amounts of phosphatidylcholine,
phosphatidylethanolamine and inositol. It is used to help form and
stabilise emulsions in ice cream, cakes, candies and margarine.
Lecithin emulsifiers of different phospholipid composition and HLB
characteristics can be obtained from commercial lecithin by
fractionation based on solubility in alcohol.?

Several suppliers

Green People
?The emulsifiers used by Green People are all extracted from plant
oils such as coconut, palm kernel and olive oil. They are all mild in
action and have no record of causing skin irritation.? This may  not
be food grade. If you contact Green People, please inquire.

Consider contacting Tara?s Ice Cream
?Tara?s ice cream skips the emulsifiers and stabilizers common in most
ice cream. ?That improves the mouth feel,? she explained. It also
means that Tara?s products has some natural crystallization that other
ice cream doesn?t have.?

?SKW Texturant Systems offers stabilizer systems to enhance ice cream novelties. 
·	Extra Dry II is a blend of gums. Applications include novelty ice
cream products such as cones, sandwiches and molded stick novelties.
"This stabilizer produces a mix that extrudes dry but is not overly
stiff, so it works well for filling molds to make stick novelties and
cones," says Ulen. "Cellulose gum gels with the carrageenan and guar
to provide heat shock stability. The addition of carrageenan prevents
mix separation."
·	Novelty 1003 functions in extruded ice cream novelties such as bars,
logs, ice cream sandwiches and stick novelties. The hydrocolloid blend
provides excellent heat shock stability and produces a very creamy and
warm-eating finished ice cream, explains Ulen. A 10% ice cream novelty
made with Novelty 1003 has the mouthfeel of a premium product without
the extra butterfat.
·	CHOCOTOPe 320 Coating Stabilizer. Optimizing coating quality is
important in ice cream novelty appearance. For chocolate-coated frozen
novelties, CHOCOTOP takes on the function of absorbing water.,1231,114004,00.html

Danisco sells not-so-organic emulsifiers

Abitec sells several kinds of emulsifiers, some more natural than others:

Abitec does sell some natural products:

Efficacia, a new natural emulsifier:

?Flying the ?natural? flag, the EFICACIA emulsifier is used in doses
up to five times less than the typical level in flavour emulsions.
"Our EFICACIA product can contribute to increased competitivity for
food and beverage makers through strong savings and heightened
emulsion stability over time, " Bénédicte Maheut told
Hydrocolloid firms are constantly trying to crack the shelf-life
stability dilemma, providing the market with new competitive
opportunities. For beverages, emulsions are consumed in a highly
diluted form rather than in their original concentrated form.?

?As well as the beverage industry, acacia gum (E414 in the EU) is
widely used in the food industry, in particular the confectionery
industry where it is included to delay or prevent sugar
crystallisation and to emulsify fat. Wherever film-forming and
emulsifiying properties are needed ? without affecting taste or
viscosity ? gum arabic can often be found. The emulsification
properties of gum arabic are also used in various flavour emulsions.
Obtained from the various species of Acacia trees ? that originate in
Africa - gum arabic is one of the oldest natural gums. Over 300
gum-bearing species exist, but fewer than ten are used commercially.
In 1998 95 per cent of world exports came from three countries : Sudan
(56 per cent), Chad (29 per cent) and Nigeria (10 per cent).?

Another new emulsifier
?TIC PRETESTED® TICAMULSION® A-2010 Powder uses patented technology to
improve upon the natural emulsifying capabilties of Gum Acacia. The
improvement is most readily apparent in the lower usage levels
required to form stable emulsions. The recommended usage level is
between 4% and 6%. At 4% usage level TICAMULSION A-2010 has been shown
to be superior to the leading modified food starch promoted for
beverage emulsions. At 6% our studies have shown emulsions with almost
no degradation under the conditions of our study. TICAMULSION A-2010
is cold water soluble, Kosher, Non-GMO and is presented in the
Pre-Hydrated® form for ease of dispersion and dust suppression. This
product has FEMA GRAS approval for flavoring compounds.?

I hope this has helped you! If not, or if any part of my answer is
unclear, please request an Answer Clarification, before rating and
closing this answer. I will be happy to respond!

Regards, Crabcakes

Search Terms
Organic stabilizers + food grade
Organic emulsifiers  + food grade
Organic stabilizers + food grade + buy
Organic emulsifiers  + food grade + buy

Request for Answer Clarification by rbottner-ga on 05 Aug 2005 20:18 PDT
Did you come across any domestic suppliers of these products?

I think it is going to be increasingly difficult to get approved from
health departments using ingredients from other countries that are
directly imported in small quantities. I am particulary interested in
Guar, Carrageenan and Cellulose.

Thank you!

Clarification of Answer by crabcakes-ga on 05 Aug 2005 22:29 PDT
Thank you for your clarification. :-)
 Seems most of these products do come from overseas though!

Guar Gum, from the US
8oz for $4.99

 Carrageenan Co.
3830 South Teakwood Street
Santa Ana, California 92707
Phone: 714-751-1521
Fax: 714-850-9865
Contact: Vincent Zaragoza

Cellulose gum also known as Cecol, and CMX, and was more difficult to find.
Try Huber. This page has a drop down window where you can search products.
This page has contact details

MultiKem has cellulose gum and others
Toll Free (US)
(800) 462-4425

Akucell also makes cellulose gum, located in The Netherlands
Akzo Nobel Functional Chemicals bv P.O. Box 247, 3800 AE Amersfoort,
The Netherlands
Tel. +31 33 4676932, Fax +31 33 4676118

Hope this is helpful. If you need further clarification, just ask!

Regards, Crabcakes
rbottner-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars

Subject: Re: Emulsifiers and Stabilizers in Frozen Desserts
From: crabcakes-ga on 06 Aug 2005 10:29 PDT
Thank you for the 5 stars!
Sincerely, Crabcakea

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