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Q: Erik Erikson ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   1 Comment )
Subject: Erik Erikson
Category: Reference, Education and News
Asked by: robotsnowbot-ga
List Price: $20.00
Posted: 30 Oct 2005 13:26 PST
Expires: 29 Nov 2005 13:26 PST
Question ID: 586765
Where can I find in-depth information about Erik Erikson?s stage of
industry vs. inferiority?
Subject: Re: Erik Erikson
Answered By: czh-ga on 30 Oct 2005 18:48 PST
Rated:5 out of 5 stars
Hello robotsnowbot-ga,

You can look at Erikson?s own explanation of his developmental stages
by using the Search Inside capability for his book, Childhood and
Society. You can get interpretations from others in the numerous links
I?ve provided. Some of them give you a succinct summary while others
go into greater detail. You will be able to gain an in-depth
understanding of Erikson?s theory from these resources.

Best wishes for your explorations.

~ czh ~
Childhood and Society
by Erik H. Erikson

***** Click on the ?Search inside this book? link under the image of
the book cover and search for stage four. You?re looking for pages 258
? 261 for a full discussion of Erikson?s stage four, industry vs.
inferiority. (You have to register to be able to use this capability.)

Developmental Stages
Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and Society (2nd ed.) New York: Norton

Age 6-12 years: Competence vs inferiority.....
During stage four, the grade-school years, children are much more
involved with their peers as they master social, physical and
intellectual skills. Children will consistently evaluate their skills
and compare them to their peers. If they view these positively then
achievement will take place. However, negative views will produce
feelings of inferiority if these negative feelings and self-criticism
are brought into this stage. During this time the child moves into the
social context away from home and becomes part of a group to fit in
with everyone else. To be included in any specific group means peer
acceptance. Classroom time for the inferior child presents many
problems. When called on to answer a question or write something on
the blackboard at the front of the room, this child risks humiliation,
rejection or shame because (s)he is on trial and the peers are the
jury. If failure to develop the social skills of this developmental
stage occurs, then a fear of embarrassment and peer disapproval
follows. Completing projects and assignments are other tasks that need
to be mastered at this age. These skills have to be learned from
someone who can teach the youngster how to discipline self to sit down
and focus on a homework assignment. Failure to develop these skills
will give a feeling of laziness or hopelessness when the opportunity
to develop a sense of discipline to structure one's own life was never

The child who develops a sense of trust, becomes autonomous and takes
the initiative to explore the environment will have no difficulty with
feelings of self in relation to the peer group. Conversely, if there
was difficulty during those critical stages of development feelings of
self-consciousness in front of peers will now occur and difficulty
completing tasks and a fear of rejection will develop. Since this
stage occurs during the six to twelve year span experiences of
physical awkwardness and the challenge to master physical activities
become critical in front of these peers. Towards the end of this
stage, gender physical changes become evident, especially in females.
Team games become more important and the need to belong to a group
becomes more prominent.

Stages of Social-Emotional Development
In Children and Teenagers.

4.  Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)
Erikson believes that the fourth psychosocial crisis is handled, for
better or worse, during what he calls the "school age," presumably up
to and possibly including some of junior high school.  Here the child
learns to master the more formal skills of life: (1) relating with
peers according to rules (2) progressing from free play to play that
may be elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork,
such as baseball and (3) mastering social studies, reading,
arithmetic.  Homework is a necessity, and the need for self-discipline
increases yearly.  The child who, because of his successive and
successful resolutions of earlier psychosocial crisis, is trusting,
autonomous, and full of initiative will learn easily enough to be
industrious. However, the mistrusting child will doubt the future. The
shame - and guilt-filled child will experience defeat and inferiority.

Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of PsychosocialDevelopment
Summary Chart
Stage 4: Latency
Age: Elementary and Middle School Years -- 6 to 12 years
Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority
Important Event: School

Erik Erikson's Stages
Applied and Made Easy for Parents
Erikson's Stage 4
Schoolgoer from 6 - 11 years
Crisis : Industry vs Inferiority

A Scholar Describes Erikson's Developmental Stages

Plateaus and Transitions
Some psychological theorists like Freud and Piaget viewed middle
childhood (between ages 7 and 11) as a plateau, says Eccles. According
to these theorists, middle childhood is a time when children develop
mastery of the skills that they gained in preschool, and it is a time
of preparing for adolescence.

Eccles says that psychological theorist Erik Erikson saw the period of
middle childhood not as a plateau, but as an important time of
transition from the home into the wider social community.

According to Erikson, children during this period were not simply
consolidating previously gained skills, but were working their way
through an important psychological transition. Eccles says that
Erikson characterizes this time as a tension between industry and

 -- sense of industry: children learn to cooperate with their peers
and with adults, children earn social status by their competence and

 -- sense of inferiority: children who fail to gain a sense of
industry may suffer long-lasting intellectual, emotional, and
interpersonal consequences.

Understanding adolescent suicide: a psychosocial interpretation of
developmental and contextual factors

Suicide is a complex problem with ideology or beliefs as a common
element that interacts idiosyncratically with any number of emergent
identities pressing on the individual. One factor underlying suicide
concerns the failure to construct a healthy identity. Much of the
research on this issue focuses on adolescence, the period of time when
individuals are most engaged in developing a healthy identity
(Erikson, 1968; Coleman & Remafedi, 1989; Bar-Joseph & Tzuriel, 1990;
Newton, 1995). Erikson (1968) noted that in extreme instances of
delayed and prolonged adolescence, complaints of "I give up" and "I
quit" are more than signs of mild depression--they are expressions of
despair. Erikson acknowledged that suicide itself is an identity
choice for some adolescents. Furthermore, suicide is increasingly
occurring among people who are not adolescents, which may have to do
with the inability to master Erikson's stages of development
throughout the lifespan, beginning early in life.

***** This article explores the issues involved in the Erickson?s
fourth stage and highlights how adolescents may choose to commit
suicide when failing at the tasks of this developmental stage.

"Understanding Children"

Late Childhood: Becoming Industrious
Stage four in Erikson's scheme compares roughly to Piaget's concrete
operations stage in terms of the ages involved. This stage, which is
reached during ages seven to eleven, Erikson terms "late childhood."
It is a stage of Industry versus Inferiority. Children operating
atthis stage appear determined to master the tasks that are set for
them. They learn to work together with other children toward a common
goal and they are almost constantly engaged inactivities that allow
them to practice skills the culture requires of them. The conflict of
industry versus inferiority is related to a sensethat they are
inferior if they cannot show that they are competent and so these
children are constantly measuring themselves against their peers.
Clearly, a good many of the books published for this age group pose
situations in which children strive to be as successful as their
peers. Anumber of books particularly recent ones, havealso focused one
way in which children perceive their parents. The growing
determination of children in this group to master new tasks points to
the importance of informational books in their lives. Books that show
how to identify birds, how to raise hamsters, how to cook, or how to
play baseball all have a potential audience amongmiddle- and
upper-elementary age children.Some children may work out the conflict
of industry versus inferiority vicariously, reading biographies of
people who did succeed or realistic fiction about people who overcome
hardships. Colin Thiele's Blue Fin involves readers with a boy's
struggle to prove to his father that he is a competent sailor. It is
representative of the kinds of books which appeal to children in this

------------------------------------------------- Young Children in Group
Settings is an educational project developed by the University of
Idaho. The project is designed to help you provide a nurturing feeding
environment for children. The project integrates concepts from
nutrition, child development, and food safety and presents information
about best practices in feeding young children.
Creating a Developmentally Sound Feeding Environment
Erik Erikson?s Psychosocial Stages

***** This is a handout for an educational program that uses Erikson?s stages.


The fourth stage occurs from 6 to 12 years and is called Industry vs.
Inferiority. This is when children learn to cooperate with each other
and they learn the rules. Children learn how to be workers and each
child needs to start and complete some project that is important to
him or her. It is important to be positive with the child in what he
or she can accomplish so that the child does feel it is possible to
achieve what is expected and is not made to feel inferior to other

***** The suggested activities help parents with providing appropriate
guidance to children at Erikson?s fourth stage.


erickson stages
erickson developmental issues
erickson "stage four" OR latency issues
robotsnowbot-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars
Your answer is really thorough and gave me the information I needed. 
I'm very impressed with your work.  The "search inside" tool was
useful (thanks for telling me what pages to look at, too).  I can't
believe all the information you found!  About how long do you think it
took you to put it all together?

Subject: Re: Erik Erikson
From: czh-ga on 31 Oct 2005 16:25 PST
Hello robotsnowbot-ga,

I'm glad the information was helpful. Thank you for the five stars.
Please tell me why you're interested in how long it took me to do the
research. I notice that recently several customers have asked this
same question on all types of questions. Are you part of a group? Are
you testing the Google Answers service for a group? The researcher
community has been curious about why customers are asking "how long
did it take." Can you quench our curiosity? Thanks.

~ czh ~

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