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Q: Define Terms Relating to U.S. History After the Civil War ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: Define Terms Relating to U.S. History After the Civil War
Category: Reference, Education and News > Homework Help
Asked by: celebrus-ga
List Price: $100.00
Posted: 25 Nov 2005 04:13 PST
Expires: 25 Dec 2005 04:13 PST
Question ID: 597400
To aid my studying for the final exam of my history class, I'd like
each of the following 3xx terms to be given a short description (that
fits within the context).  Descriptions don't have to be detailed,
just accurate.  If you can't find every definition, that is also fine.
 I, and most likely you, don't want you to spend too much time on any
given one.  I'll be satisfied if you get 95% of them defined.  Below
are the terms.  Thanks.

Freedmen?s Bureau
Committee of Fifteen
Reconstruction Act of 1867
?Black Reconstruction?
?Mississippi Plan?
Black Codes
Military reconstruction
Poll taxes
Crop lien

?Yellow dog? contract
?Pullman strike
?Walking cities?
Holding company
?Time and motion? study
Watered stock
Vertical integration
Bessemer Process

Homestead Act of 1862
Land grants
Sand Creek
?Social Darwinists?
Granger movement
Crop lien system
Free silver
Wounded Knee
?Great American Desert?
Greenback Party

Plessy vs. Ferguson
McKinley Tariff
Sherman Antitrust Act
Morrill Act
Treaty of Paris 1898
?Jim Crow? legislation
Interstate Commerce Act
Protective tariff
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Treaty of Wanghia
Pan-American Conference
?Yellow press?
?Spoils system?
Poll taxes
Coaling stations
Manifest destiny
Federal Reserve System
?Open door? notes
Platt Amendment
Panama Canal
Machine politics
?Scientific method?
?Gentlemen?s Agreement?
?Missionary diplomacy?
Boxer Rebellion
?Dollar diplomacy?
?Social gospel?
?Gilded Age?
?Spheres of influence?
General Weyler
?Free silver?
Literacy tests
Ostend Manifesto
Teller Amendment
Pure Food and Drug Act
Meat Inspection Act
Great White Fleet
?New Freedom?
?Roosevelt Corollary?
Bull Moose Party
Anthracite coal strike
Direct democracy
Elkins Act
Sierra Club
?New Nationalism?

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The New Freedom (1913)
War Industries Board
Fuel Administration
?War socialism?
Committee on Public Information
?100 Percent Americans?
Bolshevik Revolution
Food Administration
Espionage Acts
Article X
Sacco and Vanzetti
Boston Police Strike
19th Amendment
Trench warfare
League of Nation
?Strong reservationists?
Red Scare
War Labor Board
?Dollar-a-year man?
Deficit spending
Industrial Workers of the World
American Socialist Party
Seattle General Strike
?Open shops?
Boston Brahmins
18th Amendment

Federal Air to Roads Act
?Tin Lizzie?
?Consumer durables?
Sears catalogue
?Motor city?
?Electric-oil-auto complex?
Elk Hills
?Al Smith Revolution?
?Color tax?
?Back to Africa?
Quota Acts
Comstock Law
National Woman Suffrage
?Anthony? amendment
Assembly line system
McNary-Haugen Bill
Teapot Dome
Ku Klux Klan
White Supremacy
George F. Babbit
?Atlanta Compromise?
Great Migration
?Harlem Renaissance?
Women?s Trade Union League
Seneca Falls Convention
Equal Rights Party

?Black Thursday?
?Consumer durables?
Smoot-Hawley Tariff
?Brain trust?
Federal Emergency Relief
Farm Credit Admin.
Townsend Clubs
?Black Tuesday?
?Bonus Marchers?
Sitdown strike
Deficit spending
Bull market
Federal Farm Board
Reconstruction Finance Corp.
Fireside chats
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Rural Electrification Administration
Section 7A
?Second? New Deal
Social Security Act
Keynesian economists
Ludlow Amendment
Quarantine speech
?Co-prosperity sphere?

?Phony war?
Executive order
Lend-lease program
Reuben James
Zero fighter
Non-Aggression Pact
Eastern Front
Cross-channel invasion
?Island hopping?
Manhattan Project
Maginot Line
America First Committee
Tri-partite Pact
Axis Powers
?Relocation centers?
?Europe First? policy
Battle at Stalingrad
Battle of the Bulge
?Rosie the Riveter?
?New Hoovervilles?

?Iron Curtain?
Marshall Plan
V-J Day
?White flight?
?The happy housewife?
Taft-Hartley Act
?Police action?
Radio Free Europe
1954 Geneva Conference
U-2 incident
NAACP Legal Defense Fund
Berlin Airlift
Baruch Plan
Truman Doctrine
Baby boom
Federal Housing Authority
?Fair Deal?
Civil Rights Commission
Internal Security Act
?Limited war?
?Peaceful coexistence?
?Freedom fighters?
?Open skies?
Brown v. Board of Education

?New Frontier?
Peace Corps
Cuban Missile Crisis
Limited nuclear test ban treaty
?Domino Theory?
Green Berets
?Great Society?
?Counter culture?
?Missile gap?
Bay of Pigs
?Hot line?
National Liberation Front
?Counterinsurgency? wars
?Free fire zones?
Kent State
Khmer Rouge

?Body count?
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
Second Reconstruction
Gulf of Tonkin
Tet Offensive
?New Left?
?Black power?
?Christmas bombing?
War on Poverty
?White backlash?
Pentagon Papers

?Shuttle diplomacy?
?Liberal consensus?
Equal Rights Amendment
Col. Qaddafi
Ayatollah Khomeini
Tower Commission
Leveraged buyouts
S & L?s
Gulf War
?Smart bombs?
Christian Coalition
Strategic Defense Initiative
Affirmative Action
?Sleaze factor?
Brady Bill
Murrah Federal Building
Bosnian Serbs
Contract with America
Branch Davidians
?Sunbelt? states
Million Man March
Iron-Contra Affair
Branch Davidians
Freemen, 1996

Request for Question Clarification by easterangel-ga on 25 Nov 2005 04:22 PST

Can we just put the link of the definition for each of the entries here?


Clarification of Question by celebrus-ga on 25 Nov 2005 04:30 PST
It would suit me better if you just copied the terms into a text
editor and add the definitions beside each term.  The point is to save
time on studying each term by putting each term and its definition
side by side.  Thanks!

Request for Question Clarification by pafalafa-ga on 25 Nov 2005 15:15 PST

There are several hundred terms you have listed here.

With all due respect, I don't think many researchers would be willing
to define them for you at pennies per term.

You may need to scale back your request considerably if you are hoping
for a prompt answer to this question.

Just a suggestion...


Clarification of Question by celebrus-ga on 26 Nov 2005 09:53 PST

To be clear, only small descriptions are required, and terms which
cannot be defined easily may be skipped.

An example of a sufficient description is as follows:
Freedmen's Bureau - an agency set up by the US government at the close
of the Civil War to help the freed slaves.
(I copy + pasted that from

That definition took me less than 20 seconds to acquire.  At this
pace, it would take less than 2 hours to complete the whole list.

(345*.95)=328 required definitions
328*20=6560 seconds
6560/60=109 minutes (or 11 minutes shy of two hours)

Before I posted, I viewed this page:
This page says a researcher will typically spend 2-4 hours for a $100 price.

I feel and hope I have priced this query reasonably.
Subject: Re: Define Terms Relating to U.S. History After the Civil War
Answered By: umiat-ga on 27 Nov 2005 10:52 PST
Hello, celebrus-ga!

 I have compiled "most" of the definitions for you. Some were left out
since there were no definitive results. Others, which had numerous
results that "might" be applicable to a historical search, have a URL
beside them so you can investigate which term you are actually

 You stated - "That definition took me less than 20 seconds to
acquire.  At this pace, it would take less than 2 hours to complete
the whole list. I feel and hope I have priced this query

 I must be honest and correct your hypothetical time frame for
completing this research. I consider myself an fast searcher, and your
one example of "20 seconds per definitIon" to search, scan, copy,
paste, and then refer to the correct URL for proper credit for the
source of the definition was most definitely not the "norm." Not to
mention, your overall time frame for completion did not take into
account the numerous terms that had no definitIon and required further
searching, and finding and excerpting relevant text from a lengthy
page of information. These searches, especially, involved much more
than 20 seconds! And, there were quite a few that were spelled
improperly, which then required more investigation.

 Many of your terms required extra work because they were not the
"exact" definition. For instance, for "Federal Emergency Relief" there
is no easy definitIon, but there is for "Federal Emergency Relief
Act." Or Wolfpacks, for example.

 Other terms, like "margin" are more of a financial term than a
historic term, leading to confusion and extra time.

 And terms like "settlement" can include a host of definitions.
Others, like "Section A" required a search, and then nothing
applicable came up.

 Some terms had several definitions that could be applicable to a
general search for "history terms after the Civil War - like "TVA, or
WPA, or CIO, or Greer." I had to scan and choose which definition was
most applicable, and then make a note for you to see all the
definitions on the search list. This was quite time-consuming as well.

 I kept an accurate record of the time involved for this project. It
took me 5.5 hours! Searching a lengthy list like this is not as simple
as it might look when you pick one term and make a conclusive
estimate! It is also important, for any future questions, to remember
that researchers get only 75% of the posted question price. So, for a
$100 question, a researcher receives $75.00

 I hope these help!




Freedmen's Bureau - "The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned
Lands was established in March 3, 1865 after two years of bitter
debate. The Freedmen Bureau, as it was commonly called, was to address
all matters concerning refugees and freedmen within the states that
were under reconstruction."

Committee of Fifteen - "The Committee of Fifteen, a New York City
citizen group established in November 1900, advocated for the
elimination of prostitution and gambling. The Committee hired
investigators who visited city locations such as bars, pool halls,
dance halls, "disorderly houses", and tenements during 1901."

Reconstruction Act of 1867 - "Following the Civil War, the United
States Congress passed four pieces of legislation known as
Reconstruction Acts.
 Divided the South into 5 parts, each controlled by a different Northern general. 
 Ordered southern states to elect new delegates and form new constitutions. 
 Required states to allow all males, African Americans included, to vote in 
the elections. 
 Temporarily barred southerners who originally supported the
Confederacy from voting.
 Required all southern states to guarantee equal rights to all citizens. 
 Required the states to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.

Carpetbaggers - "Carpetbaggers and Southern blacks were usually
Republicans, and held considerable power in the Southern states in the
Reconstruction era."

Sharecropping  -  "the term for the system of farm labor that grew in
the South after the Civil War. The sharecropper was a freed slave or
poor white who owned no land after the war. He agreed to work a parcel
of land owned by someone else, with the "rent" in the form of a share
of the crop at harvest time. The owner provided the land, seed, and
tools, and claimed perhaps half the crop. Often, the sharecropper
ended up in constant debt, and in a situation not much better than

Black Codes - laws passed in Southern states after the Civil War that
restricted travel and other activities of freed slaves. The laws
varied, and some provided for limited rights. But generally, they
deprived blacks of key civil rights. Many barred blacks from juries
and from testifying against white people. Some required that blacks
have proof of employment. Whites claimed the laws were needed to deal
with a population of freed slaves who had little knowledge of life
outside slavery. ...

Military reconstruction - "between March and July of 1867, Congress
imposed Military Reconstruction on the South with a series of
Reconstruction acts. During military reconstruction the South was
divided into five military districts, each under a military commander
whose powers were superior to those of the state government. The
existing civil governments were placed on provisional status and
demanded new state constitutional conventions, with all races eligible
to vote for delegates. Voting rights for black males were included in
the new constitutions

Impeachment - An accusation made by a legislature, or part of
legislature, against an executive or judicial officer. The Impeachment
is only the accusation and does not indicate guilt, which is
determined at a trial in the other part of the legislature.

Poll taxes - "A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a
uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of
income). Such taxes were important sources of revenue for many
countries into the 19th century, but this is no longer the case."

Scalawag  -   "white Southerner who supported Reconstruction policies
after the American Civil War (usually for self-interest)"

Redeemer - "The Redeemers, a loose political coalition in the
post-Civil War U.S. South, consisted of prewar Democrats, Union Whigs,
Confederate army veterans, and individuals interested in industrial
development. They sought to "redeem" the South by undoing the changes
brought about by the Civil War. Although the various groups had widely
different visions of the South, they shared a commitment to reduce the
scope of state government and institute stricter economic and
political control of blacks. ..."

KKK - "Ku Klux Klan: a secret society of white Southerners in the
United States; was formed in the 19th century to resist the
emancipation of slaves; used terrorist tactics to suppress Black

Crop lien - "The crop lien system allowed farmers to receive
commodities such as food, supplies, seeds, etc. on loan (or credit)
and pay this debt back after their crop was harvested and sold.
Therefore, there was a lien against the crop. The amount of credit
that was received was based on the estimated value of the crop." 

Yellow dog contract  -  "A Yellow Dog contract is legal contract or
agreement made between and employer and an employee, wherein the
employer agrees to employ the employee, and in exchange the employee
agrees not to join or associate with a labor union. In the United
States, Yellow Dog contracts are illegal due to the Norris-LaGuardia
Act, though right-to-work laws in several US states effectively defeat
union formation, but through a different mechanism."

Pullman strike  -  "The Pullman Strike occurred when 3,000 Pullman
Palace Car Company workers went on a wildcat strike in Illinois on May
11, 1894."

Lockout -  "A lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents
employees from working. This is differentiated from a strike, in which
employees refuse to work. Typically, a lockout happens when only part
of a union, such as that representing one geographical region, votes
to strike. The purpose of a lockout is to put pressure on a union by
reducing the number of members who are able to work."

Boycott - "A boycott is a refusal to buy, sell, or otherwise trade
with an individual or business who is generally believed by the
participants in the boycott to be doing something morally wrong. It
may sometimes be labelled as an "embargo" by its proponents."

Walking cities - 

Pool - 

Holding company -  "A holding company is a company that owns enough
voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by
influencing or electing its board of directors."

Corporation  - "A form of business organization where the firm has a
legal existence separate from that of its owners. Corporations can be
privately owned or publically traded."

Blacklists  -  "a term describing efforts in the 1940s and 1950s to
exclude from the entertainment industry writers, directors, and actors
who had been members of the Communist party or organizations that the
federal government labeled subversive."

Injunction -  "(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a
party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity; "injunction
were formerly obtained by writ but now by a judicial order."

Strike  -  "Strike action (or simply strike) describes collective
action undertaken by groups of workers in the form of a refusal to
perform work. Strikes first became important during the industrial
revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines.
In most countries they were quickly made illegal as factory owners had
far more political power than the workers. Most western countries
legalized striking partially in the late nineteenth or early twentieth
century. "

Time and motion' study  -  "Frank and Lillian Gilberth, in their time
and motion study, developed what they called "therbligs" (Gilbreth
spells backwards with the t and h transposed). The therbligs is a
classification scheme from labelling 17 basic hand motions."

Watered stock  -  "stock representing ownership of overvalued assets;
stock of a corporation whose total worth is less than its invested

Trust  -  "In common law legal systems, a trust is a relationship in
which a person or entity (the trustee) has legal control over certain
property (the trust property or trust corpus), but is bound by
fiduciary duty to exercise that legal control for the benefit of
someone else (the beneficiary), according to the terms of the trust
and the law. Thus, in a trust the legal ownership that the trustee has
is split from the equitable or beneficial title that the beneficiary
has. ..."

Vertical integration  -  (You will need to choose the most appropriate

Bessemer Process  -  "The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive
industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig
iron. The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer, who
took out a patent on the process in 1855. The process is a development
of a practice known in China as early as the 200s. The key principle
is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation through air being
blown through the molten iron."

Homestead Act of 1862 -  "Signed into law in 1862 by Abraham Lincoln
after the secession of southern states, this Act turned over vast
amounts of the public domain to private citizens. A homesteader had
only to be the head of a household and at least 21 years of age to
claim a 160 acre parcel of land.  Each homesteader had to live on the
land, build a home, make improvements and farm for 5 years before they
were eligible to "prove up". A total filing fee of $18 was the only
money required.

Sharecroppers  -  "Sharecropping is a system of farming in which
farmers work a parcel of land which they do not own, in return for a
fraction of the parcel's crop production. The system occurred
extensively in colonial Africa, came into use in the United States
during the Reconstruction era (1865-1876), and is used in many rural
poor areas today, notably in India."

Populists -  "Populism is a political philosophy or rhetorical style
that holds that the common person is oppressed by the "elite" in
society, and that the instruments of the State need to be grasped from
this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of
the people as a whole. The ideal projected by populism is that of
reaching out to ordinary people, talking about their economic and
social concerns, and appealing to their common sense."

Land grants -  "A land grant is a gift of land made by the government
for projects such as roads, railroads, or especially academic
institutions. In the past (the 1700s), they were given for the purpose
of establishing settlements, missions, and farms. During the 1800s,
four out of five of the transcontinental railroads in the United
States were built using land grants, as was the Canadian Pacific

Sand Creek - "The Sand Creek Massacre refers to an infamous incident
in the Indian wars of the United States that occurred on November 29,
1864 when Colorado Militia troops in the Colorado Territory massacred
an undefended village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the
territory's eastern plains."

Social Darwinists - "Social Darwinism is a social theory which holds
that Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection affects not
only the distribution of biological traits in a population, but that
it affects human social institutions as well. Social Darwinisim was
popular in the late nineteenth century to the end of World War II,
although some have claimed that contemporary sociobiology could be
classed as a form of social Darwinism. ...

Granger movement - The Grange movement in the United States was a
farmers' movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area
"granges" to work for their political and economic advantages. The
official name of the National Grange is the Patrons of Husbandry.
Today they might be considered a special interest group. Founded after
the Civil War, it flourished toward to the end of the 19th century.

Free silver - "Free Silver was an important political issue in the
late 19th century United States." Read more at website -

Inflation - "A rate of increase in the general price level of all
goods and services. (This should not be confused with increases in the
prices of specific goods relative to the prices of other goods.)

Wounded Knee - "The Wounded Knee Massacre or the Battle of Wounded
Knee was the last armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and
the United States of America. It occurred at Wounded Knee, Dakota
Territory on December 29, 1890. The United States Army used Hotchkiss
guns which were capable of firing two pound explosive shells fifty
times per minute, while Sioux warriors were generally poorly armed."

Assimilation - "In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of
integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are
"absorbed" into a generally larger community. This presumes a loss of
all characteristics which make the newcomers different. A region where
assimilation is occurring is sometimes referred to as a "melting pot".

 For more definitions -

Great American Desert - "The Great American Desert was an inaccurate
term that described the area west of the Missouri River and east of
the Rocky Mountains in the 19th century."

Greenback Party - "The Greenback Party was an American political party
that was active between 1874 and 1884. Its name referred to paper
money, or "greenbacks", that had been issued during the American Civil
War and afterward. The party advocated issuing large amounts of money,
believing this would help people, especially farmers, by raising
prices and making debts easier to pay. It was established as a
political party whose members were primarily farmers financially hurt
by the Panic of 1873." 

Anti-imperialism - "Anti-imperialism is a current within the political
left advocating the collapse of imperialism. Although not all
self-describing anti-imperialists understand the theoretical bases,
such a tendency originates in Marxist theories of imperialism, in
which imperialism is understood as the economic (rather than primarily
military or political, though these are related) dominance of the
First World (imperialist countries) over the Third World."

Plessy vs. Ferguson - "Plessy v. Ferguson, was a landmark United
States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United
States, approving de jure racial segregation in public facilities, and
ruling that states could prohibit of the use of public facilities by
African Americans."

McKinley Tariff - "The McKinley tariff of 1890 was what set the
average ad valorem tariff rate for imports to the United States at
50%, and protected agriculture. Its chief proponent was Congressman
and future President William McKinley. In return for its passage, the
Sherman Silver Purchase Act was given Republican support. It raised
the prices in the United States under Benjamin Harrison and hurt the
common folk, which may have cost him his presidency in the next

Sherman Antitrust Act -  "passed by Congress in 1890, it was an early
attempt to try to control abuses by large combinations of businesses
called trusts. It generally outlawed combinations of companies that
acted in restraint of free trade. But it was only rarely used against
the industrial giants until later laws, like the Clayton Act (1914),
made it easier to win cases against trusts."

Morrill Act - "The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are pieces of US
legislation which allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges,
which would be funded by the grant of federally-controlled land to
each of the states which had stayed with the United States during the
American Civil War."

Imperialism - "The practice of one country extending its control over
the territory, political system, or economic life of another country.
Political opposition to this foreign domination is called

Treaty of Paris 1898 - The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December
10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. The United States paid Spain
US$20 million for possession of Guam, Puerto Rico and The Philippines
who having thought themselves free of colonial rule fought the United
States in the Philippine-American War. Puerto Rico and Guam were also
placed under American control, and Spain relinquished its claim to

Jim Crow legislation - "In the United States, the so-called Jim Crow
laws were made to enforce racial segregation, and included laws that
would prevent African Americans from doing things that a white person
could do. For instance, Jim Crow laws regulated separate use of water
fountains and separate seating sections on public transport. Jim Crow
laws varied among communities and states."

Interstate Commerce Act - "The United States Interstate Commerce Act
of 1887, signed into law by President Grover Cleveland, created the
Interstate Commerce Commission. The members of the commission were
appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate. This was
the first of the so-called Fourth Branch agencies. Its aim was to
regulate surface transportation (initially railroads, later trucking),
to ensure fair prices and regulate other aspects of the conduct of
common carriers."

Protective tariff -  "A protective tariff is a tariff imposed to
protect domestic firms from import competition."

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty - "Signed in 1850 by the United States and the
United Kingdom, the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was an agreement that both
nations were not to colonize or control any Central American republic.
The purpose was to prevent one country from building a canal across
Central America that the other would not be able to use. If a canal
were built, it would be protected by both nations for neutrality and
security. Any canal built would be open to all nations on equal

Treaty of Whangia - the Treaty of Whangia opening Chinese ports to
U.S. shipping." (could not find much for this term even with different

Pan-American Conference - "the first modern Pan-American Conference
(1889), which was designed to expand American political and economic
influence in Latin America at the expense of Great Britain."

Yellow press - "Yellow journalism is a term given to any widespread
tendencies or practices within media organizations which are
detrimental to, or substandard from the point of view of, journalistic
integrity. "Yellow journalism" may for example refer to
sensationalized news reporting that bears only a superficial
resemblance to journalism. Journalistic professionalism, as now
understood, is the supposed antidote. Instead of "yellow journalism,"
media bias is a commonly-used misnomer." 

Spoils system - "A spoils system describes the process in which the
party in power, perhaps through winning an election, monopolizes
perquisites and political appointments. Spoils systems are endemic in
nations that are struggling to transcend systemic clientage based on
tribal organization or other kinship groups and localism in general."

Referendum - "A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or
plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to
either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may be the
adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the
recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy.
Certain kinds of referendums held in some states of the United States
are referred to as ballot measures or propositions."

Initiative - "In political science, the initiative (also known as
popular or citizen's initiative) provides a means by which a petition
signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a
public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter
amendment or ordinance. It is a form of direct democracy."

Coaling stations - 

Manifest destiny - "the belief common in America in the early 1800s
that it was the destiny or fate of the US to expand west to the
Pacific Ocean. For many Americans, the belief had an almost religious
intensity, and was often considered an obvious part of God?s plan for
America?s future. It was with this feeling that settlers pushed west
into Indian and Mexican controlled lands, confident that they were
justified in doing whatever was necessary to spread the American flag
and system of government."

Federal Reserve System - "Created in 1913, the Federal Reserve System
is a monetary organization that regulates the creation of US

Open door notes -   See

Platt Amendment - "The Platt Amendment, a rider appended to the U.S.
Army appropriations bill (March 1901), stipulated the conditions for
the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the
Spanish-American War, and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations
until 1934. Formulated by the U.S. Secretary of War Elihu Root, the
amendment was presented to the Senate by, and named for, Connecticut
Republican Senator Orville Platt (1827-1905)."

Panama Canal - "An aspect of American intervention in Latin America;
resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence
movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across
the Panama isthmus; provided short route from Atlantic to Pacific
Ocean; completed 1914."

Trustbusting - "Trust-busting refers to government activities designed
to break up trusts or monopolies. Theodore Roosevelt is the U.S.
president most associated with dissolving trusts, but his chosen
successor, William Howard Taft, actually began the most anti-trust

Machine politics - "A political machine is an unofficial system of
political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, and
"behind-the-scenes" control within the structure of a representative
democracy. Machine politics has existed in many United States cities,
especially between about 1875 and 1920, but continuing in some cases
down to the present day. It is also common (under the name clientelism
or political clientelism) in Latin America, especially in rural

Scientific method -  "A scientific method or process is considered
fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new
knowledge based upon physical evidence. Scientists use observations,
hypotheses and deductions to propose explanations for natural
phenomena in the form of theories. Predictions from these theories are
tested by experiment. If a prediction turns out to be correct, the
theory survives. Any theory which is cogent enough to make predictions
can then be tested reproducibly in this way."

Gentlemen?s Agreement -  "in U.S. history, an agreement between the
United States and Japan in 1907 that Japan should stop the emigration
of its laborers to the United States and that the United States should
stop discrimination against Japanese living in the United States. This
agreement was ended in 1924 by the act of Congress excluding
immigration from Japan, as immigration from China had been previously

Missionary diplomacy - see

Settlements - 
see ://

Boxer Rebellion - "The Boxer Rebellion () was an uprising against
Western commercial and political influence in China during the final
years of the 19th century. By August 1900 over 230 foreigners,
thousands of Chinese Christians, an unknown numbers of rebels, their
sympathisers, and other Chinese had been killed in the revolt and its

Dollar diplomacy -  "Dollar Diplomacy is the term used to describe the
efforts of the United States - particularly under President William
Howard Taft - to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and
East Asia through use of its economic power. The term was originally
coined by President Taft, who claimed that U.S. operations in Latin
America went from 'warlike and political' to 'peaceful and economic."

Social gospel -  "The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant movement
that was most prominent in the late 19th and early to mid-20th
century. The movement attempts to apply Christian principles to social
problems. Part of the Christian "modernism" trend with a strong
emphasis on social justice, the movement is a rival to evangelical and
fundamentalist Christianity. Members of the movement see it as a
return to the beginning of Christianity, that is to the message of

Gilded Age -  "The term Gilded Age refers to the political and
economic nature situation of the United States from approximately 1876
to 1900. The expansion of commerce and heavy industry, mercantilist
economic policies, and federal railway subsidies created a number of
immensely successful businessmen as public figures; these were often
referred to pejoratively as the robber barons. The term "Gilded Age"
was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their 1873 book,
The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today."

Spheres of influence -  "A sphere of influence is a metaphorical
region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of
economic influence around an urban area. It is also known as a SOI."

Maine - "US ship which exploded in Havana in 1898 resulting in the
death of 260 sailors. Although there was no real proof the United
States blamed Spain and used the event as an excuse to start the
Spanish-American War. "

General Weyler - see

Mugwumps - "Mugwumps were Republicans who supported Democratic
candidate Grover Cleveland in the 1884 United States presidential
election. They made the party switch because they could not in good
faith support the Republican candidate James Blaine of Maine. Many
Republicans considered him to be untrustworthy and a fraudulent
candidate. This was unusual, in the political stranglehold of Gilded
Age politics."

Recall -  choose your definition -

Literacy tests - "A literacy test, in a strict sense, is a test
designed to determine one's ability to read and write a given
language. The term is often used, however, to refer to a test given to
determine one's eligibility to vote."

Ostend Manifesto - "The Ostend Manifesto was a secret document written
in 1854 by U.S. diplomats at Ostend, Belgium, describing a plan to
acquire Cuba from Spain."

Teller Amendment - "The Teller Amendment, enacted on April 11, 1898,
stated that when the United States defeated the Spanish Occupants, it
would give the Cubans their freedom."

Kickback - "In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse of
public office for private gain. All forms of government are
susceptible in practice to political corruption. Degrees of corruption
vary greatly, from minor uses of influence and patronage to do and
return favours, to institutionalised bribery and beyond. The end-point
of political corruption is kleptocracy, literally rule by thieves,
where even the external pretence of honesty is abandoned."

Pure Food and Drug Act - "The United States Pure Food and Drug Act of
1906 provided for federal inspection of meat products, and forbade the
manufacture, sale, or transport of adulterated food products or
poisonous patent medicines."

Meat Inspection Act - "The United States Meat Inspection Act of 1906
authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and
condemn any found unfit for human consumption. The law was partly a
response to the publication of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle."

Great White Fleet - "The Great White Fleet sent around the world by
President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt from December 16,
1907, to February 22, 1909, consisted of sixteen new battleships of
the Atlantic Fleet. The battleships were painted white except for
gilded scrollwork on their bows. The Atlantic Fleet battleships only
later came to be known as the "Great White Fleet."

New Freedom -  "Wilson?s triumph in the Democratic convention of 1912
was not assured, but in the end owed much to former nominee William
Jennings Bryan. The main challenge in the campaign came from Theodore
Roosevelt, the Bull Moose candidate, who trumpeted his progressive
message as the "New Nationalism." Wilson responded with a vigorous
campaign of his own and dubbed his more restrained form of
progressivism as the "New Freedom."

Roosevelt Corollary -  "The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
was an "amendment" to the Monroe Doctrine by Theodore Roosevelt,
President of the United States from 1901 to 1909. In effect, the
Monroe Doctrine was now used not only for its original purpose of
keeping out European hegemony in Latin America but also as an agency
for expanding U.S. commercial interests in the region."

Bull Moose Party - "Progressive Party: a former political party in the
United States; founded by Theodore Roosevelt during the presidential
campaign of 1912; its emblem was a picture of a bull moose."

Conservation -  choose your definition 

Anthracite coal strike - "The Coal Strike of 1902 was a strike by the
United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of
Pennsylvania that marked a change in the role of the United States
government, which had historically sided with management, to
functioning more as a neutral mediator."

Direct democracy - choose one

Elkins Act - "The Elkins Act of 1903 strengthened the Interstate
Commerce Act of 1887 by forbidding rebates to shippers. Railroads were
not permitted to deviate from published rates. The law was sponsored
by President Theodore Roosevelt."

Sierra Club - "The Sierra Club is an environmental organization
founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known
conservationist John Muir, who became its first president. The Sierra
Club has hundreds of thousands of members in chapters located
throughout the United States, and is affiliated with Sierra Club of
Canada. The Sierra Club is governed by a fifteen-member volunteer
Board of Directors. ...

New Nationalism - "New Nationalism was Theodore Roosevelt's
Progressive political philosophy during the 1912 election. He insisted
that only a powerful federal government could regulate the economy and
guarantee social justice."

Pacifist - "Someone who believes that violence of any kind is
unjustifiable and that one should not participate in war."

Contraband - "goods whose importation or exportation or possession is
prohibited by law
  bootleg: distributed or sold illicitly; "the black economy pays no
 "black slave who, during the Civil War, escaped to or was brought
within the Union line"

Lusitania - "British passenger liner torpedoed by a German submarine
in 1915. The death toll included 128 Americans, leading to a
diplomatic crisis between America and Germany, but it did not force
the United States to enter World War I."

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - "The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace
treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly "Brest-Litovsk",
between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russia's exit from
World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the
year but is significant as a chief contributor, although
unintentionally, to the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia,
Lithuania and Poland."

The New Freedom (1913) - "The New Freedom policy of President Woodrow
Wilson promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in
banking and currency matters."

War Industries Board - "The War Industries Board (WIB) was an
organization established by the United States on July 28, 1917 and
reorganized in 1918 under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch. It
encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase
efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing
products. The WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials.
It also conducted psychological testing to help people find the right

Fuel Administration - "The Federal Fuel Administration was created in
1917 with practically absolute powers over fuel supplies in the
Nation, and Dr. Harry A. Garfield was selected by President Wilson as
Federal Fuel Administrator. Dr. Garfield named a State Fuel
Administrator for each state in the Union..."

War socialism - 

Cost-plus - "determining payment based on the actual cost of
production plus an agreed-upon fee or rate of profit; "a cost-plus
government contract"

Committee on Public Information - "The Creel Commission, also known as
the Committee on Public Information, was established under President
Woodrow Wilson. Its purpose was to influence American public opinion
toward supporting U.S. intervention in World War I. ..."

100 Percent Americans - 

Bolshevik Revolution - "The October Revolution, also known as the
Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution,
the first having been instigated by the events around the February
Revolution. The October Revolution was led by Bolsheviks under the
leadership of Vladimir Lenin and marked the first officially communist
revolution of the twentieth century, based upon the ideas of Karl
Marx. ..."

Prohibition - "The process by which a government prohibits its
citizens from buying or possessing alcoholic beverages. Specifically,
the Prohibition refers to the period between the effective date of the
18th Amendment to the US Constitution(16 January 1920) and its repeal
by the 21st Amendment. Repeal took effect on 5 December 1933, although
it passed Congress in February and the sale of beer was permitted
after 7 April 1933."

Food Administration - "The United States Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) is the government agency responsible for regulating food (human
and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics,
medical devices (human and animal), biologics and blood products in
the United States." 

Espionage Act - "A law adopted by the Congress in 1917 that outlawed
criticism of the US government and its participation in World War I in

Irreconcilables - "Irreconcilables are things or situations that
cannot be solved to a point where all of the parties involved are
satisfied with its final outcome,"

Article X - 

Sacco and Vanzetti - "Nicola Sacco (April 22, 1891 - August 23, 1927)
and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (June 11, 1888 - August 23, 1927) were two
Italian anarchists, who were arrested, tried, and executed in
Massachusetts in the 1920s on charges of murder of a shoe factory
paymaster named Frederick Parmenter and a security guard named
Alesandro Berardelli and of robbery of $15,766.51 from the factory's
payroll, although there was much doubt regarding their guilt at the
time of their trial."

Boston Police Strike - "In 1919, the Boston Police went on strike,
signaling a dramatic shift in traditional labor relations and views on
the part of the police, who were unhappy with stagnant wages and poor
working conditions. When Police Commissioner Edwin Curtis refused to
allow the creation of a police union, 1,117 BPD officers went on
strike. The city soon fell into riots and public chaos as over
three-fourths of the department was no longer enforcing public peace.
Governor Calvin Coolidge intervened to quash further chaos, and
brought in the state national guard to restore order to Boston. The
strike was broken, permanently, when Coolidge hired entirely-new
replacement police officers -- many of whom were returning servicemen
from World War I -- and the former officers were refused re-entry into
the department."

Nativist - "The term Nativism is used in both politics and psychology
in two fundamentally different ways. In politics "nativist" refers to
the socio-political positions taken up by those who identify
themselves as "native-born". In psychology, "nativist" is comparable
to "innate", the "hard-wired" components of human psychology."

Hyphenates - 

19th Amendment - "The right of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State
on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article
by appropriate legislation."

Trench warfare - "Trench warfare is a form of war in which both
opposing armies have static lines of fortifications dug into the
ground, facing each other. Trench warfare arose when there was a
revolution in firepower without similar advances in mobility and
communications. Periods of trench warfare occurred during the American
Civil War (1860s) and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904?1905, and reached
peak brutality and bloodshed on the Western Front in the First World

U-boat - "Short for Unterseeboot, a German submarine."

Kaiser - "is German for King or emperor. It is derived from the Latin
word, Caesar."

League of Nations - "The League of Nations was an international
organization founded after the First World War at the Paris Peace
Conference in 1919. The League's goals included disarmament;
preventing war through collective security; settling disputes between
countries through negotiation and diplomacy; and improving global

Strong reservationists - "

Red Scare - "The term "Red Scare" has been applied to two distinct
periods of intense anti-Communism in United States history: first from
1917 to 1920, and second from the late 1940s through the mid-1950s.
Both periods were characterized by widespread fears of Communist
influence on U.S. society and Communist infiltration of the U.S.

War Labor Board - "Capitalizing on labor shortages during America's
entrance into World War I, unions led by Samuel Gompers under the
American Federation of Labor organized mass strikes for tangible gain.
In 1918 President Woodrow Wilson established the National War Labor
Board (WLB) as a kind of supreme court for labor controversies. In
response the AFL issued a 'no strike' pledge. Wilson then instructed
the WLB to uphold the right of labor to organize and bargain

Dollar-a-year man

Deficit spending - "spending money raised by borrowing; used by
governments to stimulate their economy."

Industrial Workers of the World - "The Industrial Workers of the World
(IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union headquartered in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. It contends that all workers should
be united within a single union as a class and the profit system
abolished. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000
members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps
300,000 workers."

American Socialist Party - "The Socialist Party of America is a
socialist political party in the United States. It was formed in 1901
by a merger between the Social Democratic Party of Eugene V. Debs,
formed three years earlier by veterans of the Pullman Strike of the
American Railway Union, and a wing of the older Socialist Labor

Seattle General Strike - "The Seattle General Strike of February 6 to
February 11, 1919, was a general work stoppage by over 65,000
individuals in the city of Seattle. Dissatisfied workers in several
unions began the strike to gain higher wages after two years of wage
controls due to World War I. Most other local unions, including
members of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the syndicalist
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), joined the walkout."

Open shops - "an open shop is a place of employment at which one
cannot be required to join a labor union as a condition of hiring or
continued employment. Open shops are required by law in right-to-work
jurisdictions and employers such as the U.S. federal government."

Xenophobic - "Xenophobia denotes a phobic attitude towards strangers
or of the unknown and comes from the Greek words ????? (xenos),
meaning "foreigner", "stranger", and f?ß?? (phobos), meaning
"fear".The term is typically used to describe fear or dislike of
foreigners, but racism in general is sometimes described as a form of
xenophobia. In science fiction, it has come to mean 'fear of
extraterrestrial things."

Boston Brahmins - "Boston Brahmins, or simply "Brahmins" - sometimes
also called the First Families of Boston - are a blue-blooded class of
New Englanders who claim hereditary or cultural descent from the
Anglo-Saxon Protestants who founded the city of Boston, Massachusetts
and originally settled New England. They are part of the historic core
of the East Coast Establishment, along with wealthy families of New
York and Philadelphia."

18th Amendment - "Amendment XVIII (the Eighteenth Amendment) of the
United States Constitution, along with the Volstead Act (which defined
"intoxicating liquors"), established Prohibition in the United

Federal Air to Roads Act - "

Tin Lizzie - "The Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and
the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Ford's Ford Motor
Company from 1908 through 1928. The first production Model T was built
on September 27, 1908 at the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Michigan. Cars
built before 1919 are classed as veteran cars and later models vintage

Consumer durables - "A durable good, or a hard good is an economics
term for a good which does not quickly wear out, or more specifically;
it yields services or utility over time rather than being completely
used up when used once. Most goods are therefore durable goods to a
certain degree. Perfectly durable goods never wear out."

Sears catalogue

Motor city - "Detroit: the largest city in Michigan and a major Great
Lakes port; center of the United States automobile industry; located
in southeastern Michigan on the Detroit river across from Windsor."

Electric-oil-auto complex

Elk Hills - "Occidental?s $3.5 billion acquisition in 1998 of the U.S.
government?s 78-percent interest in the Elk Hills oil and gas field
has been an excellent investment. This former Naval Petroleum Reserve,
set aside in 1911 to ensure fuel supplies for the U.S. Navy, is the
seventh largest oil field in the continental United States, with
cumulative production exceeding 1 billion barrels of oil and 1
trillion cubic feet of natural gas."

Al Smith Revolution - see

Booboisie - "class consisting of all those who are considered boobs." 

Accommodationist - "One that compromises with or adapts to the
viewpoint of the opposition: a factional split between the hard-liners
and the accomodationists."

Color tax - 

Back to Africa

Quota Acts - "1921  Quota Act limits annual European immigration to 3
percent of the number of a nationality group in the United States in

Comstock Law -  "The Comstock Law was a 19th century United States law
that made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, or lascivious" books
through the mail. It was passed on March 3, 1873 and is a clear
example of censorship. It was named after its chief proponent, the
anti-obscenity crusader Anthony Comstock. The enthusiastic enforcement
of the Act, often by Comstock himself, made American censorship
notorious in Europe." 

National Woman Suffrage - "Based in New York City, the National Woman
Suffrage Association (NWSA) was created by Susan B. Anthony and
Elizabeth Cady Stanton when the women's rights movement split into two
groups over the issue of suffrage for African-American men."

Anthony amendment - "It wasn't until 1919 that Congress voted to
direct the states to consider ratifying a constitutional amendment to
allow women to vote. Nicknamed the "Anthony Amendment" in honor of the
leader who had died in 1906, the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified on
August 26, 1920."

Assembly line system

Amalgam - choose your definition:

McNary-Haugen Bill - "In early 1924, this concept was introduced in
Congress by Senator Charles L. McNary of Oregon and Representative
Gilbert N. Haugen of Iowa. Their bill, which was repeatedly introduced
over the next four years, called for the following:
A federal farm board was to be created to purchase surplus farm
production at pre-World War I prices; the surpluses were to be stored
until domestic conditions improved or until a decision was made to
offer them on world markets. If the farm board incurred a loss in
marketing the surpluses, then equalization fees were to be charged
back to the farmers...
The McNary-Haugen bill was re-crafted in early 1927, this time
extending assistance to cotton and tobacco farmers....The election
year of 1928 saw yet another effort on behalf of the farm plan.
McNary-Haugen passed in the House and Senate be wider margins than
previously, but still lacked the numbers to override the predictable
veto by the president."

Urban - "relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated
area; "urban sociology"; "urban development"
located in or characteristic of a city or city life; "urban property
owners"; "urban affairs"; "urban manners"

Hollywood - do you mean the physical location?

Teapot Dome - is the commonly used name applied to the scandal that
rocked the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding

White Supremacy - "White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism
that believes the white race should rule over other races. It can be
distinguished from white separatism, which calls for the creation of
culturally and geographically separate areas for different races. For
example, the political system of the antebellum U.S. South was a white
supremacist society."

George F. Babbit - are you talking about the book character???
"Sinclair Lewis wrote a series of satires that exposed the hypocrisy
of early 20th century America. "Babbitt" is a snapshot of the life of
George F. Babbitt, a somewhat prosperous middle class businessman who
lives in Zenith, Ohio.

Atlanta Compromise - see

Great Migration - "The Great Migration is a term used to describe the
mass migration of African Americans from the southern United States to
the industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest between the 1910s
and 1960s. The Great Migration also initiated the change from a
primarily rural to a predominantly urban lifestyle for African

NAACP - "The National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People, or NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential civil
rights organizations in the United States. It was founded in 1909 to
work on behalf of black people. ..."

Harlem Renaissance - "The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of
African-American social thought and culture based in the
African-American community forming in Harlem in New York City (USA).
This period, extending from roughly 1920 to 1940, was expressed
through every cultural medium - visual art, dance, music, theatre,
literature, poetry, history and politics."

Women?s Trade Union League - "The Women's Trade Union League was an
organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in
1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to
eliminate sweatshop conditions. The WTUL played an important role in
supporting the massive strikes in the first two decades of the
twentieth century that established the International Ladies' Garment
Workers' Union and Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and in
campaigning for women's suffrage among men and women workers."

Seneca Falls Convention - "The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca
Falls, New York on July 19 - July 20, 1848, was the first women's
rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often
called the birthplace of the feminist movement."

Equal Rights Party - "The Equal Rights Party was a Canadian political
party that nominated two candidates in the 5 March 1891 federal
election. Samuel Grandy, running in Durham East riding in Ontario, won
1,685 of the 3,431 votes cast (49.11% of the popular votes), losing
narrowly to Conservative Party candidate Thomas Dixon Craig, who
collected 1,746 votes."

NAWSA - "The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was
created in 1890, when two competing American women's suffrage advocacy
groups united." 

Black Thursday - "Black Thursday or the Wall Street Crash refers to
October 24, 1929, the day when the New York Stock Exchange crashed,
leading eventually to the Great Depression."

Hoovervilles - "Hooverville is a term describing a series of villages
that appeared following the Great Depression in the United States from
1929 through the 1930s and 1940s. These villages were often formed in
desolate areas or unpleasant neighborhoods and consisted of dozens or
hundreds of shacks and tents that were temporary residences of those
left unemployed and homeless by the Depression. The government did not
officially recognize these Hoovervilles and occasionally removed the
occupants for technically trespassing on private lands."

Runs - 

Called - 

Smoot-Hawley Tariff -  "The Hawley-Smoot or Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
raised US tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels, and,
in the opinion of many economists, protracted or even initiated the
Great Depression. U.S. President Herbert Hoover signed the act into
law on June 17, 1930."

Brain trust - "The "Brain Trust" was the name given to a group of
diverse academics who served as advisers to U.S. President Franklin D.
Roosevelt during the early period of his tenure. The group acted as an
informal Cabinet and was first suggested in March 1932 by Roosevelt's
legal counsel Samuel Rosenman."

Federal Emergency Relief - "Federal Emergency Relief Act was one of
the first New Deal acts by president Franklin Delano Roosevelt when he
convened with the Hundred Days Congress. This act was enacted on May
22, 1933, and its main function was to create the Federal Emergency
Relief Administration (FERA). FERA distributed more than 20 million
dollars in direct aid to the unemployed. This in turn would help the
unemployed to find new jobs."

Farm Credit Administration - "The Farm Credit Administration was a New
Deal agency established in 1933 to help farmers refinance mortgages
over a longer time at lower than market interest rates. It is an
independent agency of the Executive Branch of the United States
Government and derives its authority from the Farm Credit Act of 1971"

TVA - "Established by Congress in 1933 to assist in the development of
the Tennessee River and adjacent areas. TVA is a wholly-owned
corporate agency and instrumentality of the United States. Bonds
issued by TVA carry the implied backing of the US government, though
they are not government-guaranteed."

 or see ://,GGLD:2003-47,GGLD:en&q=define%3A+TVA

NIRA - "The United States National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of
June 16, 1933 established codes of fair competition aimed at
supporting prices and wages and stimulating economic revival from the
Great Depression of 1929-33. The law created a National Recovery
Administration (NRA) to promote compliance on the part of
corporations. Firms which voluntarily complied could display the Blue
Eagle. The NIRA also helped create jobs for unemployed workers."

Townsend Clubs - "In 1933, Dr. Francis E. Townsend, 67, wrote a letter
to a Long Beach California newspaper advocating the establishment of a
Government sponsored old age pension plan. The response was immediate
and overwhelmingly favorable; 1933 was perhaps the worst year of the
Depression and times were especially bad for the elderly. This led to
the establishment of "Townsend Clubs" all across the country and
eventually to the Social Security Act of 1937. These medals are from
their first national convention in 1935."

WPA - "A United States government agency created in 1935 to provide
paying jobs for unemployed workers."
 OR see ://,GGLD:2003-47,GGLD:en&q=define%3A+WPA

Black Tuesday - "The phrase Black Tuesday refers to October 29, 1929,
five days after the United States stock market crash of Black
Thursday, when general panic set in and everyone with investments in
the market tried to pull out of the market at once. This week and its
aftermath marked the start of the Great Depression in the United

Bonus Marchers - "in U.S. history, more than 20,000 veterans, most of
them unemployed and in desperate financial straits, who, in the spring
of 1932, spontaneously made their way to Washington, D.C. They
demanded passage of a bill introduced by Representative Wright Patman
providing for immediate payment of their World War I bonus. Calling
themselves the Bonus Expeditionary Force, they camped in vacant
government buildings and in open fields made available by police
superintendent Pelham D. Glassford."

Sitdown strike - "A sitdown strike is a form of civil disobedience in
which an organized group of workers, usually employed at a factory or
other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by
"sitting down" at their stations, effectively preventing their
employers from replacing them with scab labor or, in some cases,
moving production to other locations."

Deficit spending - "spending money raised by borrowing; used by
governments to stimulate their economy."

Margin - see

Bull market - "An period of time in which investment prices are rising
or expected to rise. Bull markets most often occur when the market is
recovering from a recession or experiencing a boom. Investor optimism
can also create a bull market."

Federal Farm Board - "In response to the depression gripping rural
America, the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929, which created the
Federal Farm Board from the Federal Farm Loan Board, with a
stabilization fund of $500 million, was the subject of a Senate
Committee hearing January 31, 1930."

Reconstruction Finance Corp. - "Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(RFC), former U.S. government agency, created in 1932 by the
administration of Herbert Hoover. Its purpose was to facilitate
economic activity by lending money in the depression."

Fireside chats - "The Fireside Chats were a series of 30 evening radio
talks given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during
his administration, between 1933 and 1944."

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation - "The Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation (FDIC) is an independent federal agency created by the
Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. The vast number of bank failures in the
Great Depression spurred the United States Congress into creating an
institution which would guarantee banks, inspired by the success the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts experienced with Deposit Insurance Fund
(DIF). The FDIC currently guarantees checking and savings deposits in
member banks up to $100,000 per depositor."

Rural Electrification Administration - "The Rural Electrification
Administration (REA) was a department of the United States federal
government created on 11 May 1935 through efforts of the
administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The REA's task was
to promote electrification in rural areas, which in the 1930s rarely
were provided with electricity due to the cost of stringing electric
lines to farmsteads."

AAA - "The United States Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) (P.L. 73-10
of May 12, 1933) restricted production during the New Deal by paying
farmers to reduce crop area. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so
as to effectively raise the value of crops, thereby giving farmers
relative stability again."

Section 7A - 

Second New Deal - "Used to refer to Roosevelt's relationship with his
second Congress (1935-1936), when the administration shifted from a
focus on restructuring economic institutions to one of relying more on
Keynesian notions of fiscal policy.

Social Security Act- "In 1935 Townsend handed in to President Franklin
D. Roosevelt a petition supporting the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan
that had been signed by over 20 million people. In response to the
petition, Congress passed the Social Security Act. It established Old
Age and Survivors' Insurance that provided for compulsory savings for
wage earners so that benefits may be paid to them on retirement at

CIO - Congress of Industrial Organizations: a federation of North
American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of
Labor in 1955." 

Keynesian economists - "Keynesian economics, or Keynesianism, is an
economic theory based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, as put
forward in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and
Money, published in 1936 in response to the Great Depression of the

Appeasements - "Appeasement is a strategic manoeuvre, based on either
pragmatism, fear of war, or moral conviction, that leads to acceptance
of imposed conditions in lieu of armed resistance. Since World War II,
the term has gained a negative connotation, in politics and in
general, of weakness and cowardice."

Ludlow Amendment - "Louis Ludlow was a Washington correspondent for a
large number of newspapers, and then served as a Democrat in the U.S.
House of Representatives for the Indianapolis, Indiana district for
twenty years.  He first introduced a constitutional amendment in 1935
(the Ludlow Amendment), which required a national referendum to
confirm a declaration of war passed by Congress, except in the event
of an invasion of the United States or its territorial possessions.
While Ludlow introduced the amendment several times from 1935 to 1941,
it failed to pass, in spite of strong support in national opinion

Quarantine speech - "The Quarantine Speech given by President Franklin
Delano Roosevelt in 1937 in Chicago calling for an international
"quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the
political climate of American neutrality and isolationism that was
prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist
mood, causing protest by isolationists and foes to intervention. ..."

Co-prosperity sphere - "The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
(?????? dai-toa-kyoeiken) was an attempt by Japan to create a bloc of
Asian nations free of influence from Western nations. It is remembered
today largely as a front for the Japanese control of Axis-occupied
countries during World War II, in which puppet governments manipulated
local populations and economies for the benefit of wartime Japan.

Phony war- "The Phony War, or in Winston Churchill's words the
Twilight War, was the phase of World War II marked by no military
operations in Continental Europe, that followed the collapse of

Blitzkrieg - "Blitzkrieg (German, literally "lightning war") is a
popular name for an operational-level military doctrine which employed
mobile forces attacking with speed and surprise to prevent an enemy
from implementing a coherent defense. The doctrines resulting in the
blitzkrieg effect were developed in the years after World War I as a
method to help prevent trench warfare."

Convoy - "A convoy is a group of vehicles or ships traveling together
for mutual support. Often a convoy is organized with armed support for
defensive support."

Executive order - "An executive order is an edict issued by a member
of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that

Lend-lease program - "The Lend-Lease program was a program of the
United States during World War II that allowed the United States to
provide the Allied Powers with war matérial without becoming directly
involved in the war."

Reuben James - "Reuben James (c.1776-3 December 1838) was a
Boatswain's Mate of the United States Navy, famous for his heroism in
the Barbary Wars."

"Three ships of the US Navy have borne the name USS Reuben James.
Reuben James was a Boatswain's Mate who distinguished himself fighting
the Barbary pirates. The first Reuben James (DD-245), a four-stack
Clemson-class destroyer, was the first US Navy ship sunk by hostile
action in World War II.  The second Reuben James (DE-153), a
Buckley-class destroyer escort, escorted convoys during World War II.
The third Reuben James (FFG-57) is a Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided
missile frigate."

Zero fighter - The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based
fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to

Non-Aggression Pact - "A non-aggression pact is an international
treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed
conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third
countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. The most
famous is the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union
and Germany, which lasted until the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet
Union in Operation Barbarossa. They promised not to go to war with one
another. While the rest of the shocked world tried to figure this out,
Hitler attacked Poland. Britain stepped in to honor its alliance with
Poland, and gave Hitler an ultimatum: If he did not withdraw in the
next two days, Britain would declare war on Germany."

Eastern Front - "The Eastern Front refers to a theatre of war during
the first World War in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. The
term is in contrast to the Western Front. Both terms refers to
Continental Europe. Despite the geographical separation, the events in
the two theaters strongly influenced each other."

 The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the
conflict in eastern Europe, notorious for its unprecedented ferocity,
destruction, and immense loss of life."

Cross-channel invasion - see

Island hopping - "Island hopping refers to crossing an ocean by a
series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single
journey directly across the ocean to the destination." In the Pacific
Theater of World War II, Island hopping, also called leap frogging,
describes the strategy employed by the U.S. military of bypassing
heavily fortified Japanese positions and instead concentrating the
limited Allied resources on strategically important islands that were
less well defended but capable of supporting the drive to the main
islands of Japan."

Manhattan Project - "The Manhattan Project, or more formally, the
Manhattan Engineering District, was an effort during World War II to
develop the first nuclear weapon by the United States with assistance
from the United Kingdom and Canada."

OPA - "A Federal law that was signed into law in August 1990, largely
in response to rising public concern following the Exxon Valdez
incident. The OPA improved the nation's ability to prevent and respond
to oil spills by establishing provisions that expand the federal
government's authority, and provide the money and resources necessary,
to respond to oil spills."

 see other definitions:

CORE - "Congress of Racial Equality: an organization founded by James
Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality ."

see ://,GGLD:2003-47,GGLD:en&q=define%3A+CORE

Maginot Line - "a fortification built before World War II to protect
France's eastern border; initially considered to be impregnable it was
easily overrun by the Germans in 1940."

Wolfpacks - "By the beginning of 1942, the U-boats were using the
Rudeltaktikwolfpacks consisting of as many as 40 submarinesto attack
Allied convoys. While this tactic helped minimize the losses of
experienced crews, it also pitted the U-boats against Allied escorts."

Conscription - "Conscription is a general term for involuntary labor
demanded by some established authority, e.g, Old Testament
commentaries use the term to describe the levies of labor used to
build the Temple, but it is most often used in the specific sense of
government policies that require citizens to serve in their armed
forces. It is known by various names - for example, the most recent
conscription program in the United States was known colloquially as
"the draft".

America First Committee - "The America First Committee was the
foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World
War. Often portrayed as somehow pro-Nazi they were in fact a disparate
collection of Old Right Republicans, Midwest populists and left wing

Greer - "USS Greer, a Wickes class destroyer of the US Navy during
World War I, named after Admiral James A. Greer."

Tri-partite Pact - "The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power
Pact, was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of
Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan. The agreement formalized the
Axis Powers' partnership, and can be read as a warning to the United
States to remain neutral in World War II ? or become involved in a war
on two fronts."

Axis Powers - "Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II."

Relocation centers - "On February 19, 1942, soon after the beginning
of World War II, Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066.
The evacuation order commenced the round-up of 120,000 Americans of
Japanese heritage to one of 10 internment camps - officially called
"relocation centers" in California, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming,
Colorado, and Arkansas."

Europe First policy

Battle at Stalingrad - "The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning
point in World War II and is considered one of the bloodiest and
largest battles in human history. The battle was marked by
unprecedented brutality and disregard for civilian casualties on both
sides, and was a testament to the world of the scale of devastation
the Eastern Front had reached as a result of clash of ideologies..."

Battle of the Bulge - "The Ardennes Offensive, which was actually
known to the Germans as Operation Wacht Am Rhein, was also known as
Second Battle of the Ardennes and popularly known as the Battle of the
Bulge, started in late December 1944 and was the last major German
offensive on the Western Front during World War II."

Kamikaze - "In the English language, kamikaze usually refers to
suicide attacks carried out by Japanese aircrews against Allied
shipping towards the end of the Pacific campaign of World War II."

Hiroshima - "The city of Hiroshima is the capital of Hiroshima
Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western
Honshu, the largest of Japan's islands. Geographical location 34° 23'
07? N, 132° 27' 19? E (City Hall). It is most known throughout the
world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare."

Nagasaki - " It became a major Japanese Navy Fleet Base during the
First Sino-Japanese war and Russo-Japanese War and eventually was the
second city on which an atomic bomb was dropped by the U.S. during
World War II."

Rosie the Riveter - "Rosie the Riveter is a cultural icon of the
United States, representing the 6 million women who manned the
manufacturing plants which produced munitions and material during
World War II while the men (who traditionally performed this work)
were off fighting the war. This "character" is now considered a
feminist icon in the US, and a herald of women's economic power to
come. "Rosie" has been credited with making it acceptable for women to
wear trousers."

New Hoovervilles - see Hoovervilles above

Iron Curtain - "Phrase coined by Winston Churchill to describe the
division between free and communist societies taking shape in Europe
after 1946."

Containment - "the doctrine put forward by George F. Kennan and
adopted by the USA in March 1947 as the basis for its policy towards
the USSR during the Cold War. It involved providing assistance to any
government threatened by "Communist Expansionism."  

Marshall Plan - "A US program to assist the economic recovery of
certain European countries after World War II. Also called the
European Recovery Program, it was initiated in 1947 and it dispersed
over $12 billion before it was completed in 1952."

V-J Day - "the date of Allied victory over Japan, World War II." 

White flight - "White flight is a colloquial term for the demographic
trend of upper and middle class Americans (predominantly white) moving
away from (predominantly non-white) inner cities, finding new homes in
nearby suburbs or even moving to new locales entirely, e.g. from the
Rustbelt to the Sunbelt. In some of the nation's largest cities, the
trend reversed itself in the 1990s."

The happy housewife

Taft-Hartley Act = "The Taft-Hartley Act severely restricted the
activities and power of labor unions in the United States. The Act,
officially known as the Labor-Management Relations Act, was sponsored
by Senator Robert Taft and Representative Fred Hartley. U.S. President
Harry S. Truman described the act as a "slave-labor bill" and vetoed
it. The United States Senate followed the United States House of
Representatives in overriding Truman's veto on June 23, 1947,
establishing the act as law."

Police action - "A police action in military/security studies and
international relations, is a military action undertaken without a
formal declaration of war, often localized in scope."

McCarthyism - "McCarthyism, named for Senator Joseph McCarthy of
Wisconsin, was a period of intense anti-communism, and is also
popularly known as the second Red Scare. It took place in the United
States primarily from 1948 to 1954, when the U.S. government was
actively engaged in suppression of the American Communist Party, its
leadership, and others suspected of being Communists or Communist

Ike - "Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 ? March 28,
1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the
United States (1953?1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces
in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army."

Radio Free Europe - "Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a
radio and communications organization which is funded by the United
States Congress. The organization exists in Europe and the Middle
East. It broadcasts more than 1,000 hours per week, in 28 languages,
via shortwave, AM, FM and the internet. RFE/RL's mission statement is:
"To promote democratic values and institutions by disseminating
factual information and ideas."

SEATO - "The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), also known as
the Manila Pact, was a treaty organization formed on September 8 1954
by * the United States, * the United Kingdom, * France, * Australia, *
New Zealand, * Pakistan, * Thailand and * the Philippines. "

CIA - "Central Intelligence Agency. "
see ://,GGLD:2003-47,GGLD:en&q=define%3A+CIA

1954 Geneva Conference - "The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21,
1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to restore
peace in Indochina and Korea. It produced a set of treaties known at
the Geneva Accords."

U-2 incident - "The U-2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U-2
spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the
true purpose of the plane, but were forced to admit it when the
U.S.S.R produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to
corroborate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident
worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great
embarrassment for the United States."

NAACP Legal Defense Fund - "The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational
Fund, Inc. (NAACP LDF or simply LDF) is a leading United States civil
rights organization. It was founded in 1940 under the leadership of
Thurgood Marshall as part of the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and spun out as a separate
organization in 1957."

MIA - "MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to
designate a combatant who is Missing In Action ?meaning they have not
returned from war or been counted as dead (KIA) or as a prisoner of
war (POW)."

Berlin Airlift - "airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to
citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to

Baruch Plan - "The Baruch Plan was a proposal by the United States
government, primarily authored by Bernard Baruch, to the United
Nations Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to: a) extend between all
nations the exchange of basic scientific information for peaceful
ends; b) implement control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to
ensure its use only for peaceful purposes; c) eliminate from national
armaments atomic weapons and all other major weapons adaptable to mass
destruction; and d) establish ..."

Truman Doctrine - "The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States
would support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by
armed minorities or by outside pressures." Specifically, the doctrine
was a political response to Soviet aggression in Europe, illustrated
through the communist movements in Iran, Turkey and Greece. As a
result, American foreign policy towards Russia shifted, as George F.
Kennan phrased it, to that of containment."

Baby boom - "the larger than expected generation in United States born
shortly after World War II."

Federal Housing Authority - "A federal agency which insures first
mortgages, enabling lenders to loan a very high percentage of the sale

Fair Deal - "In United States history, the Fair Deal was the policy of
social improvement of U.S. President Harry S. Truman, outlined in his
1949 State of the Union Address to Congress on January 5, 1949."

Civil Rights Commission - "The first President's Committee on Civil
Rights was established in 1957 by the United States President Ike
Eisenhower to investigate race relations. It was a part of the Civil
Rights Act of 1957. It was a response to growing race attacks on the
African American community (which was fighting for the right to vote
in the South), and also because of condemnation from the Soviets."

Internal Security Act - "In the wake of World War II, a number of
countries around the world introduced legislation that severely
curtailed the rights of known or suspected Communists."

Limited war - "a war whose objective is less than the unconditional
defeat of the enemy."

Peaceful coexistence - "a Soviet doctrine, put forward by Khrushchev
which suggests that peaceful relations between socialist and
capitalist countries are possible. War could be avoided while a
peaceful competition continued in the ideological, political and
economic spheres."

Freedom fighters - "Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for
those engaged in rebellion against an established government that is
held to be oppressive and illegitimate."

NATO - "The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes
called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western
Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration
established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in
Washington, D.C., on April 4, 1949."

Vietminh - "The Viet Minh was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai
Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France as well as
to oppose the Japanese presence. The league was later led by Nguyen
Tat Thanh - better known as H? Chí Minh."

Open skies - "Proposal by Eisenhower to let the superpowers see each
other's military blueprints and installations and place reconnaissance
units in each other's territory. Khrushchev's rejection led to the US
deployment of the U-2 spy plane."

Brown v. Board of Education - "the Supreme Court decision in 1954 that
declared segregation of public schools unconstitutional."

Sit-ins - "A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that
involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for
protest, often political, social, or economic change. Sit-ins were
first employed by Mahatma Gandhi in Indian independence movement and
were later expanded on by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and others
during the American Civil Rights Movement. In the 1960s students used
this method of protest during the student movements such as the
protests in Germany."

Boycott - "A boycott is a refusal to buy, sell, or otherwise trade
with an individual or business who is generally believed by the
participants in the boycott to be doing something morally wrong. It
may sometimes be labelled as an "embargo" by its proponents."

New Frontier - "The term New Frontier was used by John F. Kennedy in
his acceptance speech in 1960 as the Democratic nominee, and was used
as a label for his administration's domestic program."

Peace Corps - "The Peace Corps is an independent U.S. federal agency
designed to promote mutual understanding between Americans and the
outside world. Established by executive order in 1961 and approved by
Congress as a permanent agency within the State Department later that
year, the program was an outgrowth of the Cold War designed to oppose
the Chinese and Soviet political-ideological challenge to Western
influence in the widely open Third World arena of superpower

Cuban Missile Crisis - "The Cuban Missile Crisis Gooney was a tense
confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States over the
Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. The crisis began on
October 14, 1962 and lasted for 38 days until November 20, 1962. It is
regarded as the moment when the Cold War was closest to becoming
nuclear war, and which could have turned to world war three."

Limited nuclear test ban treaty - "The [Limited] Test Ban Treaty of
1963 prohibits nuclear weapons tests "or any other nuclear explosion"
in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. While not banning
tests underground, the Treaty does prohibit nuclear explosions in this
environment if they cause "radioactive debris to be present outside
the territorial limits of the State under whose jurisdiction or
control" the explosions were conducted."

Domino Theory - "the political theory that if one nation comes under
Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under
Communist control." 

Green Berets - "The United States Army Special Forces ?also known as
the Green Berets or simply Special Forces (capitalized)? is a Special
Operations Force of the U.S. Army trained for unconventional warfare
and special operations. The force was founded by Aaron Bank and their
official headgear is the green beret."

Fine-tuning - ????

Stagflation - " a term coined by economists in the 1970s to describe
the previously unprecedented combination of slow economic growth and
rising prices."

Great Society - "The Great Society was a set of domestic programs
enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B.

Counter culture - "In sociology, counterculture is a term used to
describe a cultural group whose values and norms are at odds with
those of the social mainstream, a cultural equivalent of a political
opposition. In casual practice, the term came to prominence in the
general press as it was used to refer to the youth rebellion that
swept North America and Western Europe in the 1960s and early 1970s."

Missile gap - "Missile Gap": refers to the perceived Soviet
superiority in ICBMs due to exaggerated estimates by the Gaither
Committee in 1957 and USAF in the early 1960's."

Bay of Pigs - "The Bay of Pigs (Spanish: Bahía de (los) Cochinos) is a
bay on the southern coast of Cuba. It was the site of a failed attempt
during John F. Kennedy's presidency at a US-backed invasion by Cuban
exiles intent on overthrowing Fidel Castro, at a beach near Havana
called Playa Giron in 1961."

Hot line - "a direct telephone line between two officials." 

National Liberation Front - "National Liberation Front is a common
name for guerrilla organisations fighting to free their country from
foreign rule, or at least claiming to be such an organisation. The
term is typically associated with left wing politics, however militant
right wing and even fascist movements use the term. National
liberation fronts typically appeal to a radical nation, in the 19th
century sense, or to a reactionary nationalism in the 20th century

Counterinsurgency wars - 

Free fire zones - "The practice of establishing free fire zones was
instituted because many villages in what was then South Vietnam
willingly provided safe haven to Viet Cong fighters. The intention of
the Department of Defense in issuing the cards was to help prevent
jittery U.S. soldiers from mistakenly, or intentionally, declaring a
suspect village a "free fire zone," then destroying it and its

Watts - "The Watts Riots were a large-scale civil disorder lasting six
days in Los Angeles, California in 1965. During the riots, 34 people
were killed, 1,100 people were injured, 4,000 people were arrested,
and an estimated $100 million in damage was caused."

Kent State - "The Kent State shootings, also known as May 4 or The
Kent State Massacre, occurred at Kent State University in the city of
Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of students by the Ohio National
Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. Over the course of four days, Kent State
students protested against an American invasion of Cambodia which
President Richard Nixon launched on April 25 and which Nixon announced
in a television address on April 30."

Dètente - "Détente was a permanent relaxation in international affairs
during the Cold War rather than just a temporary relaxation (the
so-called "thaw"). Detente is a term usually associated with the
relations between America, Russia and China."

Khmer Rouge - "Red Khmer - The name given to the Cambodian communists
by Sihanouk in the 1960s. Later (although a misnomer) it was applied
to the insurgents of varying ideological backgrounds who opposed the
Khmer Republic regime of Lon Nol. Between 1975 and 1978 it denoted the
Democratic Kampuchea regime led by the radical Pol Pot faction of the
Kampuchean (or Khmer) Communist Party."

Body count - "a count of troops killed in an operation or time period;
"the daily body count increased as the war went on"

SNCC - "The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC,
pronounced "snick") was one of the primary institutions of the
American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged in April of
1960 from student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University
in Raleigh, North Carolina. SNCC began with an $800 grant from the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Some of the original student
members were organizers of sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in the
southern United States."

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom - "The March on Washington
for Jobs and Freedom was a political rally that took place on August
28, 1963. It was organized principally by A. Philip Randolph, Bayard
Rustin and Martin Luther King Jr. During this March, King delivered
his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. Between 200,000 and 500,000 people
were invloved."

Second Reconstruction - "The Second Reconstruction: The 1965 Voting Rights Act 
The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed the requirement
that would-be voters take literacy tests and provided for federal
registration of African American voters in areas that had less than
50% of eligible voters registered. It was signed into law by President
Lyndon B. Johnson on August 6, 1965."
Gulf of Tonkin - "The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged attack on
two American destroyers (the USS Maddox and the USS C. Turner Joy) in
August of 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin by North Vietnamese gunboats.
Later research indicates that the second attack did not actually

Tet Offensive - "In January and February 1968, during the lunar new
year Tet, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces launched a series of
attacks in South Vietnam; seen by many as the turning point in the
Vietnam War."

New Left - "The New Left is a term used in political discourse to
refer to radical movements from the 1960s onwards. They differed from
earlier leftist movements that had been more oriented towards labor
activism and the Soviet Union, and instead adopted a broader
definition of political activism commonly called social activism. The
"New Left" was an intellectually driven movement which attempted to
correct the perceived failures of "Old Left" parties in the post-WWII

Black power - "Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration
of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national
self-determination. The term describes positive common consciousness
amongst all Black people. It calls for Black people to identify
themselves as a group, to place emphasis on and pursue a historical
understanding of Black Culture, and for Black people to work
collectively towards the progression of their race in whatever society
they live in."

Vietnamization - "Plan adopted by the Nixon administration to turn
over control of the Vietnam War to South Vietnam while US troops

Plumbers - "The White House Plumbers or simply The Plumbers is the
popular name given to the covert Nixon White House Special
Investigations Unit established July 24, 1971. Its job was to stop the
leaking of confidential information (hense the "Plumbers" title) to
the media during the Nixon administration. Its members branched into
more nefarious projects working for the Committee to Re-elect the
President (CRP, or the more derogatory CREEP) including the Watergate

Christmas bombing - "25 years ago--December 18, 1972 - Christmas
bombing of North Vietnam. American B-52s carried out a massive
bombardment of Hanoi and Haiphong, evoking worldwide outrage.
President Nixon ordered the bombing after the breakdown of peace
negotiations with the National Liberation Front and North Vietnam."

Also see

SALT I - "The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, also signed in 1972,
to limit offensive arms. The agreement barred the two superpowers from
starting construction of fixed land-based intercontinental ballistic
missile launchers after July 1, 1972, and converting older weapons
that were deployed prior to 1964. It also limited submarine-launched
ballistic missiles.",2933,148561,00.html

Vietcong - "Communist forces fighting the South Vietnamese government."

War on Poverty - "The War on Poverty (1964-1968) was a campaign of
legislation and social services aimed at reducing or eliminating
poverty in the United States of America. The term was first introduced
by Lyndon B. Johnson during his State of the Union address on January
8, 1964. The legislation was designed in response to the poverty
affecting over 35 million Americans as of 1964. The poverty line was
on a sharp decline and not a rise nor fluctuation at the time Johnson
was campaigning."

Teach-ins - "A Teach-in was a method of non violent protest against
the U.S. government's involvement in Vietnam. The idea was inspired by
a Professor Marshall Sahlins who taught anthropology at the University
of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Staff of the University had originally
wanted to strike to protest the war, but under pressure from the
institution and the U.S. government they opted for participation in
teach-ins. The idea was to allow a forum for opposition towards the
war. ...

White backlash - "whitelash: backlash by white racists against black
civil rights advances"

Pentagon Papers - "The Pentagon Papers are a 7,000-page, top-secret
United States Department of Defense history of the United States'
involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945 to 1971. The Pentagon Papers
were leaked in 1971 by Department of Defense worker Daniel Ellsberg.
Excerpts were published as a series of articles in The New York Times
beginning June 13."

Watergate - "Scandal that led to Nixon's resignation in 1974 after it
was discovered the Republican White House planned and covered up a
burglary at Democratic Party headquarters."

Shuttle diplomacy - "In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle
diplomacy is the use of a third party to serve as an intermediary or
mediator between two parties who do not talk directly. The third party
travels frequently back and forth (that is, "shuttles") between the
two primary parties. Shuttle diplomacy is often used when the two
primary parties do not formally recognize each other but still want to

OPEC - "The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since
1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. The
organization's purpose is to negotiate with oil companies on matters
of petroleum production, prices, and future concession rights."

Liberal consensus - "The liberal consensus of the period from
approximately 1950 to approximately 1970 (should we call this the Age
of Consent?) was the set of political and societal beliefs and ideals
that had an oddly long-termed period of favor in American history. The
beginning of the liberal consensus coincides closely with the
beginning of the Cold War between the United States and the (then)
Soviet Union, which explains one aspect of the liberal consensus -
that of anti-communism."  

Reaganomics - "The economic policies associated with the presidency of
Ronald Reagan (1981-1989), included reduced spending for social
programs, supply-side tax cuts, deregulation and marketization of
decision making, devolution of social policies back to the states, and
the privatization of governmental services."

Equal Rights Amendment - "The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a
proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would have
guaranteed equal rights under law for Americans regardless of sex. The
deadline for ratification of the ERA has expired and most observers
are of the opinion that the ERA is no longer pending before America's
state lawmakers for consideration. Other persons, however, maintain
that if the legislatures of just three more states ratify it, the ERA
would become part of the Constitution."

Col. Qaddafi - "Libyan leader who seized power in a military coup
d'etat in 1969; deposed the Libyan monarchy and imposed socialism and
Islamic orthodoxy on the country (born in 1942)."

Ayatollah Khomeini - "1900?-1989) Islamic religious leader who led a
fundamentalist revolution in Iran in 1979. Ruled until 1989."

Tower Commission - "The Iran-contra scandal was at full steam when
President Reagan appointed a Special Review Board on December 1, 1986,
consisting of John Tower, Edmund Muskie, and Brent Scowcroft. They
hired 24 staff people and interviewed 50 named individuals and three
unnamed CIA officials, along with a "substantial number of additional
interviews conducted by the staff."

Contras - "The Contras (Spanish contrarrevolucionario,
"counter-revolutionary") were the armed opponents of Nicaragua's
Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979
overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle and the ending of the Somoza
family's 43-year rule."

Leveraged buyouts - "A leveraged buyout (or LBO) occurs when a
financial sponsor gains control of a majority of a target company's
equity through the use of borrowed money or debt. Typically this money
is borrowed through a combination of prepayable bank facilities and/or
public or privately-placed bonds, which may be classified as
high-yield or junk bonds. Often, the financial sponsor will use the
target company's free cash flow to repay the borrowed debt."

S & L?s - "A federally or state chartered financial institution that
takes deposits from individuals, funds mortgages, and pays dividends."

AIDS - "AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome, rarely written Aids) is a disease characterized
by the destruction of the human immune system. It stands today as a
global epidemic, that originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the
twentieth century. Although there are treatments to hinder the
progress of AIDS, there is yet no known cure or vaccine."

Glasnost - "Glasnost (Russian: ???´??????, ) was one of Mikhail
Gorbachev's policies introduced to the Soviet Union in 1985. The term
is a Russian word for "publicity", "openness."

Perestroika - "Perestroika is the Russian word (which passed into
English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the
Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is
"restructuring", which refers to restructuring of the Soviet economy."

Gulf War - "The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and
a coalition force of 34 nations mandated by the United Nations and led
by the United States."

Smart bombs - "Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart
bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the
target while minimizing "collateral damage". Because the damage
effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance,
quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence reduction in miss
distance) enables a target to be effectively attacked with fewer
and/or smaller bombs."

SCUDS - "Scud is the popularized term for a series of tactical
ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War
and exported widely to other countries. The term comes from the NATO
reporting name SS-1 Scud which was attached to the missile by Western
intelligence agencies."

Christian Coalition - "The Christian Coalition of America is a US
Christian political advocacy group, which includes Christian
fundamentalists, Evangelicals, Pentecostals, Roman Catholics and
members of mainline Protestant churches; it claims 1,200,000 members.
The Christian Coalition was founded by Rev. Pat Robertson, who served
as the organization's president for some time. The current president
is Roberta Combs."

Sandinistas - "The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Spanish:
Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a leftist political
organization that ruled Nicaragua for roughly a dozen years from 1979
to 1990. It is generally referred to by the acronym FSLN and its
members are called, in both English and Spanish, Sandinistas."

Strategic Defense Initiative - "A defense system begun by the Reagan
administration and nicknamed "Star Wars" that combined computerized
radar monitoring of incoming missiles and shooting them down with
automated interceptor missiles. Controversial from the start about its
feasibility, the program is being dismantled in the 1990s."

Affirmative Action - "Specific actions in recruitment, hiring,
upgrading and other areas designed and taken for the purpose of
eliminating the present effects of past discrimination, or to prevent

Sleaze factor - see ://,GGLD:2003-47,GGLD:en&q=+sleaze+factor+

PLO - "Palestine Liberation Organization: a political movement uniting
Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of
Palestine; when formed in 1964 it was a terrorist organization
dominated by Yasser Arafat's al-Fatah; in 1968 Arafat became chairman;
received recognition by the United Nations and by Arab states in 1974
as a government in exile; has played a largely political role since
the creation of the Palestine National Authority."

Brady Bill - "The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, also known as
the Brady Bill, was passed by Congress and signed into law by
President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993."

Murrah Federal Building - "The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a
United States Government complex located in downtown Oklahoma City,
Oklahoma on 200 N.W. 5th Street that was the target of the Oklahoma
City bombing in 1995."

Bosnian Serbs - "Serbs are a south Slavic people living chiefly in
Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina."

Contract with America - "The Contract with America was a document
released during the 1994 Congressional election campaign by the United
States Republican Party. It detailed the actions that the Republicans
would take upon becoming the majority party in Congress."

Branch Davidians - "The Branch Davidians are a religious group
originating from the Seventh-day Adventist church. They are best known
because of the 1993 siege of the Branch Davidian building near Waco,
Texas, by federal agents, which ended in the deaths of 75 of the
church's members, including head figure David Koresh. Church members
did not describe themselves as Branch Davidians."

NAFTA - "North American Free Trade Agreement-- pact that calls for the
gradual removal of tariffs and other trade barriers on most goods
produced and sold in North America. NAFTA became effective in Canada,
Mexico, and the United States on January 1, 1994. NAFTA forms the
world's second largest free-trade zone, bringing together 365 million
consumers in Canada, Mexico, and the United States in an open market."

Sunbelt states - "southern tier of the United States, focused on
Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California, and extending as far north as
Virginia. The term gained wide use in the 1970s, when the economic and
political impact of the nation?s overall shift in population to the
south and west became conspicuous."

Million Man March - "The Million Man March was an African American
march of protest and unity convened by Nation of Islam leader Louis
Farrakhan in Washington, DC on October 16, 1995. The actual number of
participants was disputed. The event included efforts to register
African Americans to vote in US Elections and increase black
involvement in volunteerism and community activism."

Iron-Contra Affair - "In the Iran-Contra Affair (1985-1986) (also
known as "Irangate"), United States President Ronald Reagan's
administration was involved in the sale of arms to Iran, which was
engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 and
was said to have diverted the proceeds to Nicaraguan Contras rebelling
against the leftist Sandinista government of Nicaragua."

Freemen, 1996 - 

Kosovo - "Kosovo and Metohia - in English most often called just
Kosovo, is a province of Serbia. It is the subject of an ongoing
territorial dispute between the Serbian government and the province's
majority ethnic Albanian population."


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