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Q: Open MRI Machines-history ( Answered,   1 Comment )
Question  
Subject: Open MRI Machines-history
Category: Science > Technology
Asked by: kellyj2006-ga
List Price: $5.00
Posted: 25 Nov 2005 11:29 PST
Expires: 25 Dec 2005 11:29 PST
Question ID: 597525
Which companies invented open MRI? In what years?
Which years did open MRI become common in clinical practice?
Answer  
Subject: Re: Open MRI Machines-history
Answered By: crabcakes-ga on 25 Nov 2005 13:55 PST
 
Hello Kellyj2006,


"The world?s first MRI images of the human head on an experimental MRI
resistive system at the Philips Research Laboratories in the
Netherlands are presented by Philips."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philips

"MRI is based on a physics phenomenon discovered in the 1930s, called
nuclear magnetic resonance or NMR, in which magnetic fields and radio
waves cause atoms to give off tiny radio signals. Felix Bloch, working
at Stanford University, and Edward Purcell, from Harvard University,
discovered NMR. NMR spectroscopy was then used as means to study the
composition of chemical compounds."
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bldamadian.htm

"he significance and importance of Dr. Damadian?s discovery in the
origination of MRI was acknowledged by the U.S. Supreme Court in its
1997 decision, when the Court enforced Dr. Damadian's original patent
(U.S. Patent #3,789,832) that patented the relaxation differences and
their use in scanning."

"FONAR was incorporated in 1978, making it is the first, oldest and
most experienced MR manufacturer in the industry. FONAR introduced the
world's first commercial MRI (a whole-body MRI scanner) in 1980, and
went public in 1981.

In 1982, FONAR introduced its patented iron-core technology, which is
the basis for all Open MRI scanners. In 1984, the company invented
Oblique Imaging, providing medical technology the means to produce
multiple images "at any angle," which was never before possible in
medical imaging. In 1985, the Multi-Angle Oblique (MAO) scanning
protocol, an innovative, dramatic extension of FONAR's Oblique
Imaging, was invented and patented."

" FONAR has successfully obtained satisfaction from nearly every one
of its competitors in the MRI industry, including giant
multi-nationals such as Toshiba, Siemens, Shimadzu and Philips. In May
1995, after a lengthy legal battle with General Electric, FONAR won a
jury decision on two of its patents, the Multi-Angle Oblique patent
and the Cancer Detection patent. These victories were upheld by the
Federal Circuit Court of Appeals in February of 1997. On May 27, 1997,
the U.S. Supreme Court ordered GE to pay FONAR. GE paid FONAR
$128,705,766 for its infringement of FONAR's patents. On October 6,
1997 the U.S. Supreme Court rejected GE's final attempt to reverse the
decision."
http://www.fonar.com/history.htm

" Although MRI was invented in early 1970s, its first commercial
scanner was not marketed until 10 years later"
http://www.mri.hku.hk/about%20mri.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_resonance_imaging

  This site will tell you most of what youw ant to know about MRI
history. Be sure to visit the links on this page for even more
information on MRI:

"Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell, both of whom were awarded the Nobel
Prize in 1952, discovered the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
phenomenon independently in 1946.
In the period between 1950 and 1970, NMR was developed and used for
chemical and physical molecular analysis. In 1971 Raymond Damadian
showed that the nuclear magnetic relaxation times of tissues and
tumors differed, thus motivating scientists to consider magnetic
resonance for the detection of diseases. Dr. Damidian and his team
spent the next seven years diligently designing and creating the first
MRI machine for medical imaging of the human body."
http://www.mr-tip.com/serv1.php?type=db1&dbs=MRI%20History

"The Esaote Group, founded in the 1980's, is a global leader in
research, production, and marketing of medical diagnostic equipment
and related services. Esaote offers integrated diagnostic solutions
for ultrasound, electromedical diagnostic systems, and MRI. The Esaote
MRI equipment is dedicated for specific clinical applications, as
distinguished from conventional whole body MRI systems. This MRI
product family is based on a unique, proprietary technology developed
specifically for musculoskeletal imaging.
The Italian based company is a member of the Bracco Group.
GE Healthcare is the exclusive U.S. distributor of MRI devices
manufactured by Esaote."
http://www.mr-tip.com/serv1.php?type=db1&gid=1342




"High-Field Open MRI (2001): Researchers at GE R&D collaborate with
colleagues at GE Medical Systems to introduce new technologies into
superconducting magnets, enabling the launch of the OpenSpeed MRI ?
the first to market, high-field open magnetic resonance scanner.
OpenSpeed provides doctors with high quality images while the open
design makes the experience much more comfortable for patients."
http://www.crd.ge.com/06_about/ourHistory.shtml

The newest:
http://www.medical.philips.com/us/products/mri/products/panorama1t/

It's hear to say exactly when open MRI became common practice, as it
was probably introduced gradually, depending on funding. This
Massachusetts center opened in 1988
"The Center opened in February of 1988 with one General Electric Signa
1.5 Tesla scanner. A second Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet was installed in
March 1990 to meet the growing needs of the referring community of
physicians. These scanners are being constantly upgraded to keep
current with technology available through research and development. In
1996, a major upgrade on one of the Signa scanners to the Horizon Echo
Speed system was completed. This included a larger bore size, (up from
55 cm to 60 cm), and faster scanning times and capabilities."

"Early fall of 1998 saw a major renovation to the Center with an
addition of 4,000 square feet and an installation of an "open" MRI
scanner."
http://www.nsmic.org/history.htm

If any part of this answer is unclear, please request an Answer
Clarification, before rating. This will enable me to assist you
further, if possible.

Regards, Crabcakes


Search Terms
============

Firt MRI scanner manufactured
history + MRI

Request for Answer Clarification by kellyj2006-ga on 26 Nov 2005 11:22 PST
Hi Crabcakes-ga, Thanks for all of the great info about MRI in
general. However, I am looking for information about "open MRI" in
particular (its a different machine design).  Do you know when the FDA
approved the first open (vs closed or more common) MRI machine and
which companies marketed it and when?

I do know that the first open MRI machines were probably made in the
1990s and were low-field magnets (.5 to 1.5 tesla).  In 2001 GE
offered a high field (1.5 tesla) open magnet which are now starting to
be used clinically.

And--I am assume the machine mentioned here (1.5 tesla) is a closed
machine. Do you know?

"The Center opened in February of 1988 with one General Electric Signa
1.5 Tesla scanner. A second Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet was installed in
March 1990 to meet the growing needs of the referring community of
physicians. These scanners are being constantly upgraded to keep
current with technology available through research and development. In
1996, a major upgrade on one of the Signa scanners to the Horizon Echo
Speed system was completed. This included a larger bore size, (up from
55 cm to 60 cm), and faster scanning times and capabilities."

thanks,
KellyJ2006

Clarification of Answer by crabcakes-ga on 27 Nov 2005 13:08 PST
Thank you for the clarification! I did indeed misread the question,
although there is some information on open MRI in my answer. I shall
research this further and post when possible.

Thank you for your patience!

Clarification of Answer by crabcakes-ga on 27 Nov 2005 15:16 PST
Hello again, Kellyj2006,

  Toshiba claims the first Open  super conducting MRI
?1996 Super-conducting, open MRI developed (First in the world)?
http://www.toshiba-medical.co.jp/tmd/english/corporate/history.html


FONAR claims the first developer and maker of Open MRI here:
?FONAR Corporation is the originator and a leading manufacturer and
developer of MRI scanners. Its patented Iron-Frame magnet technology
has provided a great deal of structural design flexibility. FONAR
introduced the first Open MRI in 1982 and has since brought several
generations of Open MRIs to market. In 1997, industry sales of Open
MRIs exceeded the sales of conventional "tunnel" MRIs for the first
time.?
http://www.htr.org/Pages/htr/htr_news_articles/htr_news_Biophan_MRI_inventor_works_with_pacemaker_inventor.htm

You can see the FONAR open MRI specs links near the middle of this page:
http://www.mr-tip.com/serv1.php?type=db1&dbs=Open%20MRI&set=2

?In 1982, FONAR introduced its patented iron-core technology, which is
the basis for all Open MRI scanners. In 1984, the company invented
Oblique Imaging, providing medical technology the means to produce
multiple images "at any angle," which was never before possible in
medical imaging. In 1985, the Multi-Angle Oblique (MAO) scanning
protocol, an innovative, dramatic extension of FONAR's Oblique
Imaging, was invented and patented.

In 1985, the FONAR MRI scanner at the UCLA Medical Center became the
world's first MRI in which an interventional surgical procedure was
performed. That same year FONAR introduced the world's first mobile
MRI.?

?In 1997, FONAR created a new physician practice management
subsidiary, Health Management Corporation of America (HMCA). HMCA
together with FONAR's MRI manufacturing segment create a synergy with
substantial potential. HMCA presently manages 11 diagnostic imaging
centers and 6 multi-specialty practices, primarily in New York and
Florida.  www.hmca.com

?Today, FONAR's works-in-progress OR-360 ?, a room-size MRI, will
allow surgeons, along with their assistants and equipment, to operate
without obstruction inside the scanner's magnet, capitalizing on the
MRI?s exceptional soft tissue detail to guide their surgery.?
http://www.fonar.com/history.htm

?High-Field Open MRI (2001): Researchers at GE R&D collaborate with
colleagues at GE Medical Systems to introduce new technologies into
superconducting magnets, enabling the launch of the OpenSpeed MRI ?
the first to market, high-field open magnetic resonance scanner.
OpenSpeed provides doctors with high quality images while the open
design makes the experience much more comfortable for patients.?
http://www.crd.ge.com/06_about/ourHistory.shtml

?1999 - Sioux Valley Hospital introduces the first open MRI to region.?
http://www.siouxvalley.org/AboutSiouxValley/Hospital%5CHistory.cfm

1995 : FIRST four-post .35T electromagnet MRI approved for marketing by the FDA 
FIRST FDA-cleared .35T open MRI, the QUAD? 7000 
FIRST FDA-cleared, high-field open MRI (0.6T), the QUAD? 12000
1998: FIRST Open Sky MRI? (FONAR 360)
http://www.fonar.com/innovate_print.htm

Thank you for your patience. I apparently read your question as
wanting general information, and then some about Open MRI. I apologize
for not dedicating the entire original answer to Open MRIs. I believe
my clarification will clear the matter up for you!
Hope this answers your question. Anything further is beyond the scope
of a $5 question, I'm afraid.

Sincerely, Crabcakes
Comments  
Subject: Re: Open MRI Machines-history
From: hedgie-ga on 26 Nov 2005 23:54 PST
 
What's the difference:
The terms "closed" and "open" refer to the geometry of the magnets
used in MRI scanners
http://www.hillandthomas.com/library04.shtml


It does not look like a patentable difference, more a design variation

6. What is the difference between an open and closed MRI?
Open MRI?s have gained popularity because they provide more room for the patient
. This is beneficial for highly claustrophobic patients who are unable to underg
o a closed MRI. A closed MRI looks like a tube. Unfortunately, this tube is some
what narrow ? which is necessary to obtain high quality images. While open MRI?s
 are more spacious, in most cases the image quality is not comparable to a close
d MRI. This is largely due to the fact that open MRI?s are significantly weaker
?magnets? vs. closed MRI?s. And the strength of the ?magnet? directly relates to
 the quality of the image
http://www.hrgimaging.com/html/fifth_level/faq_mri1.htm#ans6U

 Not allways good
http://www.wdcmri.com/wellhvo.html
~
"opnemri.txt" 14L, 993C written

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