Thank you Wayworn, for agreeing to have me post an answer. (I see now
I completely misspelled "notification"!) Maybe the nitrification
process is the problem with the notification process!
Here is my complete answer:
This USDA site lists a very thorough nutritional content of 34
types of wheat. I attempted to post each, but the site is built such
that each inquiry I make returns the same URL (Web address)
You, or your friend, will have to select each flour, click ?Submit?,
then, on the next page, select the amount you are interested in, and
click ?Submit? one more time. I think your friend will appreciate the
comprehensiveness of the information, and not mind clicking for each
Following is a list of nutrients included in the above reports:
Tips for downloading the database to a PC or a PDA
Fuentes de Datos in Brasil
Universidad de São Paulo, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição
Experimental Programa Integrado de Composição de Alimentos - Brasil,
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 -
Bloco 14 de Conjunto das Quimicas,
CEP: 05508-900 São Paulo, SP
Tel: (55-11) 8183647
Fax: (55-11) 8154410
Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos - USP
Contacts: Franco Maria Lajolo, Elizabete Wenzel de Menezes
?For thousands of years, flour was milled by grinding kernels of grain
between stones. Although you can still find stone-ground flour, today
most flour is milled by the roller process, in which seeds are
alternately put through a series of high-speed steel rollers and mesh
sifters. The rollers crack the grain, allowing the endosperm (the
largest part of the seed) to be separated from the bran and germ. The
endosperm is then ground to the desired consistency. For whole-grain
flours, the bran and germ are returned to the flour at the end of the
More than 90% of the wheat flour we eat is white, or refined, flour,
which consists of only the ground endosperm of the wheat kernel. White
flour is popular because it produces lighter baked goods than whole
wheat flour and has an unequaled ability to produce gluten.
When the bran and germ are removed from the wheat kernel, 22 vitamins
and minerals are decreased, along with dietary fiber. Therefore, 35
states require that white flour be enriched with iron and the B
vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin. Some manufacturers add
calcium and vitamin D as well. If a flour has been enriched, the label
will say so.?
All Purpose Flour, ½ cup
Total fat (g)
Saturated fat (g)
Monounsaturated fat (g)
Polyunsaturated fat (g)
Dietary fiber (g)
Whole wheat, ½ cup
Total fat (g)
Saturated fat (g)
Monounsaturated fat (g)
Polyunsaturated fat (g)
Dietary fiber (g)
Pasta, 1 cup, cooked
Total fat (g)
Saturated fat (g)
Monounsaturated fat (g)
Polyunsaturated fat (g)
Dietary fiber (g)
Whole Wheat Pasta, 1 cup, cooked
Total fat (g)
Saturated fat (g)
Monounsaturated fat (g)
Polyunsaturated fat (g)
Dietary fiber (g)
?The Roman goddess, Ceres, who was deemed protector of the grain, gave
grains their common name today ? ?cereal.? Seven cereal grains largely
sustain and nourish humankind. Six of these are part of primitive
history. Oldest to youngest, they are millet, oats, barley and wheat,
with rye and maize, or corn, following. Rice has a history all its
own. Wheat is now the principal sustaining grain for people all over
the world. Credit for its first discovery and cultivation cannot be
given to any certain person or place. However, archaeologists can come
Wheat's earliest ancestors are wild einkorn, or ?one-seed? and emmer.
Archeologists have found kernels of both wild and cultivated einkorn
and emmer in excavated villages in Egypt and southwestern Asia's
Fertile Crescent, the area between the upper reaches of the Tigris and
?Modern bread wheat varieties have 42 chromosomes. These wheats
evolved from a natural outcross between emmer wheat and another
diploid wheat, Triticum tauschii (trit'-i-cum tow'-she-eye). This
wheat was the source of the unique glutenin genes that give bread
dough the ability to form gluten. Gluten provides bread dough the
elasticity it needs to trap gas produced by fermenting yeast and
therefore to ?rise? or expand.?
?The flour stream passes through a device that measures out specified
quantities of enrichment. The enrichment of flour with four B vitamins
(thiamin, niacin and riboflavin) and iron, began in the 1930s. In 1998
folate, or folic acid, was added to the mix of B vitamin. If the flour
is self-rising, a leavening agent, salt and calcium are also added in
?There are two basic categories of wheat, hard wheat and soft wheat.
Hard wheat is grown in cool, dry climates, either in the winter or the
spring. Dry winters and springs make the protein, or gluten, content
high, and the moisture content low. A high gluten content is
necessary to make yeast breads. Hard wheat is named for the season it
is grown (i.e. hard winter wheat or hard spring wheat).
Soft wheat, known as pastry flour, can not be used for making yeast
breads. It is grown in wetter regions or is irrigated. The moisture
content is high, making the gluten content too low for the proper
rising of yeast breads. It is excellent for making cakes, cookies,
or, pastries. The wheat grown in southern states is soft wheat, which
probably explains why the South was known for its biscuits and
cornbread, while the cold northern states had yeast bread.
There are also two varieties of wheat, red or white. These can be
grown in the winter or the spring. Red wheat is typically much more
flavorful, having that distinctive "nutty" whole wheat taste. White
wheat, on the other hand, is very mild in flavor and a light golden
color when baked, hence the name, Golden 86, for one white wheat
I generally prefer the full flavor of the red wheat for most of my
bread baking. I do, however, prefer the milder flavor of the white
wheat for pizza crust or breads filled with onions, herbs, meat, or
cheese. I have specified in the recipes which variety of wheat I use
if I have a preference.
Durum wheat is used for making pasta. Semolina is flour made from
durum wheat with the bran and germ removed.?
Scroll down to ?Nutritive Content of Foods (PDF) and click the link.
Starting on page 43 of this PDF document, you?ll find the nutritive
content, including fatty acids, of various grain products, in chart
form. (It may be a long download). You can also find charts for
choline and other nutrient content of grains on this information rich
?The health benefits of wheat depend entirely on the form in which you
eat it. These benefits will be few if you select wheat that has been
processed into 60% extraction, bleached white flour. 60% extraction -
the standard for most wheat products in the United States, including
breads, noodles and pastas, baked goods like rolls or biscuits, and
cookies - means that 40% of the original wheat grain was removed, and
only 60% is left. Unfortunately, the 40% that gets removed includes
the bran and the germ of the wheat grain - its most nutrient-rich
parts. In the process of making 60% extraction flour, over half of the
vitamin B1, B2, B3, E, folic acid, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper,
iron, and fiber are lost.
Since 1941, laws in the United States have required "enrichment" of
processed wheat flour with vitamins B1, B2, B3 and iron in response to
the problems created by 60% extraction. Although not nearly as much of
these B vitamins and iron are replaced as are removed from 60%
extraction flour, "enriched" seems an odd word to describe this
?In milled products, like refined flour, pearled sorghum, and dhal,
the big-availability of iron is better than the corresponding unmilled
grains which is attributed to the removal of interfering substances
such as phytate, tannin, and fibre. Germination or malting increases
the vitamin C and folic acid content of food legumes and also degrades
the anti-nutrients present in these food grains. Consequently,
availability of iron in germinated grains improves significantly,
especially in malted bajra and ragi. Oligos accharides, the components
responsible for flatus production present in pulses, are practically
completely degraded on germination and germinated pulses are likely to
be less flatuspromoting than raw pulses. Cooking in boiling water or
by steam pressure is yet another common household practice of food
processing. Apart from making food palatable and safe, cooking
inactivates practically all the anti-nutritional factors that are heat
labile. Heat stable components like tannin in pulse legumes leach out
in the cooking broth. Some B-vitamins like riboflavin and vitamin B-6
are also lost in the cooking of pulses. The growth-promoting
properties of the foods, however, are far better than raw foods, and
this is attributed not only to the destruction of anti-nutritional
factors but also to better utilization of nutrients like proteins and
carbohydrates.? Several charts illustrating nutritive value are on
?The nutrients of the wheat kernel, however, are not evenly
distributed throughout. The bran, a multi-layered outer coating, is
only 15 % of the wheat kernel by weight but contains about 20% of the
riboflavin, 50% of the pantothenic acid, 73% of the vitamin B6, and
86% of the niacin. All of these vitamins make up what is commonly
referred to as the vitamin B complex. The germ of the wheat, hidden
away inside the kernel contains the life of the seed and as well as
nutrient oil. The germ is only 2.5% of the kernel by weight but
contains 8% of the protein, 21% of the B6, 26% of the riboflavin, 64%
of the thiamin, and all of the vitamin E. The germ also contains
essential fatty acids (see following article in the newsletter). The
bran and germ together are the main sources of dietary fiber. The bulk
of the wheat kernel is the endosperm, which is 83% by weight and
contains 72% of the protein and 43% of the pantothenic acid, but only
3% of the thiamin, 6% of the vitamin B6, 12% of the niacin. Most of
the endosperm, better known as white flour, is starch.?
?As the use of white flour became more and more common, disease and
illness relating to vitamin deficiencies rapidly increased. Beriberi
and pellagra (two B vitamin deficiency diseases) and anemia became so
prevalent, health officials urged the milling industry to return the
bran and germ to the flour. The millers, however, had developed a
rather lucrative market for these "by-products" of the milling
process. The bran and germ were being made into highly animal feed to
fatten chickens and cattle! The millers refused to return the bran and
germ to the flour and chose instead to "enrich" the long lasting white
This term "enrich" is quite deceptive. In fact most of us are often
led to believe that the nutritive value of the original food has been
completely restored. Nothing of course could be further from the
truth. Having already reviewed how the nutrients are distributed in
the wheat berry, it is not surprising then to learn that the refined
white flour is missing up to 80% of the nutrients found in the
original wheat kernel.
The content of 22 vitamins and minerals is diminished by 70-80%, and
the fiber content is only 7% of the original amount. The essential
fatty acid, linoleic acid, the benefits of which discussed more fully
in this newsletter "The Fact About Fats", is cut in half. Although the
protein content is only slightly affected the nutritional value of
that protein is greatly reduced because the essential amino acid
lysine is lost. What little vitamin E is left after refining is
destroyed when the flour is bleached to make it "whiter than white".?
Nutritional content charts also on this page:
?No matter how you slice it, whole wheat bread is more nutritious than
white because whole wheat bread contains the following:
? nearly one-third more protein
? three to four times the amount of fiber
? four times more zinc
? more folic acid
? more iron
? more chromium (an important mineral which regulates sugar and fat
metabolism, especially important in hyperactive children)
Although whole wheat bread is reported to have the same glycemic index
as white bread, because of the extra nutrients the carbohydrates in
whole wheat bread may have less of a roller-coaster effect on blood
The nutritional content of bread is not affected by the bread's shape
or presentation-whether its rolls, bagels, or sliced bread. What
matters most is the kind of flour in the bread. The main nutritional
difference is whether breads are made with whole wheat or white flour.
As with grains, ranking breads is very difficult. We have attempted to
rate them according to the following nutrients: protein, fiber,
calcium, iron, zinc, folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6
and E (assigning one point each), and factoring in nutrients per
calorie. Using this point system, the breads rank:
1. multi whole-grain
2. whole wheat
3. pita, whole wheat
5. rye, American
?It may be difficult to determine what is whole grain and what is
refined. Some food companies will try to make you think you are buying
something that is whole grain when, in fact, it is refined. If a whole
grain is listed first, the bread is mostly whole grain. Whole wheat,
oats, amaranth, barley, buckwheat, millet and popcorn are whole
grains. Wheat flour, unbleached wheat flour or enriched flour are
refined. If the label says "made with whole wheat", the product is
often refined. If you find labels that say cracked wheat, multi-grain,
oat bran, seven or nine-grain, stoned wheat, wheat, rye bread,
wheatberry or whole bran, you are looking at mostly refined grains.?
?Wheat - Next to rice, wheat is the grain most extensively
cultivated and consumed. Wheat contains more protein than other food
grains but is deficient in lysine. Wheat is consumed mostly as
chapathies in India and in the form of yeast bread in western
countries. Wheat is classified as hard or soft according to the gluten
content. The gluten content of wheat varies from about 9 to 13%. The
harder varieties contain more gluten than softer varieties and are
more suitable for bread and chapathies where as the latter are more
suitable for cakes, biscuits and pastry. Whole wheat flour which
includes the bran and the germ is a useful source of dietary fiber and
B complex vitamins.?
?Flour - A basic and indispensable food staple, can vary in quality
and nutrition depending on the type of grain and the milling process
used. Baking and cooking with a variety of whole grains adds nutrition
and excitement to your meals.
After milling, some flours are refined. The refining process strips
away the fiber-rich bran and the germ which contains valuable vitamins
and minerals. White flour is refined whole wheat flour.
Flours labeled as wheat instead of whole wheat are often refined. Some
refined flours have been enriched. This sounds a lot better than it
is. Of the 22 nutrients that are lost in the refining process, only
five are added back in the enrichment process. Whole grain flours are
not refined and contain all of their valuable nutrients. ?
?All the present varieties of wheat seem to be derived from a hybrid
wild wheat that grew in the Middle East 10,000 years ago. Over 30,000
varieties are said to be in cultivation. Wheat can be grown in a very
wide range of climatic conditions but is most successful in temperate
zones including the UK, North America, Southern Russia and South West
Nutritionally, 100g whole wheat provide 14g protein, 2.2g fat, 69.1g
carbohydrate, 2.3g fibre, 3.1mg iron, 36mg calcium. Wheat grains, also
called wheat berries, can be eaten whole, cooked in 1:3 parts of water
for 40-60 minutes, they have a satisfying, chewy texture. Cracked or
kibbled wheat is the dried whole grains cut by steel blades. Bulgur
wheat, made from the whole grains steamed before cracking, only needs
rehydrating by soaking in boiling water or stock. Couscous is the
steamed, dried and cracked grains of durum wheat and is more refined
than bulgur. Soak in 2 parts of water/stock to rehydrate,
traditionally it is steamed after soaking. Strong wheat flour (high
gluten content) is required for yeasted breadmaking and puff pastry.
Plain flour is used for general cooking including cakes and shortcrust
pastry. Wheat flakes are used for porridge, muesli and flapjacks.
Wheat germ is an excellent source of nutrients, especially vitamin E.?
A nutritional chart of some flours:
?Generally, the final nutrient content of a cereal will depend on
the extent to which the outer layers are removed during processing, as
this is where the fibre, vitamins and minerals tend to be
?Protein: The amount of protein in each cereal differs (from 6-15%
protein) and this affects the final product. Bread, with its
characteristic open texture and appearance, relies on high protein
flour, e.g. strong wheat flour. In products such as cakes, biscuits
and pastry, lower wheat flours are used to produce crumbly and light
Benefits of whole, unprocessed wheat: ?Eating foods high in insoluble
fiber, such as cereals and breads made from whole wheat, can help
women avoid gallstones, shows a study published in the July 2004 issue
of the American Journal of Gastroenterology.?
?Wheat bran is a popular bulk laxative. A third of a cup per day is
all that is needed. Research studies support this popular practice. A
fiber-rich diet, primarily composed of whole wheat breads, cereals
high in bran and supplemental ?millers bran? was shown to alleviate
the symptoms of diverticular disease (pain, nausea, flatulence,
distension, constipation, etc.) in 89 percent of patients enrolled in
a study which examined the effects of fiber on bowel regularity.
Diverticular disease, a condition often marked by inflammation and
lower abdominal pains in which chronic constipation and excessive
straining results in a sac or pouch in the wall of the colon, is
typically treated with dietary roughage such as cereal fiber (i.e.,
wheat bran), fruit and vegetable fiber, and plenty of fluids.?
?Whole Wheat - A True Anti-Cancer Food
The benefits of wheat's bran portion don?t stop here; it has also been
shown to function as an anti-cancer agent. Wheat bran is thought to
accelerate the metabolism of estrogen that is a known promoter of
breast cancer. In one study, pre-menopausal women, ages twenty to
fifty, who ate three to four high fiber muffins per day made with
wheat bran, decreased their blood estrogen levels by 17 percent after
two months. The women eating corn bran or oat bran did not show the
?One type of phytochemical especially abundant in whole grains
including whole wheat are plant lignans, which are converted by
friendly flora in our intestines into mammalian lignans, including one
called enterolactone that is thought to protect against breast and
other hormone-dependent cancers as well as heart disease. In addition
to whole grains, nuts, seeds and berries are rich sources of plant
lignans, and vegetables, fruits, and beverages such as coffee, tea and
wine also contain some.?
"Research demonstrates that the health-promoting benefits of whole
grains are attributed to more than just fiber. Slavin explains that
these health advantages are largely associated with the 'package' of
nutrients in whole grains. In addition to providing fiber, whole-grain
foods provide vitamins, minerals, literally hundreds of
phytonutrients, including phytoestrogens, antioxidants, polyphenols,
and beneficial enzyme inhibitors...The individual components of whole
grains have an additive and synergistic effect. It's the combination
and interactions between components that we believe provide the
protection against disease. Whole grains are an example of how the
whole (grain) is often greater than the sum of its parts,' says
More on whole grains
This information comes from a diet that is based on your blood group and type.
I also found this interesting ? Spelt, a cousin of wheat!
?A wonderfully nutritious and ancient grain with a deep nutlike
flavor, spelt is a cousin to wheat that is recently receiving renewed
recognition. Spelt products can be found in your local health food
Spelt is an ancient grain that traces its heritage back long before
many wheat hybrids. Many of its benefits come from the fact that it
offers a broader spectrum of nutrients compared to many of its more
inbred cousins in the wheat family. It can be used in many of the same
ways as wheat - bread and pasta making but does not seem to cause
sensitivities in most people who are intolerant of wheat.? Nutritional
content is on the page:
?Spelt flour is from a non-hybridized wheat with a long cultivation
history. It works well as a bread flour and has an exceptional protein
and fiber profile. Spelt gluten is highly water soluble so that it is
easy to digest. Spelt flour may be a good wheat substitute for some
people who are allergic to wheat.?
?Pasta is undoubtedly the product that has made Italy famous all over
the world and there is no doubt that it is the most typical and most
important of all our national dishes.
The vast pasta industry has a responsibility that is absolutely
irreplaceable; it has the job of providing healthy nutrition at a low
Pasta can be classified into two categories: plain durum wheat pasta
and durum wheat egg pasta. So the basic ingredient in pasta is wheat.
Wheat or grain is the most important cereal crop in the world. Ground
into flour, it is the basic element in all bread making and pasta
preparation. So what exactly is wheat? Wheat is a spontaneous cereal
grass. It was first cultivated probably in Asia and Africa.
White flour certainly has a high energy value, given the large
quantity of starch that it contains, but its nutritional value is
poor. In fact, it keeps most of the endosperm, but only a small part
of the other elements that make up the grain. In 0 and 00 types of
flour, in particular, the outer layer (bran) and the wheat germ are
usually eliminated completely.?
?Is one pasta more nutritious than another?
The nutritional quality of a pasta, and often its taste and texture,
depend upon the flour. Those made with whole grain flours, such as
whole wheat pasta, are naturally the most nutrient-rich because the
bran and germ of the grain have been left in. Most pasta is made with
durum wheat, a hard wheat high in protein and gluten, which makes a
dough that sticks together well and holds its shape, a feature so
important to pasta makers. Most of the familiar dried pastas are made
with semolina or farina, or a combination of the two. In these flours,
the germ and bran have been removed, and the fiber and nutritional
values are lower. Semolina is made from durum wheat and may have more
protein than farina, which is made from a softer wheat.?
?The pasta you find in most grocery stores is usually not whole
grain, although this is beginning to change. Ask your grocery manager
to stock whole-wheat pasta. There are several companies that sell
whole grain pastas, but usually these are found in natural foods
stores. There are pastas made from spelt, amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa
and other grains that can be delicious. If your children dislike the
texture of whole wheat pasta, Eden (800-248-0301) has half whole wheat
and half refined pastas.?
Pasta versus other foods, nutritional content
?The nutritional value of pasta varies according to the ingredients
used in making the dough. Whether the pasta is dry, fresh or homemade,
adding ingredients, such as oil, eggs, and flavoring agents, or using
different types of flours will have an affect on its nutritional
value. The length of time that pasta is cooked can also have an affect
on its nutritional value. If the pasta is cooked too long it will
start to lose more of its B vitamins into the boiling water. It is
best to only cook the pasta to the "al dente" stage to prevent this
Kamut® (Triticum turgidum spp turanicum) is the trademark of the
ancient wheat and distant relative of the hard wheat (Triticum durum)
cultivated thousand years ago. This wheat possesses a rich taste
similar to butter, easily digestible, and it contains from 20-40% more
proteins in comparison to the hard wheat.?
?The farro or spelt (Triticum spelta) is far another elderly cousin of
the modern wheat (Triticum aestivum) and known also as the first grain
cultivated by the first farmers in the remote year 5000 BC. The Romans
has called it "Farrum" and it can be tracked down in the Mesopotamia.?
Some nutritional charts found on this page also.
?Pasta, especially during cooking, loses some of its main nutrients
(starch, protein, phosphorous, vitamin B1), while its calcium content
increases, passed on by the water during cooking.
Given the imbalance in amino acid content, in particular lysine (an
essential, restrictive amino acid), it is crucial that pasta be
consumed together with other foods with different nutritional
For example, a good combination would be legumes that are rich in
lysine and significantly increase the nutritional value of a complete,
The normal habit of consuming a portion of pasta together with a wide
range of ingredients (for example, those required in filled pasta)
and/or sauces, enormously enhances the overall nutritional value.
Although the amino acid nutritional value of pasta alone is not high,
the situation changes through the synergy created from pairing with
amino acids found in meat, fish and dairy products, ingredients that
also contribute essential fatty acids and additional vitamins and
?A final note. Do you know why a plate of pasta, despite its
high-level, effortless digestibility, is suitable for those suffering
from problems connected with the production of uric acid, is
recommended for children because of its easy digestibility and
nutritional value, is rich in phosphorous and iron, is just plain
good... and leaves one feeling satisfied well after a meal?
The answer lies in its glycemic index, very favourable compared with
other starch products such as rice, bread and potatoes because it
causes reduced glycemic fluctuation.
For this reason, pasta is recommended in the diets of diabetes
sufferers as the main source of carbohydrates. We hope these simple
observations about the nutritional value of pasta have been useful to
dispel some of those alimentary fears that sometimes seem to hover in
the air, so that the richness of the Italian cuisine can be enjoyed to
Click the link called Table 1 to get a chart of pasta nutritional content.
?Pasta Points to Ponder
Pasta is indeed a favorite food, albeit somewhat confusing. So, what
is it we know now but didn't know before? Well, for starters...
1. Most pasta we eat comes from refined, devitalized wheat flour.
2. Pasta is a manufactured product, not live food, raw or organic.
3. As a manufactured product with a long shelf life, pasta has no
4. A single serving of pasta, according to My Pyramid is just 1/2 cup cooked pasta.
5. If our diets contain too much pasta and/or other foods made from
devitalized wheat flour, it sets us up for disease.
Does it mean we should give up pasta? No. But, it appears we need to
evaluate how much pasta we eat, as well as other products from refined
grains, and adjust our diets accordingly.
In their article " From Wheat to Flour," the North American Millers'
Association describes for us what happens to wheat from the time it
reaches the mill right through to the enrichment and bleaching
processes. However, no matter how carefully these processes are
handled, the simple truth is if pasta is made from this refined flour,
it isn't a whole food and doesn't contain all the nutrients found in
the wheat berry.?
Added after April 19, 2006
Nutritive value of wheats: Whole grain, refined and enriched
A BETTER SLICE
You know whole wheat bread has more FIBER than white (three times as
much), but that's not all:
? Whole wheat has more than three times the VITAMIN E, MAGNESIUM and ZINC.
? It has twice the COPPER and six times the manganese - two minerals
important in ANTIOXIDANT reactions.
? Whole wheat offers nearly three times the VITAMIN B6 and 50 percent
more FOLIC ACID (two vitamins that most women come up short on) - as
well as the other healthful compounds that come in whole grains.
? Both white bread and whole wheat are rich in CARBOHYDRATES.
? White has more of some B vitamins; they're added when flour is
enriched, which restores some of the nutrients that are lost when
wheat is refined. But from a total nutrition viewpoint the restoration
is far from complete.
?The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends five to ten
ounces of bread, cereal, rice and pasta daily (depending on age,
gender and activity level), with half of them coming from
whole-grains. One serving equals ½ cup (2.5 ounces) of cooked pasta.
Pasta is a complex carbohydrate and very low in fat, calories, sodium
and cholesterol. Following is the nutrient profile for a ½ cup cooked,
enriched pasta: 99 Calories, 3 g protein, 20 g carbohydrates, 1 g
fiber, 0 g fat, 0 mg cholesterol, 49 mcg folate, 1 mg iron, 5 mg
calcium, 22 mg potassium, 15 mcg selenium and 1 mg sodium. Egg noodles
are a little higher in calories,
but nutritionally, approximately the same.?
Although whole grain foods are loaded with fiber, they are a great
source of other health-enhancing compounds as well.
* Antioxidants, thought to protect against heart disease and cancer.
* Resistant starch, thought to play a complementary role to fiber in
the prevention of some bowel diseases, reduction of bood cholesterol
levels, and control of bood glucose.
* Phytoestrogens, thought to protect against breast and prostate
cancers, and also may help with menopausal symptoms.
* Magnesium, now thought to play a vital role in maintaining healthy
* Vitamin E. which has been reported to be associated with reduced
risk of diabetes.
* Vitamin B6 and foic acid, which may help lower blood levels of
homocysteine, now considered a risk factor for heart disease, stroke,
and diabetes; folic acid also may help reduce risk of Alzheimer?s
disease and childhood leukemia.
* Other phytochemicals, which may play a wide range of roles in
preventing chronic disease.
Studies have shown that people who eat whole grains have lower body
mass index, lower total cholesterol, and lower waist-to-hip ratios.
Various large epidemiological studies on a variety of different
populations note that people who eat three daily servings of whole
grains have been shown to reduce their risk of heart disease by
25-36%, stroke by 37%, Type II diabetes by 21-27%, digestive system
cancers by 21-43%, and hormone-related cancers by 10-40%. Furthermore,
in intervention studies where whole grains became a regular part of
the diet, people showed improved blood glucose levels and insulin
?Some of the recent introductions include frozen waffles, salad
croutons, bread, chocolate bars, eggs and pasta. With regard to the
latter, Barilla America debuted Barilla Plus Enriched Multi-Grain
pasta in 2005. The product is said to be rich in heart-healthy omega
3?s. Van?s All Natural Premium Frozen Waffles in a Flax variety broke
new ground last year by offering a whopping 1600 mg of omega 3 fatty
acids per serving.?
?Soy-enriched pasta can sometimes be a drag. It gets gummy and tastes
so bad you wonder why bother? Not true with Crum Creek Mills' soy --
enriched pastas, which taste very similar to a whole-wheat or whole
grain pasta. Available in penne and spaghetti, these pastas pack a
?Proteins must not be denatured during the drying process because this
action destroys the vital dough-forming properties. Gluten is mainly
used in the bread making industry. Dried gluten contains 75% to 85%
protein, 5% to 10% lipids and some starch.
Physical and chemical properties of wheat differ from those
of other cereal grains because wheat proteins can form gluten,
a necessary substance in bread making. Gluten-rich flour develops into
a dough that retains fermentation gases, thus causing the dough to
?The consultation recommended that countries of the Region explore the
feasibility of flour fortification as a long-term strategy given that
it had proven to be the most effective means of improving iron intake
in industrialized countries. This consultation lead to further work
and research on fortification possibilities in countries of the Region
and materialized in a workshop held in Oman in 1996, where countries
present pledged to explore the feasibility of
flour fortification. It was decided to hold a follow-up workshop in
1998, to review progress since 1996 and to encourage more countries to
commit themselves to flour fortification.?
?In the United States, after the introduction of flour fortified with
niacin, deaths from this deficiency (pellagra), dropped to marginal
levels in about a decade. About one-quarter of the iron intake in the
US comes from fortified sources.
All corn and wheat flours in Venezuela were fortified with iron,
vitamin A, and B vitamins. Fortified with iron to a level of 20-30
ppm, flour products currently contribute about 48% of the Recommended
Dietary Allowance (RDA) for iron to the average Venzuelan.?
?Important food crops do not provide enough bioavailable levels of
several essential micronutrients (e.g., iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin
A, etc.) to meet the needs of certain population groups dependent on
them for their nutriture, which has resulted in micronutrient
deficiencies occurring in over three billion people globally (mostly
resource-poor women, infants and children). For example, worldwide
there are now over 3 billion people deficient in iron and 200 million
people are known to be vitamin A deficient. It is estimated that there
may be as many zinc deficient people as there are iron deficient
people because the primary sources of these nutrients are the same
foods. However, currently there is no clinical test to determine the
extent of zinc deficiency globally. Additionally, some important food
crops (e.g., durum wheat grain) can contain potentially harmful levels
of heavy metals (e.g., cadmium) that can depress the bioavailability
of the essential micronutrients - iron and zinc, increasing the
frequency of micronutrient malnutrition in at risk populations.
Furthermore, unacceptable levels of heavy metals in food crops that
exceed international limits set by the Codex Alimentarius?
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I hope this has answered the question in a more than satisfactory
manner. I am open to Answer Clarifications, as you know!
Please suggest to your friend that he read the complete answer to the
Pasta question, as I did include brands, but should he require more,
simply add a clarification to that question, and I will respond!
?Processed wheat flour? + nutritive content
Milling process + nutrients + processed wheat
value + refined wheat + diet
refined wheat + nutritive value
nutritional content + pastas
micronutrients + processed wheat
processed flour + nutrition
vitamins + minerals + phytonutrients + processed wheat