As this is a somewhat complex topic, you will want to go to the websites
provided below and examine them in detail. As well, you will want to use
the Google searches that I have provided at the end of this answer for
some other very good results and resources.
"Using carbon emission credits to promote environmentally sensitive
agriculture" - HORIZON Solutions
"Forests and tree plantations are seen as part of the solution since they store
carbon at a rate 20 to 100 times more per acre than pastures and croplands.
In rural areas where agriculture and forests compete for land, the forests are
at risk because farmers are unlikely to protect and preserve them unless they
have an economic incentive to do so. For this reason, tree crops such as coffee
or cocoa offer both significant economic and environmental benefits. These
crops prevent the destruction of forested areas because they can be planted
under tree canopies and provide farmers with continuous cash income from fruit
harvesting. Capturing stored carbon (or carbon sequestration) through tree
cultivation can become an additional source of income for farmers."
"Can Small Farmers Help to Slow Global Warming" - Cornell University "People"
"Ambio?s staff can estimate the tons of carbon that a typical farmer
using a given agroforestry system is capturing per hectare. For
example, in an average
coffee field of 1 hectare containing coffee shrubs shaded by larger trees, this
is estimated to be about 64.7 tons of carbon per hectare. The money to pay the
farmers comes from high-emission industries in the developed world. Currently,
because the United States has not yet signed on to the Kyoto Protocol (a 1993
international agreement on how to address climate change), companies
experimenting with this system are all European. These companies pay $10 per
excess ton of carbon they emit into the atmosphere over their country?s limit.
Of this $10, $2 will go to Ambio to manage the carbon-credit program, and $8
will go to the farmer for each ton of carbon sequestered in his or her
agroforestry system. For example for a farmer with one hectare of shaded
coffee, they will receive (64.7 tons of carbon) * ($8 for each ton) = $518."
"Carbon Trading Comes Online" - World Resources Institute
"On December 12, 2003, the World Resources Institute became the first group
to purchase carbon credits for 2003 on the newly launched Chicago Climate
Exchange (CCX). The environmental research organization joined a number of
corporations - including American Electric Power, DuPont, and Ford - in using
the exchange to buy and sell "carbon credits" aimed at reducing the amount of
carbon dioxide (CO2) being released into the atmosphere."
"Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)"
"CCX is the world?s first and North America?s only voluntary, legally binding
rules-based greenhouse gas emission reduction and trading system."
"European Climate Exchange"
"Welcome to Europe's premier tool for trading carbon dioxide emissions offering
advanced, low-cost and financially guaranteed tools for the EU ETS."
"The Ecosystem Marketplace seeks to become the world's leading source of
information on markets and payment schemes for ecosystem services; services
such as water quality, carbon sequestration and biodiversity."
"Survey of Carbon Offset Services" - TreeHugger
"As more and more people, small businesses and large companies become hip to
carbon emission offsets and the carbon-neutral lifestyle, Ecobusinesslinks.com
has done some homework for us and completed a comprehensive comparison of the
nonprofit and for profit organizations providing carbon offsets."
"Carbon Emissions Offset" - Ecobusinesslinks.com
"While carbon offset certificates are not the ultimate solution for our
pollution emissions, they do provide an effective and cheap way for anyone who
is willing to reduce their footprint on the Earth. The vast majority of us is
unable to avoid all carbon emissions, whether from transport, energy, food,
etc! Here you can calculate your footprint (see also Calculators for more
calculators) and offset your carbon emissions."
The above website provides many links to a good varierty of programs and other
resources on this topic, so make sure you read the above page in detail.
If you need any clarification, please feel free to ask.
Google search on: "carbon credits" coffee trees europe OR european exchange
Google search on: "coffee plants" CO2 OR "carbon dioxide" corporations
Looking Forward, denco-ga - Google Answers Researcher