Hi there Mrmlarsen-ga,
From my colleagues' and my experience, the book Operating Systems (3rd
edition) by Deitel, Deitel, and Choffnes (chapter 8) provides a
comprehensive information on Processor Scheduling. Having said that,
a full but easy to understand explaination can be found on the link
below, which is the publically available chapter summary. The chapter
summary is about two pages, thorough, and is most useful if you
already have some foundation knowledge regarding operation systems.
While the link above, and especially the actual book, are my top
recommendations, you may find the following lecture notes useful:
Please refer to lecture #4, topic 2.4, for some supplemental information.
For a more advanced coverage on the topic, please refer to the MIT
Courseware on scheduling. The following link contains Scheduling
lecture note for Operating System Engineering at MIT, which also lists
the required reading for the section.
Depending on the level of understanding that you require, you can
progress through the three materials listed above. The first gives
you a good overview and general idea of how scheduling works (the
actual book goes into a bit more detail), the second link contains
lecture notes which touches the technical aspect, and the MIT
courseware link requires additional reading and also presents a case
study with discussion.
I hope this has helped and please let me know if you require any clarification.