According to the American Family Physician site below, no studies
have actually been done to show the risks of a vaccine to a fetus. The
oral form of the typhoid vaccine is never administered to a pregnant
woman, as it is a live bacteria.
" The two types of typhoid vaccination in use today are a live
attenuated oral vaccine and a parenteral polysaccharide vaccine. Both
forms require that immunization be completed at least two weeks before
exposure. The oral vaccine is given on alternate days in four doses,
with reported efficacy rates varying greatly (50 to 95 percent). Its
use is contraindicated in infants, immunocompromised persons, and
those with abnormal gastrointestinal function, as well as pregnant
women. The purified capsular polysaccharide (Vi) vaccine is given as a
single injection. It has similar efficacy rates, but its use is not
contraindicated in the immunocompromised population.26
Neither form of typhoid vaccine is officially recommended during
pregnancy. The oral form is contraindicated in pregnancy because it is
a live virus, presenting theoretic risks of transmission to the fetus.
This contraindication does not exist with the parenteral form;
however, studies demonstrating the latter's efficacy and safety during
pregnancy have not been performed. Potential benefits and risks of
immunization should be considered on an individual basis."
"The safety of typhoid vaccine during pregnancy is unknown. If typhoid
immunization is necessary during pregnancy, the injectable
polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi) is probably preferable, because it
does not contain live bacteria. Oral typhoid vaccine is safe in
HIV-infected individuals as long as their CD4 lymphocyte counts remain
" It is not known whether this live attenuated vaccine can cause fetal
harm when administered to pregnant women."
"Pregnant women should be advised to avoid live-virus vaccines
(measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and yellow fever). Women should
also avoid becoming pregnant within 1 month of having received one of
these vaccines because of theoretical risk of transmission to the
fetus. However, no harm to the fetus has been reported from the
unintentional administration of these vaccines during pregnancy."
"No data are available on the use of either typhoid vaccine in
pregnancy. The injectable preparation is the vaccine of choice during
pregnancy because it is inactivated and requires only one injection.
The oral typhoid vaccine is not absolutely contraindicated during
pregnancy, but it is live-attenuated and thus has theoretical risk.
With either of these, the vaccine efficacy (about 70%) needs to be
weighed against the risk of disease."
Since there appears to be no data on the effect of a typhoid vaccine
to a pregnant woman or her fetus, I recommend seeing your
obstetrician, and perhaps a perinatologist as soon as possible.
Perhaps with the aid of sonagrams, blood tests, and amniotic fluid
tests, thay can monitor your young fetus for problems.
On the bright side, you do have the fact that you had an injection,
and not the live oral vaccine!
I wish you all the best!
typhoid vaccine + pregnancy
birth defects + typhoid vaccine