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Q: Muscles used in playing Golf ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: Muscles used in playing Golf
Category: Sports and Recreation > Training
Asked by: pawpressure-ga
List Price: $85.00
Posted: 18 Jul 2006 20:28 PDT
Expires: 17 Aug 2006 20:28 PDT
Question ID: 747602
What muscles (or muscle groups) are used while playing golf and in what way? 

What exercises have been determained to benifit these muscles and thus
improve a golf game. How will the individual exercises help varius
goals of the game. Example might be for the swing, or distance, or
needed enduance.

I would like medical studies and industry research in the above mentioned items
Subject: Re: Muscles used in playing Golf
Answered By: crabcakes-ga on 18 Jul 2006 23:41 PDT
Hello Pawpressure,

  I have gathered numerous articles regarding muscles used in golfing,
and exercises for those areas. (Who knew there were so many muscles
used in golf?)

Muscles used in golf:
Golfing Muscles:
?	front of thigh (quadriceps) 
?	back of thigh (hamstrings) 
?	outer thigh or hips (abductors) 
?	inner thigh (adductors) 
?	buttocks (gluteals) 
?	sides of abdomen (internal and external obliques) 
?	low back (erectors) 
?	mid/upper back (latissimus dorsi, rhomboids, trapezius) 
?	chest (pectorals) 
?	shoulder (deltoids) 
?	rotator cuff (infraspinatus, terses minor, subscapularis, supraspinatus) 
?	back of arm (triceps) 
?	front of arm (biceps) 
?	forearm (forearm flexors and extensors) 

There are some exercises on this page, and more are found by clicking
the ?next? link at the bottom of the page.

Table 1 on this page illustrates the mean and peak (in parenthesis)
values of Normalized EMG (% Max) during a golf swing.

   ?For example, the muscular strength in the hands, forearms, and
wrists are integral parts of the short game. In addition so are the
motor skills of the nerves and muscles coordinating the movements
involved in such golf shots.?

?To perform chip shots and pitches the hands, wrists, and forearms come into play.?

?These types of golf fitness exercises incorporate your brain, nerves,
and muscles. They have many benefits when it comes to the golf swing.
Outside the benefit of creating higher levels of muscular strength and
endurance, these exercises assist in motor control.

Let me explain, we understand motor control is the interaction of your
brain, nerves, and muscles. The interaction can either be efficient or
inefficient. Efficient motor control is good, especially for finite
muscular activities such as short game shots. Golf fitness balance
exercises ?challenge" your nervous and muscular system interaction.
Over time as these two systems are ?challenged" through exercise they
become more efficient. Essentially they operate together more
efficiently. Resulting in higher levels of motor control and the
ability to execute finite motor skills (i.e. short game golf shots).?

In the golf swing, muscle force generates club head speed, and club
head speed is what sends the ball flying. What, then, are the key
"golf muscles" that we should be concerned with? Scientific studies
have taught us that there are lots of important golf muscles, some of
the most important of which are:  * The rotator cuff muscles of the
shoulder, both left and right;

* The scapular-stabilizing muscles of the shoulders; 

* The pectoral and latissimus ("pecs" and "lats"), which are key in
developing power during the downswing;

* The spinal and abdominal muscles; 

* The gluteal and hamstring muscles of the hips and thighs; 

* The forearm muscles, which provide a firm grip and stabilize the
club head as it impacts the ball.?

   ?Very few amateurs can devote that amount of time, energy, and
money to their golf games, but that shouldn?t stop those amateurs from
making positive changes in their games by improving their strength and
conditioning. Over the years conditioning for athletes has become an
exact science. The workout regimen for basketball teams isn?t the same
as the program designed for swimmers, football players, or tennis
stars. Each sport requires certain physical skills. Trainers must
develop programs that enhance the specific skills needed for a
particular sport.?

?Shoulder, arm, and upper back strength are crucial in the takeaway,
the downswing, the follow-through, and the short game. Your swing is
initiated with the shoulders and hips rotating away from the target.
The pectoralis major (the chest muscles) aids in moving the target arm
away from the target. The forearms and wrist engage to keep the club
in a cocked position. The triceps extend to keep the target arm
straight, while the biceps flex the opposite or non-target arm. The
rotator cuff muscles work to stabilize the shoulder girdle and turn
with the shoulders and arms. The rotator cuff of the non-target arm
pulls the club back and externally rotates the arm. The hamstrings and
external obliques assist hip rotation during the backswing, creating a
stable stance and good posture. The weight shifts from an almost equal
distribution at address to upwards of 85 percent on the rear foot due
to the redistribution of the upper body.
The lower back is a source of much pain and misery in many golfers.

 The coiling of the upper body around a resistant lower body coupled
with the twisting of the back during the downswing and follow-through
can have devastating results. Even in a properly executed golf swing,
back muscles pull at the lumbar, and, if a golfer isn?t strong, the
discs are susceptible to strain and injury. Nothing can guarantee that
you won?t have back problems, even if you do everything right, but a
strong lower back is less likely to become an injured lower back.?

   ?In order to prevent injuries and to play a good game of golf, a
regular strength and fitness training program is necessary to improve
strength, cardiovascular endurance, coordination, and balance.
However, the exercise program of a 65-year-old golfer with a total hip
replacement should be very different from that of a young golfer with
no previous medical problems.1 Prior to starting a strength and
conditioning program, it is necessary to have an assessment to
determine your areas of strength and weakness.2 You need to know your
flexibility, muscle strength, balance, and areas that need improvement
when designing a program to correct these problems. The program should
be designed specifically with the demands of golf in mind.? Many
exercises, including for fingers and hands.

   ?Fortunately, a handful of electromyographic studies have given us
a better understanding of shoulder muscle function during the golf
swing.3,4,5 These studies demonstrate that rotator cuff muscles
(particularly the subscapularis), the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis
major are highly active during the golf swing.

Such findings have led to the conclusion that these muscles need to be
exercised. In particular, Jobe, et al., state that, "to achieve
greater distance it would seem that a golfer should concentrate on
exercising the rotator cuff bilaterally as well as the latissimus
dorsi and pectoralis major."3 Accordingly, most golf fitness books
recommend that these muscles should be stretched and
strengthened.7,8,9 While this approach is generally reasonable, there
are specific situations during which these recommendations can be
problematic for the unsuspecting patient/golfer.?


   ?For the golfers who want to add more power to their swing, whilst
also giving their stamina and endurance a boost to complete all the 18
holes should consider resistance training, also known as strength
training. This is also a great way to loosen up muscles, preventing
injury whilst out there on the golf course. Resistance training simply
involves lifting weights or working out with the resistance machines
at a gym. If you want to, you can also do the resistance training at
home, just by using everyday items that you already own.?
?One example of a great excercise for your legs involves just
squatting down. This particularly, will work the backs of your legs.
Using just the wall for support to lean against, or do it in the
middle of the room if you so wish, for a harder work out. Start by
placing your hands on your hips, your feet slightly apart, lining up
directly under your shoulders.Lower your body down, as far as is
comfortable or until your thighs are at a 90 degree angle to the
floor, bending you knees, whilst keeping your back straight. Then push
up slowly. Repeat until you feel it is starting to work the muscles in
your legs.

Another resistance training excercise for golfers is to use a chair.
Sit on the chair, scoot the front seat whilst keeping your back
straight. Then with one foot firmly placed on the floor, straighten
your other leg until it is now horizontal, stretched out, parallel to
the ground. Now repeat this excercise with the other leg, giving both
legs a thorough resistance training work out.?
There are more exercises on this page ? please cheack each link for
complete information.

Some tips on golf training

   ?Golf fitness workouts are not any more rigorous and punishing than
the game of golf is. Remember that the work outs are golf specific,
meaning that they are specifically designed to help strengthen and
condition the very muscles used in golf.

It is definitely not a boxing or body building fitness workout.
Workouts for those sports reflect the rigorous and physically
demanding aspects of those sports. In the very same way that golf
fitness workouts reflect the requirements of the game of golf.

The dumbbells are usually used for strength training because this is
the most efficient equipment anywhere for building strength quickly
hence their inclusion in the best golf fitness workout routines.
The idea is never to lift heavy weights over long periods of time.
Rather the objective to condition and strengthen golf muscles using
lighter weights lifted over very short periods of time.?

This About site has links to various exercises to improve a golf game:

   ?Aside from having the proper stance and swing, one can do some
training exercises to help lessen these injuries. These may include:
A simple exercise would be squeezing a tennis ball. Yes, that's right,
a tennis ball. This can be done by squeezing it for five minutes at a
time. This is an excellent way to develop and strengthen those forearm
muscles. You can do this anytime, anywhere.

Then there are reverse wrist curls. This is done with a lightweight
dumbbell. Simply grip that dumbbell with your hand in front of you. It
should be with your palm facing down. Then hold the arm your using
above the elbow area with your other arm ti limit its movement. Then
lift that dumbbell upwards for several times, around 10 repetitions
per arm.
If there are reverse wrist curls, then naturally, there are wrist
curls. This is done pretty much in the same manner as reverse curls as
described in the previous time. The only difference is that your palm
is now facing upward and movement is likewise upward.

A more complex exercise is rowing. Yes, rowing like those blokes you
see on canoes. The first thing to do is tie a piece of rubber tubing.
Make sure that is it tied firmly in place. Then secure this around a
shoulder high object such as a door hinge. Stretch out your arms in
front of you while firmly grasping the rubber tubing. Then slowly pull
towards you. This should be done for around 10 repetitions, at least
thrice per week.?

   ?Hand-in-hand with the benefits of weight loss comes the additional
benefits of muscle exercise and toning. In fact, Golf is one of the
few low-impact exercises that work most of the body's major muscle
groups including:
* abductors * adductors * biceps * deltoids * dorsi * erectors *
extensors * flexors * gluteals * hamstrings * infraspinatus * internal
and external obliques * latissimus * pectorals * quadriceps *
rhomboids * subscapularis * supraspinatus * terses minor * trapezius *

And even if you've never heard of half of those muscle groups, you
body knows exactly where each of them are located, and it thanks you
very much for taking the time to exercise them frequently.?

   ?Cross specificity training is a key principle in golf fitness
exercises and the development of the body around the golf swing.
Training cross specifically is really using training techniques and
exercises to improve your body specific to the positions your body
will be in and move during your activity.

The goal of cross specificity training is to develop a transfer of training effect.
"Transfer of training effect is the ability of the training program to
have a direct benefit on the performance of the athlete during
competition." -- Juan Carlos Santana, Institute of Performance, Boca
Rotan, Fla.?

ACC Golf specific strength training program

Recommended Golf Conditioning Program

Here is a site with illustrated examples:

Quadriceps workout

Glutes and quadriceps

Abductors and obliques, hamstrings, calves, abdominals

Stretches and warm ups for golfers

A set of illustrated golf strengthening exercises, written by an
exercise physiologist

Shoulder Exercises:

Scroll down to Golf strengthening exercises

   ?Some folks were a little taken aback to hear that Tiger Woods
practiced Pilates. One of the world's greatest golfers takes a
dance-inspired flexibility class? That's worse than professional
football players taking ballet classes.
What many would-be great golfers fail to realize, though, is that
they've got to do a whole lot more than just show up to play to excel
at golf. And no, a Denny's Big Breakfast on the way to the course and
a club behind-the-back stretch as you get out of the car won't cut it.

Being on your game requires the cardio ability to walk three to five
miles without fatigue, the flexibility to move through a full-range of
movement, and the balance control and strength necessary to hit a
little white ball repeatedly with consistent power and precision.?,2232,REDD_17501_3794548,00.html

Pilates Golf Exercises:

Illustrated Pilates exercises (links to various exercises)

Strengthening golf muscles

Workout and Warm up for golf

Select your area and find exercises for that area

Real Age Golf Workout

Hip Hitch

Benefits of exercise regimen

Workout Chart

This site shows the  HeartFlex, a golf exercising apparatus

I hope you find these exercises helpful. Please ask for an Answer
Clarification, if you feel I am missing anything, or if something is
unclear, and allow me to respond, before you rate.

Regards, Crabcakes

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