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Q: Industrial Wastewater Disposal via Deep Well Injection ( Answered 4 out of 5 stars,   0 Comments )
Question  
Subject: Industrial Wastewater Disposal via Deep Well Injection
Category: Science > Technology
Asked by: clemson-ga
List Price: $200.00
Posted: 11 Aug 2006 06:20 PDT
Expires: 10 Sep 2006 06:20 PDT
Question ID: 754991
What is the current state of the practice of wastewater disposal via
deep well injection? I am looking for company specific grey literature
(position papers, policies, in-house technical and fesibility reviews,
consultant reports, non-published papers, published papers...etc.)
Answer  
Subject: Re: Industrial Wastewater Disposal via Deep Well Injection
Answered By: pafalafa-ga on 12 Aug 2006 09:46 PDT
Rated:4 out of 5 stars
 
clemson-ga,

As an environmental professional, I've long had an interest in
underground injection, since it is simultaneously one of the largest
disposal routes for hazardous waste, and also one of the least well
known.

While public attention has been focused on environmental calamities
like the Love Canal hazardous waste dumps, Exxon Valdez oil spill,
Bhopal toxic chemical disaster and, more recently, on global warming,
deepwells have quietly and unobtrusively continued pumping billions of
gallons of waste underground.

Underground injection into deep wells -- also known as deep well
injection, or simply DWI-- has a certain frozen-in-time quality to it.
 There is a lot of literature on DWI  -- from both policy and
technology angles -- that dates back to the 1970's and 1980's.  But
then the literature begins to thin, and it is actually very difficult
to find much on DWI of current vintage.

This is probably due to the fact that DWI is so unobtrusive, and
hasn't led to any environmental calamities that we know of.  Both the
policy and technology behind DWI has stabalized, and public attention
on the topic has dwindled, so there isn't a great deal of new
literature making an appearance.

Probably the best of the up-to-date materials on DWI are these:



=====

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/706350/description#description
UNDERGROUND INJECTION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 
Elsevier Science
2005

This book has sections on:

History, Regulation, and Risk Assessment. 

Well Testing and Hydrologic Studies. 

Geochemistry. 

Liquid Waste Injection. 

Liquid Radioactive Waste Injection. 

Injection of Solids. 

CO2 Injection.


with multiple chapters in each section.  

This is a fairly pricey book (around $200) but is probably available
through interlibrary loan.

=====

http://www.epa.gov/safewater/uic/classonestudy.pdf
Class I Underground Injection Control Program: 
Study of the Risks Associated with Class I Underground Injection Wells
USEPA
2001

This is an Environmental Protection Agency study of the risk
associated with deep wells (known as Class I wells at EPA...shallow
disposal wells are known as Class V).  It's a terrific overview
document of the history, technology, siting, regulation, and concerns
about DWI.

=====

http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03761.pdf
United States General Accounting Office
DEEP INJECTION WELLS
2003


This government report details any of the policy issues surrounding
use of deep wells, and offers several case studies of DWI in operation

=====


The above three documents are probably your best starting point for
getting a fast but in-depth background on DWI.



Here are some additional sources of information that are also worth a look:



http://www.frtr.gov/matrix2/section4/4-54.html
4.57 Deep Well Injection
[quick overview with figures and links]



http://www.cadmusgroup.com/underground_injection_control
The Cadmus Group
Underground Injection Control



http://www.logwell.com/tech/uic2/injection_notes.html
Injection Well Notes



http://www.pollutioneng.com/CDA/Archives/93cdabee0ed68010VgnVCM100000f932a8c0____
A Clean Look at Deep Well Isolation 
Dr. Harding 
September 1, 2003 




http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0071444661/ref=nosim/102-7199788-3924124?camp=2025&dev-t=D26XECQVNV6NDQ&link%5Fcode=xm2&n=283155
Groundwater Injection (McGraw-Hill Professional Engineering) 
Fred Bloetscher, Albert Muniz, Gerhardt Witt
2004
[includes chapters on mathmatics of groundwater flow and injection,
physical considerations, operations, system performance, etc]



http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0412498707&id=O1Y0dpN6MIoC&pg=PA42&lpg=PA42&dq=%22deepwell+injection%22+OR+%22deep+well+injection%22+OR+%22underground+injection%22&sig=jrgrSpXc9wcEWoylIMKbTf2-fNc
Induced Earthquakes
By S K Guha
2001 
[worth a look because it includes a section on how DWI may contribute
to earthquakes by lubricating faults]


http://www.nyx.net/~dcypser/induceq/iis.html
Injection Induced Earthquake References
[and some more materials on the possibility of a DWI-earthquake connection]




http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521005779&id=vslfWio6cvgC&pg=PA169&lpg=PA168&dq=%22deepwell+injection%22+OR+%22deep+well+injection%22+OR+%22underground+injection%22&sig=KOzraQ1gLUc2ZHlgOD2XIGo5xT4
Environmental Applications of Geochemical Modeling
By Chen Zhu, Greg Anderson
2002
[includes modeling details of physical and chemical transformations
associated with UIJ]



http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0815512902&id=9HKC3Z5v-f4C&pg=PA269&lpg=PA269&dq=%22deepwell+injection%22+OR+%22deep+well+injection%22+OR+%22underground+injection%22&sig=WTVcWLvfjlZf8y_sIJDs9Vfh3jE
Handbook of Pollution Control Processes
edited by Robert Noyes
1992
[good overview of the factors leading to acceptable use of UIJ ]



http://www.epa.gov/safewater/uic/cl5study.html
Class V - Underground Injection Control Study
1999
[this report focuses on shallower injection wells, but has a ton of
useful information just the same, and lots of industry-specific
detail]




http://www.epa.gov/r5water/uic/techdocs.htm#ntwg
Technical Guidance Documents for Deep Wells

[check out this site for access to a series of technical documents --
some recent, some quite old -- fomr EPA]:

1 Casing and Cementing Policy for Substandard Class II Injection Wells
June 20, 1986

2 Financial Responsibility for Class II Injection Wells June 17, 1987 

3 Determination of Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDWs) February 5, 1987 

4 Plugging and Abandonment Of Class I - V Wells December 22, 1994 

5 Determination of the Mechanical Integrity of Injection Wells June 1998. 

6 Ambient Pressure Monitoring Draft Revision 

7 Determination of Maximum Injection Pressure for Class I Wells December 22, 1994 

8 Preparing a Waste Analysis Plan at Class I Injection Well Facilities
January 21, 1994

   Region V Guidelines for Class I Well Monitoring Plans October 1989 

   Supplemental Guidelines for Plans and Operations of Monitoring
Wells at Class I Injection Well Facilities February 28, 1991

  "Field Rules": Fracture Pressure Gradient Values for Certain Oil
Fields in Michigan 1992, 1993

 Information Sheet for Owner/Operators of Class 1HW Injection Wells
Who Are Submitting Simultaneous Applications for Permits and Petitions
for Exemptions to the RCRA Land Ban (PDF file, 55 pp, 404 kb) April 7,
2006

  Downloadable Permit Application and Permit Renewal Documents 



There are additional links at the above site to information on shallow
well injection, also.



I trust this information fully answers your question.  

However, please don't rate this answer until you have everything you
need.  If you would like any additional information, just post a
Request for Clarification to let me know how I can assist you further,
and I'm at your service.

All the best,

pafalafa-ga


search strategy -- Searched Google, Google Scholar, Google Books, and A9.com for:


deep well injection

underground injection

Request for Answer Clarification by clemson-ga on 14 Aug 2006 13:24 PDT
As stated in the question, the main information I am seeking is
company specific gray literature.(Compay XX currently utilizes deep
well injection of xxx wastewater, but has commited to end this
practice by 2008 or Company YY currently utilizes deep well injection
of xxx wastewater with no plans of abandoning this practice)Was this
type of information not available or not searched for?

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 14 Aug 2006 14:43 PDT
clemson-ga,

My apologies...I read your question in a different way than you intended.

I'll be glad to continue researching this for you, but it would help
to have a better understanding of what background you already have on
this topic, and what your goals are for collecting new information.

The better I understand what you're after, the better I can focus my research.

For instance, are you familiar with the Toxics Release Inventory? 
This is a fantastic resource for getting some specifics on who
practices DWI, and where.  I took a look at the latest TRI data, using
the TRI Explorer:


http://www.epa.gov/triexplorer/
TRI Explorer 


and extracted the list of all facilities in the US that reported
on-site DWI.  Here are the Top 50:



FACILITY................................................POUNDS OF WASTE TO DWI
......................................................(chemical only,
water not included)

SOLUTIA - CHOCOLATE BAYOU.........................	TX 	24,487,986
SOLUTIA INC.......................................	FL 	22,498,980
DU PONT DELISLE PLANT.............................	MS 	13,519,240
BP AMOCO CHEMICAL GREEN L AKE FACILITY............	TX 	12,818,240
MONSANTO LULING...................................	LA 	12,676,480
VICKERY ENVIRONMENTAL INC.........................	OH 	12,006,031
DU PONT BEAUMONT PLANT............................	TX 	10,785,785
BP AMOCO CHEMICAL CO..............................	OH 	10,543,221
CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC FORTIER PLANT................	LA 	9,168,979
ANGUS CHEMICAL CO.................................	LA 	7,692,103
TM DEER PARK SERVICES LP..........................	TX 	7,321,126
STERLING CHEMICALS INC............................	TX 	6,363,792
INVISTA S.    R.L. VICTORIA.......................	TX 	5,683,808
RUBICON LLC.......................................	LA 	5,370,640
VOPAK LOGISTICS SERVICES USA INC..................	TX 	4,892,181
DYNO NOBEL INC  CHEYENNE PLANT....................	WY 	4,050,600
GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL  CENTRAL.....................	AR 	4,028,206
LYONDELL CHEMICAL CO..............................	TX 	3,958,000
BASF CORP.........................................	TX 	2,657,410
TICONA POLYMERS INC...............................	TX 	2,539,146
CHEVRON PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO LP...................	TX 	2,326,166
BP TEXAS CITY REFINERY............................	TX 	2,020,735
NOVUS INTERNATIONAL INC...........................	TX 	1,984,200
ISP TECHNOLOGIES INC..............................	TX 	1,900,624
MERISOL USA LLC...................................	TX 	1,820,424
MONSANTO - CHOCOLATE BAYOU........................	TX 	1,757,756
DU PONT LA PORTE PLANT............................	TX 	1,506,450
AGRIUM U.S. INC...................................	TX 	1,426,126
PFIZER INC  PARKE-DAVIS DIV.......................	MI 	1,322,429
CROMPTON MANUFACTURING CO INC.....................	LA 	1,249,371
CLEAN HARBORS PLAQUEMINE LLC......................	LA 	1,198,844
PERMA-FIX TREATMENT SERVICES......................	OK 	1,160,701
KOCH NITROGEN CO..................................	KS 	829,136
OCCIDENTAL CHEMICAL CORP LULING...................	LA 	783,000
DIAMOND SHAMROCK REFINING CO. L.P.................	TX 	652,804
ISG BURNS HARBOR LLC..............................	IN 	618,714
DU PONT PONTCHARTRAIN WORKS.......................	LA 	579,285
INVISTA S.  R. I. - SABINE RIVER WORKS...........	TX 	492,305
PHARMACIA & UPJOHN CO.............................	MI 	464,222
BASF CORP BEAUMONT................................	TX 	439,650
CHEMTURA CORP MARSHALL  TEXAS FACILITY............	TX 	409,619
VULCAN CHEMICALS..................................	KS 	405,245
UOP SHREVEPORT PLANT..............................	LA 	371,184
ISK MAGNETICS INC.................................	IN 	351,766
ARKEMA INC........................................	TX 	302,621
CROMPTON CORP POLYMER ADDITIVES DIV...............	LA 	194,198
ASARCO LLC AMARILLO COPPER REFINERY...............	TX 	157,286
HUNTSMAN PETROCHEMICAL CORP.......................	FL 	111,900
AIR PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING CORP...................	KS 	67,050
JOHN MORRELL- GREAT BEND..........................	KS 	48,528


There are hundreds of other facilities that reported DWI, but the ones
above are the biggies, at least in terms of on-site DWI.


Is this sort of information useful?  If not, please clarify for me
what other sort of information you're looking for.


Thanks so much,


paf

Clarification of Answer by pafalafa-ga on 17 Dec 2006 12:12 PST
By the way, here's a more extensive list of the Top 100 or so deep
well injection facilities in the US:


Largest Underground Injection Wells in the United States:


193ASH STEVENS INC	MI 
20/10 PRODUCTS INC	OR 
21 CENTURY ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INC.	NV 
220 LABORATORIES	CA 
3M CO   FAIRMONT	MN 
3M CO - ALEXANDRIA	MN 
3M CO AMES	IA 
3M CO AUSTIN RESEARCH BOULEVARD SITE	TX 
3M CO BELLE MEAD	NJ 
3M CO BROOKINGS	SD 
3M CO BROWNWOOD	TX 
3M CO CHELMSFORD	MA 
3M CO COLUMBIA	MO 
3M CO CORDOVA	IL 
3M CO CORONA	CA 
3M CO CUMBERLAND	WI 
3M CO CYNTHIANA	KY 
3M CO DECATUR	AL 
3M CO DETROIT	MI 
3M CO GREENVILLE	SC 
3M CO GUIN	AL 
3M CO HARTFORD CITY	IN 
3M CO	NJ 
AGRIUM U.S. INC	TX 
AIR PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING CORP	KS 
AKZO NOBEL SURFACE CHEMISTRY LLC	TX 
ALBEMARLE CORP SOUTH PLANT	AR 
ANGUS CHEMICAL CO	LA 
ARKEMA INC	TX 
ARVESTA CORP	OH 
ASARCO LLC AMARILLO COPPER REFINERY	TX 
BAKER PETROLITE CORP	OK 
BASF CORP BEAUMONT	TX 
BASF CORP	TX 
BASF CORP	LA 
BASF CORP	LA
BASF CORP	TX
BASF CORP	LA
BASF CORP	TX
BIOLAB INC	MI 
BOEING	OK 
BP AMOCO CHEMICAL CO	OH 
BP AMOCO CHEMICAL GREEN LAKE FACILITY	TX 
BP TEXAS CITY REFINERY	TX 
BP TEXAS CITY REFINERY	TX
BP TEXAS CITY REFINERY	TX
CALUMET LUBRICANTS CO LP	LA 
CHEMTURA CORP MARSHALL  TEXAS FACILITY	TX 
CHEVRON ORONITE CO LLC	LA 
CHEVRON PHILLIPS CHEMICAL CO LP	TX 
CLEAN HARBORS PLAQUEMINE LLC	LA 
CONOCOPHILLIPS CO	TX 
CROMPTON CORP POLYMER ADDITIVES DIV	LA 
CROMPTON MANUFACTURING CO INC	LA 
CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC FORTIER PLANT	LA 
DIAMOND SHAMROCK REFINING CO. L.P.	TX 
DU PONT BEAUMONT PLANT	TX 
DU PONT DELISLE PLANT	MS 
DU PONT DELISLE PLANT	MS
DU PONT DELISLE PLANT	MS
DU PONT DOW ELASTOMERS LLC PONTCHARTRAIN SITE	LA 
DU PONT DOW ELASTOMERS LLC PONTCHARTRAIN SITE	LA
DU PONT DOW ELASTOMERS LLC PONTCHARTRAIN SITE	LA
DU PONT LA PORTE PLANT	TX 
DU PONT LA PORTE PLANT	TX
DU PONT LA PORTE PLANT	TX
DU PONT PONTCHARTRAIN WORKS	LA 
DYNO NOBEL INC  CHEYENNE PLANT	WY 
EQUISTAR CHEMICALS L.P.	TX 
GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL  CENTRAL	AR 
GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL SOUTH P	AR 
HORSEHEAD CORP.	OK 
HUNTSMAN CORP	TX 
HUNTSMAN PETROCHEMICAL CORP	FL 
INVISTA S.   R.L. VICTORIA	TX 
INVISTA S.   R.L. VICTORIA	TX
INVISTA S.   R.L. VICTORIA	TX
INVISTA S.  R. I. - SABINE RIVER WORKS	TX 
ISG BURNS HARBOR LLC	IN 
ISG BURNS HARBOR LLC	IN
ISG BURNS HARBOR LLC	IN
ISK MAGNETICS INC	IN 
ISP TECHNOLOGIES INC	TX 
JOHN MORRELL- GREAT BEND	KS 
KOCH NITROGEN CO	KS 
LYONDELL CHEMICAL CO	TX 
LYONDELL CHEMICAL CO	TX
LYONDELL CHEMICAL CO	TX
MERISOL USA LLC	TX 
MITTAL STEEL USA  HENNEPIN	IL 
MONSANTO - CHOCOLATE BAYOU	TX 
MONSANTO LULING	LA 
MONSANTO LULING	LA
MONSANTO LULING	LA
NATIONAL CO-OP REFINERY ASSOCIATION	KS 
NAVAJO REFINING CO	NM 
NAVAJO REFINING CO	NM
NAVAJO REFINING CO	NM
NOVUS INTERNATIONAL INC	TX 
OCCIDENTAL CHEMICAL CORP LULING	LA 
ONYX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES LLC	TX 
ONYX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES LLC	TX
ONYX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES LLC	TX
PERMA-FIX TREATMENT SERVICES	OK 
PFIZER INC  PARKE-DAVIS DIV	MI 
PHARMACIA & UPJOHN CO	MI 
PHARMACIA & UPJOHN CO	MI
PHARMACIA & UPJOHN CO	MI
RUBICON LLC	LA 
RUBICON LLC	LA
RUBICON LLC	LA
SAN JUAN REFINING CO	NM 
SHERWIN-WILLIAMS CO	KS 
SOLUTIA - CHOCOLATE BAYOU	TX 
SOLUTIA INC.	FL 
SOLUTIA INC.	FL
SOLUTIA INC.	FL
STERLING CHEMICALS INC.	TX 
STERLING FIBERS INC  SANTA ROSA PLANT	FL 
SWIFT & CO WET BLUE TANNERY	TX 
SYNGENTA CROP PROTECTION INC SAINT GABRIEL FACILITY	LA 
TICONA POLYMERS INC	TX 
TM DEER PARK SERVICES LP	TX 
TYSON FRESH MEATS INC	KS 
TYSON FRESH MEATS INC.	TX 
TYSON FRESH MEATS INC.	KS 
UOP SHREVEPORT PLANT	LA 
VICKERY ENVIRONMENTAL INC.	OH 
VOPAK LOGISTICS SERVICES USA INC.	TX 
VULCAN CHEMICALS	KS 
VULCAN CHEMICALS	KS
VULCAN CHEMICALS	KS
clemson-ga rated this answer:4 out of 5 stars
The researcher provided a lot of general information regarding deep
well injection. However, the specific information I was looking for
(company specific grey literature such as position papers, policies,
in-house technical and fesibility reviews, consultant reports,
non-published papers, published papers...etc.) was not provided, which
is most likely due to the limited availability.

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