Please see the results of my research below. I tried to narrow my
search to "vinyl acetate emulsions," specifically. Please look this
over and let me know what you think.
OVERVIEW OF VINYL ACETATE EMULSIONS
From "What are Polymers?"
"Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) is a synthetic polymer and a member of the
vinyl ester family. PVAc emulsion adhesives first gained market share
by replacing hide glues in the 1940?s.
* Today, vinyl acetate adhesives are the most widely used adhesives on
the market, but vinyl acetate emulsions are also heavily used in
paints, textile sizing and nonwoven binders.
* Vinyl acetate emulsion adhesives can be broadly classified as
homopolymer or copolymer. Each of these two types can be further
classified as self-crosslinking or non-crosslinking.
Homopolymer Emulsion (PVA)
"PVAc homopolymers were the first polyvinyl acetate emulsions
developed. These polymers are hard and brittle with high molecular
weight, high tensile strength and rapid speed of set. Today these
homopolymers are still the "workhorses" of the industry due to their
excellent adhesion to a wide variety of "polar" substrates,
particularly cellulosic-based substrates such as paper and wood."
PVA adhesives have the following characteristics:
Fast speed of set
Excellent adhesion to cellulosic substrates, ceramics, concrete, and glass
High molecular weight
Copolymer emulsion (VAE, VAA)
"Compared to PVAc homopolymers, vinyl acetate copolymer emulsions
offer the advantage of being able to bond difficult-to-bond substrates
such as plastic films, coated papers, and metal surfaces. Vinyl
acetate copolymer emulsions are internally flexibilized with a
comonomer such as ethylene (VAE) or an acrylate (VAA). The increased
polymer flexibility provides for increased polymer mobility and,
therefore, better adhesion."
Applications for PVAc copolymers include:
An interesting paper outlining the historical production and demand
for vinyl acetate in the United States has a few tidbits about VAE's.
From "4. PRODUCTION, IMPORT, USE, AND DISPOSAL." Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry.
"Polyvinyl acetate emulsions (homopolymer and copolymer), the major
derivatives of vinyl acetate, are widely used in adhesives for
packaging and construction (wood gluing) and in water-based paints
(IARC 1986; Mannsville 1988). Other important uses include nonwoven
textile fibers, textile sizings
and finishes, paper coatings, and inks."
"In 1987, the estimated end-use distribution pattern for vinyl acetate
was as follows: 55% was used to produce polyvinyl acetate emulsions
(homopolymer and copolymer), for use in adhesives (23%), paint
emulsions (20%) and textile and paper emulsions (12%); 20% was used to
produce polyvinyl alcohol; 10% to produce ethylene/vinyl acetate; 5%
to produce polyvinyl butyral; 5% to produce polyvinyl chloride
copolymers; and 5% to produce miscellaneous products (Mannsville
From "An Overview of Emulsion Polymers Used in the Adhesives
Industry." Paul Ita, Senior Research Analyst, The Freedonia Group,
Inc., Cleveland. June 30, 2002. AdhesivesMag.
"In 2000, demand for emulsion polymers in the global adhesives
industry totaled 1.9 million metric tons (dry basis), valued at $3.4
billion. (These totals exclude materials used as carpet adhesives and
backings, primarily styrene-butadiene latex.) Demand for adhesive
emulsions is forecast to expand 4.4 percent per year to 2.3 million
metric tons in 2005, slightly outpacing inflation-adjusted growth in
the global economy, which is forecast at 3.7 percent annually between
2000 and 2005.
"Emulsion polymers are widely used as the polymeric base for a variety
of general-purpose adhesives. The largest volume market for these
materials is packaging adhesives used for paper and paperboard
packaging, including boxes, folded cartons and paper bags. Emulsions
also serve as binders for pressure sensitive adhesives used for tapes
and labels; in the production of nonwovens such as diapers and
feminine hygiene products; and in consumer products such as household
glue and carpenter's wood glue."
Vinyl acetate polymers
...will remain the largest segment of the market, where polyvinyl
acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate and other polymers serve as moderately
priced, nontoxic glues. Most prominently, PVA is used as the base for
both white glue and carpenter's wood glue, two versatile,
general-purpose products with broad use in the consumer segment. Vinyl
acetate polymer adhesives are amenable to high-speed production
processes and function best in the bonding of paper and wood. In
particular, PVA and EVA adhesives are widely used in paperboard
packaging, particularly the side seaming of lightweight board used for
small cartons or boxes. These adhesives also find use in bookbinding,
on-site construction, textiles, envelopes, bags and sacks, and labels.
Furniture uses include wood veneer, edge gluing and general assembly.
Global demand for vinyl acetate polymer emulsions in adhesives is
forecast to approach one million metric tons by 2005."
Adhesive Emulsions by Market
Paper and paperboard packaging markets stable, slower growing;
strongest gains forecast for tapes and labels.
"Emulsion-based adhesives are used primarily in packaging
applications, particularly paperboard products such as boxes
(corrugated, solid, folding and set-up), sanitary food containers,
tubes, cans and drums. Paper packaging includes shipping sacks, along
with paper bags and sacks, envelopes and associated materials. Other
packaging markets include laminations such as paper/foil, foil/film
and film/film. The most rapid annual gains in this segment are
forecast for pressure sensitive adhesives used in the production of
tapes and labels, where demand for emulsion polymers is forecast to
exceed 400,000 metric tons in 2006.............
"The nonwovens market encompasses emulsions used in the production of
various disposables, which includes diapers, feminine-hygiene products
and adult-incontinence products, along with medical products. Major
applications include binding together the absorbent fibers, as well as
bonding the absorbent portion to the outer layer. In these uses,
emulsion polymers act as binders and provide solvent resistance, wet
and dry strength, and a soft-hand feel in disposable products such as
towels, wipes, diaper-cover stock, feminine-hygiene products and
( Refer to article for charts and information about major suppliers )
From "Polyvinyl Acetate (PVAc) (Vinyl Acetate Homopolymer) - European Adhesives."
"Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)(Vinyl Acetate Homopolymer) includes polymers
of all molecular weights formed from the free radical polymerization
of vinyl acetate monomer. These homopolymers are sold as latex,
emulsion or spray dried solids. The spray dried polyvinyl acetate
emulsions can be reconstituted in water, mixed with other adhesive
emulsions or mixed with other dry ingredients where they have the
ability to be used as a binder in dry mix formulations."
"The PVAc emulsions are, by far, the major form in which polyvinyl
acetate is used in the adhesive market. PVAc emulsions exhibit
excellent compatibility with many modifying resins, lending themselves
to a broad range of applications through formulation."
A few examples of VAE Product listings
Paper, fiber and wood products
Vinyl acetate emulsion
"This synthetic-resin adhesive in milky liquid form is obtained
through our original emulsion polymerization technology. The product
spreads smoothly, and has high adhesive strength, flexibility, and is
tolerant to deflection. The resulting dry films are colorless and
transparent, thus will not taint the matter to witch they are adhered.
* The vinyl acetate emulsion products are used for a wide range of
purposes, including paper processing, fiber processing, and in wood
See "Understanding the use of Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) Adhesives in Bookbinding."
Poly vinyl acetate emulsion:
Used for full voile, dhotis, mulls, superfine poplins, satins,
suiting, coatings. Special stiff buckram finish, fine quality dress
materials, long cloth, poplins. Base emulsion for making wood glues.
RB4- New poly vinyl acetate emulsion without the stiffness. Adds body
to the fabric.
Additive to Paints
A low semi-gloss sheen, clear (poly)vinyl acetate emulsion used both
as a sealer, a glaze and for sheen adjustment.
3. Polyvinyl acetate emulsion paints:
a. Moderate durability when used alone; Durability is increased when
the vinyl acetate emulsion is blended with other emulsions (i.e.
acrylic, linseed oil, alkyd-resin).
As a base in Concrete Bonding Additives
See Base Physical and Chemical Characteristics
Experimental study and clinical use of poly(vinyl acetate) emulsion as
liquid embolisation material. Sadato A, Taki W, Ikada Y, Nakahara I,
Yamashita K, Matsumoto K, Tanaka M, Kikuchi H, Doi Y, Noguchi T, et
al. Neuroradiology. 1994 Nov;36(8):634-41.
List of Suppliers/Manufacturers
MARKET AND PRICING
"Rohm And Haas Announces Price Increase." January 19, 2004
"The Adhesives and Sealants business unit of Rohm and Haas has
announced a price increase for all acrylic and vinyl acetate emulsions
sold to the pressure sensitive, construction, adhesives, caulks and
sealants industries in North America. The increase, which ranges from
4 to 6 percent, will take effect Feb. 1, 2004 or as contracts allow.
The increase is needed to cover recent increases in raw material and
"Vinamul Polymers Announces Price Increase on Vinyl Acetate Emulsions
in U.S." Oct. 12, 2004
"Vinamul Polymers has announced that it is increasing the price of its
vinyl acetate homopolymer and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer
emulsions sold in the United States by 3 cents per wet pound,
effective Nov. 1, 2004. The increase will impact emulsion polymer
products sold in the nonwovens, adhesives and building products,
textiles, fiberfill, paper, carpet and glass fiber markets. The price
adjustment is being driven by continued cost increases in raw
materials, energy and transportation, according to
Vinamul Polymers officials."
"OMNOVA Solutions Announces Specialty Chemicals Price Increases. "February 9, 2004
"OMNOVA Solutions' Specialty Chemicals business has announced a price
increase of $0.03 per dry pound for styrene butadiene latex and $0.02
per wet pound for pure acrylic, styrene acrylic, vinyl acrylic and
vinyl acetate emulsion polymers. The increase is effective Feb. 15,
2004 for all specialty markets, and is necessitated by continued
escalation of chemical feedstock costs."
From "Market for Emulsion Polymers to Rise 6.1%/Yr to $20 Billion+;
Success Closely Linked to Water-Based Adhesives." Posted: February 27,
"Demand for emulsion polymers used in adhesives will offer favorable
though below-average gains due to solid demand arising from paper and
paper packaging, and tape and label end-use segments. Volume demand
will continue to be dominated by low-cost polyvinyl acetate (PVA)
adhesives used in high-speed packaging processes, particularly
"North America and Western Europe accounted for two-thirds of global
demand for emulsion polymers in 2000. In addition to dominating output
of key emulsion-containing products such as general-purpose adhesives,
latex paints and coated paper, suppliers in these regions have made
the greatest effort to improve the environmental compatibility of
their offerings, including the greater use of water-based emulsions.
Nonetheless, the most rapid gains in emulsion-polymer demand will
arise in developing regions, particularly Asia, where adhesives and
coatings suppliers are striving to improve the technological
sophistication of their products."
"The global market for emulsion polymers was valued at $14.9 billion
in 2000, and the top four suppliers -- Rohm and Haas, Dow Chemical,
BASF, and Air Products and Chemicals -- held 27 percent of the
From "World Emulsion Polymers to 2008 - Demand and Sales Forecasts,
Market Share, Market Size, Market Leaders." Published: 07/2004
"Global emulsion polymer market value will grow 6.1 percent annually
through 2008 based on a shift toward higher priced emulsions,
particularly acrylics. Emulsion polymers benefit from their use in
water-based paints, coatings and adhesives, which emit less volatile
organic compounds during cure than oil-based materials. This study
analyzes the US$17.9 billion world emulsion polymer industry. It
presents historical demand data for 1993, 1998 and 2003 and forecasts
to 2008 and 2013 by type (e.g., acrylic emulsions,
styrene-butadiene-latex, vinyl acetate polymers); by market (e.g.,
paper coatings, paints and coatings, general purpose adhesives, carpet
and rug backing adhesives); by world geographic region and for 12
major countries. The study also examines the market environment,
details industry structure, evaluates company market share, and
profiles 35 leading competitors including Dow Chemical, Rohm and Haas,
BASF, and Air Products and Chemicals."
Additional market reports:
"U.S. Emulsion Polymers Markets." Pub Time: 2004/03
You might want to take a look at the following book:
"Vinyl Acetate Emulsion Polymerization and Copolymerization With
Acrylic Monomers," by Yildirim H. Erbil
"Celanese To Build Emulsions Plant In China." July/August 2006
"Celanese facilities also under construction at the site include a
300,000-metric-ton vinyl acetate monomer plant, set to open in 2008; a
600,000-metric-ton acetic acid plant, set to open in early 2007; and a
technical service laboratory. The emulsion facility will feature
conventional reactors to produce polyvinyl acetate emulsions and a
state-of-the-art pressure reactor to produce vinyl acetate ethylene."
"The new facilities will make Celanese a fully integrated acetyls
manufacturer in China, according to the company, which has had a
marketing and sales team in that country for its Emulsions & PVOH
business for nearly a year."
"We will start by creating emulsion polymers in our facility," said
William Massa, vice president, Celanese Emulsions & PVOH. These
emulsion polymers will be used to create better manufactured products
that will be offered to the world?s markets."
From "China?s Petrochemical Sector: Growing Demand Attracts
Unprecedented Multinational Investment."
"Showa Denko's Show Highpolymer unit (Tokyo, Japan) has started work
on a 9,600-m.t/yr resin emulsions unit at its Shanghai complex. The
plant, which is due to start up in late 2004, will produce acrylic,
vinyl acetate, and modified ethylene vinyl acetate emulsions for
paints and adhesives, and can easily be expanded to 20,000 m.t./yr,
says the firm."
From GM Chemicals
"Beijing Organic Chemical Plant (BOCP) was established in 1965, when
it took the lead in China by introducing complete sets of equipment
and technology from Japan. It is the first largescale domestic
chemical enterprise that produces emulsion. The plant is located in Da
Jiaoting, Chaoyang District in Beijing and occupies an area of 38
hectares. Its total assets amounts to 2 billion RMB yuan (US$241.6
"During its history of more than 3 decades, BOCP has absorbed and
mastered the production process of these introduced units. It has made
process modifications to the vinyl acetate and polyvinyl alcohol
production units for expansion. Meanwhile, BOCP continues to adopt new
technology, equipment and process from foreign countries. It has
introduced advanced technology and equipment for the production of
polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVAC), VAE emulsion and EVA resin from
Japan, United States, Britain and Italy respectively. So far, BOCP
owns 11 sets of production equipments, compared to only one set when
the plant came into being. It has developed four major series of
products from the original single series, offering near 100 grades,
and its annual output has increased from 10,000 tons to 180,000 tons.
BOCP has become the largest maker polyvinyl acetate emulsion, VAE
emulsion and EVA resin in China."
The following market reports might be of interest:
Chinese Emulsion Polymers Markets
Chinese Markets for Adhesives
Synthetic Latex Polymers Market Analysis, Volume I: Asia-Pacific 2004:
(Note - You can order just the section title "POLYVINYL ACETATE
I hope this is exactly what you need! If not, perhaps I can expand my
search with some different terminology.
VAE OR Vinyl Acetate emulsions
vinyl acetate copolymer emulsion
vinyl acetate emulsions AND uses OR industries
use of vinyl acetate emulsion in adhesives
"vinyl acetate emulsions" use in nonwovens
"vinyl acetate emulsion" and market
"Vinyl acetate emulsion adhesives" are used for
vinyl Acetate Emulsions usage OR used OR applications
Vinyl Acetate Emulsions AND China
china AND polyvinyl acetate emulsions market