In general, there is no term for those people, but for the society in
which we live. A country which is not governed by the Sharia (not
Shi'a, which is another thing altogether) might be called in different
names by different people, according to the Islamic interpretation:
"Dar al-Harb (Arabic: ??? ????? "house of war") is a term used to
refer to those areas outside Muslim rule. The term traditionally
refers to those lands administered by non-Muslim governments. The
exact definitions of these territories can vary widely according to
the viewer's concept of who is and is not a Muslim, and which
governments are or are not Muslim in practice. The inhabitants of the
Dar al-Harb are called harbis. According to Muslim law, harbis have no
Dar al-Dawa (Arabic: ??? ?????? "house of invitation") is a term used
to describe a region where the religion of Islam has recently been
introduced. Since the population has not been exposed to Islam before,
they may not fit into the traditional definition of dar al-Harb. On
the other hand, as the region is not Muslim, it cannot be dar al-Islam
either. The most frequent use of the term dar al-Dawa is to describe
Arabia before and during the life of Muhammad.
More recently, the term dar al-Dawa has been proposed by Western
Muslim philosophers to describe the status of Muslims in the West.
The term dar al-Dawa may be used in conjunction with, or in opposition
to, the older terms dar al-Islam and dar al-Harb, from which it is
(SOURCE: Dar el-Harb, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dar_al-harb>).
Question: To what extent do Muslims have to obey the governments of
the non-Muslim countries in which they live? To what extent can they
disobey or resist those governments?
Rulings on living in non-Muslim countries from Fatwanet
Muslims Living in Non-Muslim Lands By Shaykh Abdullah bin Bayyah, Zaytuna Institute
I hope this answers your question. Please contact me if you need any
clarification on this answer before you rate it.