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Q: lockers in public high schools ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: lockers in public high schools
Category: Reference, Education and News > Education
Asked by: psheph1064-ga
List Price: $100.00
Posted: 26 Sep 2006 10:52 PDT
Expires: 26 Oct 2006 10:52 PDT
Question ID: 768574
How have public high schools in California made their student lockers work for them?

Request for Question Clarification by keystroke-ga on 26 Sep 2006 18:05 PDT
Hello psheph1064,

Could you clarify and narrow down a bit exactly what you're asking?
What is it about lockers that you want to know?

Subject: Re: lockers in public high schools
Answered By: keystroke-ga on 27 Sep 2006 15:30 PDT
Hello psheph1064,

Public high schools in California have many regulations and policies
governing locker use. Here are some interesting regulations that I
could find.

==Locker fees==

James Lick High School
San Jose, CA 

James Lick requires students who wish to have a hall locker to
purchase a special card, an ASB, or "Associated Student Body" card.

James Lick Student Information

"Students may purchase ASB (Associated Student Body) cards at the
school bank at a cost of $15.00. Any student who wishes to participate
in sports, cheerleading, student government, have a hall locker, etc.,
is required to purchase an ASB card. This card allows students to
receive discounts on items such as dance tickets and yearbooks, and be
admitted FREE to most football and basketball games."

"Lockers are issued as a convenience to our students; locker use is
not required. Students who choose to use a locker are required to have
a valid ASB card and must bring their own locks. Please be advised
that neither the school nor the district will be responsible for
personal or school property that is lost or stolen from either a hall
locker or PE locker."

Some schools require an application process:

Mission San Jose High School FAQ

"Lockers are assigned by ASB during Orientation. You must provide your
own lock. If you did not get a locker, you must go to the activities
office and apply for one. Some lockers leak, so be careful if you have
a locker out in the open, where rain can enter and damage your
textbooks. The school is not responsible for lost or stolen property.
You may not deface your locker in any way or else you will be reported
to the authority. If you have any questions regarding lockers, talk to
the ASB Vice President."

=="Locker maintenance fees"==

"Free schools can cost you"
by Shirley Dang

"In one loop around the gym -- plastered with signs that read "cash or
check" -- Williams ended up shelling out nearly $250 [for his
daughter's school fees]. At one point, he left to find a cash machine
because the $200 in his wallet failed to cover all the costs,
including $10 for report-card postage and locker maintenance."

Richard Gahr High School in Cerritos, California

"Locker Maintenance Fee in the amount of $5 dollars will be required
for each student issued a locker. Because lockers
are under the joint control of the student and the district, school
officials shall have the right and ability to open and
inspect any school locker without student permission when they have
reasonable suspicion that the search will disclose
evidence of illegal possessions or activity or when odors, smoke, fire
and/or other threats to student health, welfare, or
safety emanate from the locker."

Hilltop High School in Chula Vista further regulates that locker
maintenance can only be done during seventh period, so as not to
burden the custodians.

Salem Community School states that lockers can be cleaned at any time
by custodial staff:

Salem Schools Administration Policies

"Locker Maintenance ? Nothing stated herein shall prevent custodial
staff, or others who repair or install
From repairing or replacinglockers when necessary;
From cleaning lockers from time to time in accordance with a posted
general-housecleaning schedule;
From cleaning the locker of a former student;
From cleaning lockers during a vacation period."

==Locker theft==

Schools issue warnings against thefts that may occur from lockers and
therefore issue warnings to students against keeping anything of any
type of value in their lockers.

Here is an example of such a warning:

Irvington High School in Fremont, California

Students should NOT bring costly personal items to school nor should
they store them in lockers."

Hilltop High School
Chula Vista, CA
Hilltop Lancers Handbook

"Students are financially responsible for any textbooks or library
books stolen from their lockers."

==Locker agreements==

Many schools require students to sign and agree to "locker
agreements," in which they promise not to abuse their locker
privileges. It is then easier to take away the student's locker access
at a later date if they abuse them.

Hilltop in Chula Vista (1)

"A locker is to be used only by the student to whom it is assigned.
Valid ?Locker Agreements? must
be on file in the ASB."

Here is the text of Hilltop High School's locker agreement:

STUDENT: ____________________________________________
Print LAST name, FIRST name
LOCKER #_______________
LOCKER PRIVILEGE: We understand that the use of a locker is a
privilege and convenience to be used during
the school day. As a student, I will remove all books and valuables
from my locker each day when I leave
school to protect them from theft or vandalism. I will not share my
locker with other students.
LOST OR STOLEN ITEMS: In consideration for providing an assigned
locker, we agree that Hilltop High
School is not responsible for any article lost or stolen from the
locker and that it is our responsibility to replace
such article(s), including school issued books, supplies and uniforms.

USE OF PROPER LOCKS: Additionally, we agree to use only a proper dial
combination lock (Master lock
recommended) and to record the combination with the ASB Office. Key
locks and small dial combination
locks are not allowed. The ASB Office will be notified immediately
upon changing any lock or combination.
Failure to do so will result in having the lock cut off and loss of
locker privileges for the remainder of the school
CUTTING OFF LOCKS: We understand that if a student is using a locker
not assigned to him/her, the lock will
be cut off immediately if requested by the authorized occupant of the
locker. Textbooks will be taken to the library
& other items to the ASB. Locker problems/maintenance will be handled
during period 7 only.
USE OF HALL PASS: We understand that no hall passes will be issued for
the purpose of going to lockers for
any reason. It is the responsibility of students to come to class
prepared and on time.
PRIVACY: Furthermore, we understand and voluntarily relinquish any
expectation to a right of privacy. We
knowingly and voluntarily consent to locker inspection by the school
administration at any time and without
DAMAGED LOCKERS AND TRASH: We further agree that it is our
responsibility to repair any damage
caused by the student to the assigned locker and our failure to do so
will result in forfeiture of the locker. Trash left
in the locker area and attributable to a specific student will also be
just cause for removal of locker privileges.
CAMPUS SAFETY AND SECURITY: We agree to all terms of this agreement
and understand that the purpose
of this agreement is to provide for the safety of students and staff
and protection of both student?s and school
district property.
We understand that excessive tardies to school and to class will
result in the loss of locker privileges."

Here is another example of a locker contract, from Lincoln High School in San Jose.

Lincoln High School Locker Contract

==Hall Passes==

Should students be granted hall passes to go to their lockers during
classes? This practice has mostly been phased out of high schools and
students are usually only allowed to go to their lockers in between
class periods.

Hilltop High School: (1)
"No hall passes will be issued for the purpose of going to lockers."

==Locker safety==

One of the major issues concerning the usage and provision of school
lockers is the safety of students. Since lockers are a private area
for each individual student, there is a possibility of that student
using the locker for nefarious purposes. Many safety measures have
been enacted in many schools to prevent this from happening.

Here are a few incidents which have occurred:

National School Safety and Security Services

"July 4, 2001:  Hilmar, CA
A pipe bomb with powder and nails blew up school lockers during the
night at a high school, destroying 18 lockers and sending debris 30
feet from the explosion site.  A similar incident occurred two nights
earlier that destroyed nine lockers."

Mayer and Leone studied the matter in 1999 and concluded that more
security often equals more fear on the part of schoolchildren, and
more distrust between students and the administration, which can lead
to the problems that the security measures are trying to prevent.

Mayer and Leone
Abstract-- "A Structural Analysis of School Violence and Disruption:
Implications for Creating Safer Schools"
Journal article by Peter E. Leone, Matthew J. Mayer; Education &
Treatment of Children, Vol. 22, 1999

"A construct of "System of Law" included a composite (derived)
measured variable for student knowledge of school rules and
consequences for infractions along with another composite measured
variable demonstrating implementation of ru les. The "System of Law"
construct was shown to lead to less disorder. On the other hand, a
construct of "Secure Building," that included composite measured
variables showing physical (metal detectors, locked doors, etc.) and
personnel-based (security guards, etc.) actions to run a secure
building, led to more disorder. Implications for school policy and
future research are discussed."

Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice of San Francisco
"School House Hype: Two Years Later"

"Mayer and Leone (1999) have found that schools which rely on metal
detectors and locker searches to achieve student safety actually show
higher rates of reported victimization than schools which create an
atmosphere of safety through adherence to rules."

"Nevertheless, the SWAT exercise troubles Jason Ziedenberg, a senior
analyst with the Washington-based Justice Policy Institute who calls
Upland's drill the "most extreme" example of a district overstepping
its boundaries. He cites a recent University of Maryland study showing
that even traditional metal detectors and locker searches make
students feel less safe, not safer, and rarely reduce crime."

Nonetheless, searching of lockers is a popular policy put in place by
many schools. Here is the policy of one California school district:

Ventura Unified School District --  "Search and Seizure"

"As necessary to protect the health, safety and welfare of students
and staff, school officials may search students, their property and/or
district property under their control, and may seize illegal, unsafe
and prohibited items.  The Governing Board requires that discretion,
good judgment and common sense be exercised in all cases of search and

Individual Searches

School officials may search individual students, their property and
district property under their control, when there is a reasonable
suspicion that the search will uncover evidence that the student is
violating the law, Board policy, administrative regulation, or other
rules of the district or the school.

Employees shall not conduct strip searches or body cavity searches of
any student.  (Education Code 49050)

Searches of individual students shall be conducted in the presence of
at least two district employees.

The principal or designee shall notify the parent/guardian of a
student subjected to an individualized search as soon as possible
after the search.

(cf. 5145.11 - Questioning and Apprehension)

Student Lockers/Desks

Note:  The following optional paragraph is for districts that conduct
regular, announced inspections of student lockers and/or desks.

The principal or designee may conduct a general inspection of school
properties that are within the control of students, such as lockers
and desks, on a regular, announced basis, with students standing by
their assigned lockers or desks.  Any items contained in a locker or
desk shall be considered to be the property of the student to whom the
locker or desk was assigned.

Note:  The courts have repeatedly held that the standard of
"reasonable suspicion" must apply to unannounced locker searches. 
Circumstances described in the following paragraph should satisfy this

Because lockers and desks are under the joint control of the student
and the district, school officials shall have the right and ability to
open and inspect any school locker or desk without student permission
or prior notice when they have reasonable suspicion that the search
will uncover evidence of illegal possessions or activities or when
odors, smoke, fire and/or other threats to health, welfare or safety
emanate from the locker or desk.

Use of Drug-Detection Dogs

Note: The following section is for districts that use trained
drug-sniffing dogs for random and unannounced searches.  In B.C. v.
Plumas, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals concluded that (1) the close
proximity sniffing of a person by a drug-sniffing dog constituted a
"search" within the meaning of the 4th Amendment, and (2) a random,
suspicionless dog-sniff of a student as the student walked by is
unreasonable, at least in the absence of a drug problem at the school.
 This court did not rule on whether searches of inanimate objects
(such as automobiles or lockers) in a school setting are legal. 
However, courts outside of California (Zamora v. Pomeroy and Horton v.
Goose Creek Independent School District) indicate that dog sniffing
around lockers and cars would probably not be deemed a "search" and
thus would be permissible on a random basis without individualized
suspicion.  If the dog then alerts on a particular car or locker, this
alert could then constitute the reasonable suspicion needed in order
to conduct a search. Districts should proceed cautiously in this area
and consult legal counsel as appropriate.

In an effort to keep the schools free of drugs, the district may use
specially trained nonaggressive dogs to sniff out and alert staff to
the presence of substances prohibited by law or Board policy.  The
dogs may sniff the air around lockers, desks, or vehicles on district
property or at district-sponsored events as long as they are not
allowed to sniff within the close proximity of any students.

(cf. 5131.6 - Alcohol and Other Drugs)

Note:  Random and unannounced searches in which students are separated
from their belongings so that the dog can sniff the belongings may
raise legal concerns.  An Attorney General opinion (83
Ops.Cal.Atty.Gen. 257 (2000)) states that, unless exigent
circumstances exist (e.g., a known drug problem), separation of
students from their personal belongings (e.g., backpacks, purses,
jackets and outer garments) in order to conduct random, unannounced
and neutral drug-sniff tests on the students' personal belongings
would be unreasonable and therefore unconstitutional.  Although
Attorney General opinions are not law, they are generally afforded
deference by the courts.  Prior to instituting such a program,
districts wishing to conduct these types of searches should make
specific findings as to the need for the program and consult legal

Most schools who provide lockers place a disclaimer in the handbook
governing locker usage, reserving their right to conduct searches on
the lockers at any and all times that they deem necessary. An example
can be seen in the handbook of

College Park High School in Pleasant Hill, California


Schools may also include lists in the handbook of any and all items
that are banned from lockers. Here's an example from Salem Community

Salem Schools Administration Policies

"Improper Use of Lockers - Lockers shall not be used to store:
Items that cause, or can reasonably be foreseen to cause, interference
with school purposes or an
educational function;
Illegal drugs or drug paraphernalia;
Prescription drugs without a physician?s current prescription;
Over-the-counter drugs without a parent?s or guardian?s written authorization;
Alcohol or beverages containing alcohol, other than permitted drugs;
Volatile substances;
Explosive devices;
Acidic, pungent, or nauseous chemicals;
Library books that are overdue or improperly checked out;
Unreturned gym or athletic equipment;
Wet articles that can mildew, or food that is decomposing;
Stolen articles;
Contraband generally."

==Drugs in schools==

"Dealing with Drug Abuse"
A Report to the Ford Foundation 
by Patricia M. Wald and Annette Abrams

"More cautious institutions have adopted the theory that drug use
spreads in epidemic fashion, and that it is necessary to quarantine
and isolate the carrier. They aggressively seek out drug users through
urinalysis or locker searches and either expel the users or report
them to law-enforcement officials. Some recent court decisions have
made it difficult for school personnel to conduct searches of a
student's personal belongings, thus imposing limitations on what a
school can do to investigate possible drug dealing."

Many schools have drug-sniffing dogs who regularly come and search the
school, and especially cars and lockers.

"Indy Sniffing Up Another School Year"
By Melissa Johnson, Staff Writer
Red & Gold
Chico High School
Chico, CA

"Indy [a drug-sniffing dog] visits both Chico High and Pleasant Valley
High. She comes to Chico High about twenty times a year. When she
comes she can sniff cars, backpacks, and lockers but not people. Indy
can sniff out Meth, Marijuana, cocaine, ISP, Heroin, Ecstasy,
Oxycontin, Ritalin, Sudafed, Benadryl, Valium, alcohol, and gunpowder.
She can tell if any of these substances are there or were, but she
can?t differentiate between them."

However, Indy the drug dog was later fired and turned out to not be as
effective as she was supposed to be. This is also a report from the
Red & Gold student newspaper of Chico High School.

"Chico High says goodbye to Indy"
By Reid Whittlsey, News Editor
Red & Gold
Chico High School
Chico, CA
Issue Date: 5/08/2006

"On August 18, 2004 the school board voted unanimously on an $18,000
contract with Interquest. At $300 per visit, Indy came with a hefty
price tag.

After an initial decrease in the number of suspensions due to drug
possessions, the number steadily increased back to normal. It was then
that the administration was then forced to question the effectiveness
of the program.

On one occasion a student had checked out of CHS, and upon inspection
of the student?s locker, the administration found an opened bottle of
alcohol. With the knowledge that Interquest was due for a visit, the
bottle was left in the locker as a test to see whether or not the dog
was capable of what it?s handlers advertised. When the dog smelled the
locker, it passed by without hitting on the bottle.

?That was the final straw,? said Mr. Hanlon. The lack of faith in the
agency previous to the dog not smelling the bottle was already causing
the administration to question whether or not it was worth the hefty
price tag. The dog not smelling an opened bottle of alcohol, when it
was advertised that it could smell unopened beer cans, miniscule
amounts of drug residue, gun powder, etc?, caused the contract with
Interquest to be terminated district-wide."

==Common regulations==

Some regulations that schools place on lockers can be seen here:

Pilgrim School in Los Angeles, California

"Locks and Lockers

    * Each student will be issued an assign locker.
    * Students may purchase a combination lock from the Bookstore or
any retail store.
    * Your child will be responsible for his/her lock throughout the school year.
    * The Physical Education Office will keep a record on file of each
student's lock, locker and serial number.
    * For security reasons, students should not share a locker or
combination of locks with other students."

Hilltop High School in Chula Vista, CA

"The Assistant Principal of Student Activities will remove any lock
placed on an unassigned locker. A form must be on file in the ASB

8. Combination locks may be purchased from the ASB Office for $5, or
can be purchased in most hardware/home supply stores."

"10. Students with excessive tardies will lose their locker privilege.
11. Locker maintenance/problems will be handled during period 7 only."

"DAMAGED LOCKERS AND TRASH: We further agree that it is our
responsibility to repair any damage
caused by the students to the assigned locker and our failure to do so
will result in forfeiture of the locker. Trash
left in the locker area and attributable to a specific student will
also be just cause for removal of locker privileges."


As far as locks go, schools have differing policies. Some require the
student to bring their own lock and some require that the student use
a school-issued one. Some believe either method to be acceptable.

Must use school locks:

College Park High School in Pleasant Hill, California

Students may NOT use their own lock and/or a locker not assigned to
them. The school will cut off private
locks, and students will NOT be reimbursed. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE
LOSS OF LOCKER PRIVILEGES. Students will be charged for lost
school-issued locks. Students provide
their own locks for P. E. lockers only."

James Lick High School requires you to use your own lock from home:

James Lick Student Information

"Lockers are issued as a convenience to our students; locker use is
not required. Students who choose to use a locker are required to have
a valid ASB card and must bring their own locks. Please be advised
that neither the school nor the district will be responsible for
personal or school property that is lost or stolen from either a hall
locker or PE locker."


==Cell phones==

Students are required to leave their cell phones in them, after cell
phones in class have created problems with cheating and not paying

A nationwide survey, including the Los Angeles school district,
revealed policies that schools had in place concerning cell phones.
Most require them to be stored in a locker during school hours.

"Statement of Public Advocate Betsy Gotbaum
for City Council Hearing on Department of Education Cell Phone Policy,"
 June 14, 2006

"A widely circulated suggestion that enjoyed a great deal of support
was the idea of allowing students to take phones to schools and store
them in lockers near entrances. Students would put their phone in a
locker upon entering school in the morning and pick it up at the end
of the school day. DoE strongly resisted this proposal, but in
practice it is doing the same thing?just without the security and
efficiency of lockers."

Los Angeles school district policy amended--

"The school board's other action Tuesday, modifying its policy on cell
phone use, will allow students to keep the phones in lockers, purses
or pockets during the year's trial run. But students will be
prohibited from using them on campus during school hours, except
lunchtime and nutrition breaks."


==Lack of lockers==

Many schools have taken away lockers completely, many for safety
fears. One such school is John F. Kennedy High School in Granada
Hills, CA.

John F. Kennedy High School

No hall lockers are available this year. Lockers for students in
athletics or PEEL are available to students for this purpose. Students
are not allowed to enter the locker room or to use their lockers to
store personal items or books."

"Everywhere the Drug War"
By David Borden, AlterNet. Posted May 19, 2004.

"According to a report by Alex Cohen of NPR affiliate station KQED in
Los Angeles, aired Thursday night on All Things Considered, the
California legislature is wrestling with the issue of teen posture,
including the impact of heavy school textbooks that kids have to carry
around with them... Contributing to the phenomenon, a state politico
explained, is the decision by some school systems to stop providing
students with locker space. Schools are trying to cope with the twin
problems of guns and drugs, which some administrators see the lockers
as facilitating. Get rid of the lockers, and maybe that will help to
protect students from drugs and guns, I suppose is the line of

You can't blame school officials from wanting to keep the guns, or
drugs, out of their schools. I don't know enough about guns and
schools to say whether eliminating lockers could make students safer.
I'm skeptical, but I don't really know.

I do know enough about drugs and schools to say that eliminating
lockers is unlikely to do more than shift drug selling from inside the
buildings to outside in the parking lots."

"It is possible to overestimate the contribution prohibition-spurred
locker closures make to teen back pain, of course. One expert
commented that lack of exercise or stretching is a more important
factor than heavy textbooks, in his opinion. Still, the war on drugs
has been potentially implicated in a public health problem facing our
nation's youth... I say, keep the lockers, change the drug laws."

To make sure that kids' backs are not being harmed by carrying heavy
books around constantly, some schools that remove lockers also buy an
extra set of textbooks so that kids don't have to take theirs from
class all the time.

Some districts simply have a shortage of lockers, or severe lack of
funds or maintenance problems and can't fix ones that are broken.

"Eliminating lockers: one solution to the backpack problem"
By Craig Colgan 
National School Boards Association

"Juanita Haugen, a board member at Pleasanton Unified School District
in California, says her district removed lockers from two high schools
and built two lockerless middle schools in the past six years. The
district also uses two sets of books to lighten the backpack load."

"Students Clamor for Lockers"
By Patricia Reyes and Lesley Villafuerte

At Venice High School in Los Angeles, assistant principal Frank Nunez
says that the district doesn't have enough lockers, despite having 300
more than there are students, because so many are broken and haven't
been fixed.

"'There are 400 broken lockers, but the district does not want to fix
them,' he said. Though LAUSD lists new lockers in Cunningham Hall as
being "under construction," construction in fact has yet to begin."

"'My back does hurt,' said ninth grader Mayte Rios, who has to carry
four books to school every day since she does not have a locker. 'I
asked for one, but they said that they didn't have anymore,' said

Some school districts have lockers, but students choose not to use
them for one reason or another, possibly because schools don't have a
formal assignment process in place. Since few students use lockers,
those who may want to may not even realize that they are allowed to
use lockers. This is the case with Clayton Valley High School.

"Student spines bend under hefty weight of backpacks"
By Ami Mulligan
The Talon
Clayton Valley High School
Concord, CA
Issue Date: 1/27/2005
Issue: Volume 45 Issue 4

"Compounding the issue of students carrying overly-heavy backpacks is
the fact that many Clayton Valley students do not have lockers.

However, Principal John Neary says, ?There is no reason for anyone who
wants a locker not to have one. They were assigned to students as
freshmen, and if they don?t have one they can go to the front desk and
request one. There are hundreds not being used; it?s that simple.?

Unfortunately, students are often unaware that there are unclaimed lockers at CV.

?If the school knows that there are hundreds of available lockers,
then they should assign them to students without lockers instead of
doing nothing, because we don?t know that they are not being used,?
said senior Ashley Nelson."

"?I haven?t had a locker since I?ve been at Clayton Valley, and it?s
really hard because I have to walk home most of the time and I have to
drag all my stuff with me,? said junior Matt Buckley.

When asked about the number of students who are not using lockers,
Davis said ?I feel it?s damaging and inappropriate.?"


1. Hilltop High School
Chula Vista, CA
Hilltop Lancers Handbook

"High-Tech Security Help: Schools Turn to Technology to Help Insure
Student Safety" by Robin L. Flanigan School Technology Authority

"Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Schools: Operations"

Poynter on School Fees

"Students Enter the Less-Space Age"
by Joshua Benton
Dallas Morning News

Search terms:
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mayer and leone 1999 (on Google Scholar-- lockers
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"lockerless schools" + california

If you need any additional help or clarification before rating, let me
know and I'll be glad to help.


Request for Answer Clarification by psheph1064-ga on 03 Oct 2006 10:33 PDT

We are trying to find out if lockers work successfully for the
students in public high schools, i.e., is it worth the expense of
installing them and once installed, do the students use them


Clarification of Answer by keystroke-ga on 03 Oct 2006 12:04 PDT
Hello psheph1065,

What exact types of information are you looking for? I can provide you
with comparisons of information on schools that don't have lockers,
and what they think about the situation, with schools that do have
lockers, and what they think. Let me know what specific types of
information you'd like and I'd be happy to provide you with more
information. Thanks for asking for clarification.

There are no comments at this time.

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