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Q: Chemical Composition of Urine ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   0 Comments )
Question  
Subject: Chemical Composition of Urine
Category: Science > Chemistry
Asked by: truth_seeker7-ga
List Price: $100.00
Posted: 07 Oct 2006 01:25 PDT
Expires: 06 Nov 2006 00:25 PST
Question ID: 771485
I am researching urine therapy.

I would like to know the exact chemical composition of a normal urine
sample. What types of chemicals and their quantities are in a typical
sample and how does it arrive at it's color. Also, how can I create
urine, that would meet all the criteria of a typical urine sample,
using chemicals that are available from a chemical/scientific supply
store?

Here are some links that I have found:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine
http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/aug97/866826669.Bc.r.html
Answer  
Subject: Re: Chemical Composition of Urine
Answered By: politicalguru-ga on 07 Oct 2006 05:51 PDT
Rated:5 out of 5 stars
 
Dear Truth Seeker, 

There is such a thing as artificial urine, which immitates the
composition of "normal" human urine. However, it should be stated here
that "The composition of normal urine is highly variable because our
diet and level of activity are highly variable." (SOURCE: Cornell
Institute for Biology Teachers, Jan 15 2003, "Interpreting Medical
Tests: What's in Urine?",
<http://cibt.bio.cornell.edu/labs/eb/URI_0004.PDF>).

"The following reagents will be necessary for the preparation of
normal human urine (Kark, et al. 1964):

Albumin powder (egg or bovine)

Creatinine

Distilled water

Potassium chloride

Sodium chloride

Sodium phosphate (monobasic)

Urea

A class of 30 students, working in groups of two, would require a
class total of at least 1 liter of artificial urine for specific
gravity and dipstick testing. The following instruction are for the
preparation of approximately 2 liters of normal urine; half can be
stored or used for abnormal urine studies.

To 1.5 liters of distilled water add 36.4 g of urea and mix until all
the crystals are dissolved. Then add 15.0 g of sodium chloride, 9.0 g
of potassium chloride and 9.6 g of sodium phosphate; mix until the
solution is clear. Check the pH with indicator paper or a pH meter to
ensure the pH is within the 5 to 7 pH range for normal urine; if the
solution is out of this pH range the pH may be lowered with 1N
hydrochloric acid or raised with 1N sodium hydroxide.

Next, place a urine hydrometer into the solution and dilute with water
until the solution is within the specific gravity range of 1.015 to
1.025. This solution will serve as the storage stock solution of
?normal urine solution? and may be kept refrigerated for several weeks
or frozen in plastic containers for months. Before use, the stock
solution should be warmed to room temperature. Then, to ensure a
similarity to human urine, 4.0 g of creatinine and 100 mg of albumin
may be slowly mixed into the 2 liters of the so-called normal urine
solution. "
(SOURCE: Brian R. Shmaefsky, "How-To-Do-It - Artificial Urine for
Laboratory Testing", a cached version is available at:
http://209.85.129.104/search?q=cache:z7RhO5cAYGUJ:www.nabt.org/sup/resources/urine.asp+artificial+urine+solution&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1>.
I suggest that you'll save it, as it might "disappear" during Google's
next crawl).

Another source offers a similar forumla: 
"Synthetic urine solution2 contains 14.1 g NaCl, 2.8 g KCl, 17.3 g
urea, 1.9 mL of 25% v/v ammonia solution, 0.6 g CaCl2 and 0.43 g
MgSO4, made up to 1 L with 0.02 M HCl solution." (SOURCE: Tran T.
Nham, "Analysis of urine and seawater samples by ultrasonic
nebulization with a high resolution ICP spectrometer",
<http://www.biocompare.com/technicalarticle/1342/Analysis-Of-Urine-And-Seawater-Samples-By-Ultrasonic-Nebulization-With-A-High-Resolution-ICP-Spectrometer-from-Varian-Inc.html>).

Again, synthetic urine is the best you could get at, but it could be
not an exact double of "normal" human urine, because "normal" urine
contains variables that are different from one person to another. In
addition, "Synthetic urine is free of pyrophosphates, organic
macromolecules (matrix) and unspecified substances [...]."  (SOURCE:
Bo-Bertil Lind, Zsfia Banb and Stefan Bydn, "Nutrient recovery from
human urine by struvite crystallization with ammonia adsorption on
zeolite and wollastonite", Bioresource Technology
Volume 73, Issue 2 , June 2000, Pages 169-174). 

Synthetic/artificial urine is indeed being used in therapy, as you can
see in the following article:
Mayrovitz, Harvey N,  Sims, Nancy, "Biophysical effects of water and
synthetic urine on skin" Advances in Skin & Wound Care,  Nov/Dec 2001
<http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3977/is_200111/ai_n9017455> 

Also see: 
Martha M. Christy, "URINE THERAPY A Natural Alternative That Works" ,
Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 3, #2 (February-March 1996).,
<http://www.nexusmagazine.com/articles/urine.html>

However, it might be a problem to convince those who believe in urine
therapy to buy a synthetic product instead of their own (free)
"products". But that is already a problem of marketing and beyond the
scope of this question.

In addition, it is claimed that the therapeutic characteristics of
urine are mostly due to urea, and urea is already produced
synthetically and is part of several ("conventional") drugs. See for
example Wikipedia:
Urea, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urea> 

Also see: 
H. Kirchmann and S. Pettersson, "Human urine - Chemical composition
and fertilizer use efficiency", Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems,
Volume 40, Number 2 / January, 1994 . available for subscribers (in
libraries, academic institutions, etc.) and for a fee ($30) at:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/km386u8967256354/#search=%22chemical%20composition%20of%20a%20normal%20urine%20sample%22
Abstract: 
"Stored human urine had pH values of 8.9 and was composed of eight
main ionic species (> 0.1 meq L?1), the cations Na, K, NH4, Ca and the
anions, Cl, SO4, PO4 and HCO3. Nitrogen was mainly (> 90%) present as
ammoniacal N, with ammonium bicarbonate being the dominant compound.
Urea and urate decomposed during storage."

I hope this answers your question. Please contact me if you need any
clarification on this answer.

Request for Answer Clarification by truth_seeker7-ga on 10 Oct 2006 23:43 PDT
OK, everything looks good and I am very happy with the answer.  But I
still am not sure how I can obtain the color of artificial urine.  In
one of the links that you gave me it is suggested that you add food
coloring.  I am not sure if I want to do that.   Can you clarify how
to obtain the color?  In a link I provided it mentioned that:

"Urochrome was the original name given to the pigment thought to give
urine its color. It is now known that several related pigments are
responsible, so the original name has been dropped. Urine is yellow
because of urobilins, specifically d-urobilin, i-urobilin, l-
stercobilin, and possibly others."

But I have been unable to locate a source for urobilins or urochrome,
so that is the missing link from your answer.

Thanks

Clarification of Answer by politicalguru-ga on 11 Oct 2006 02:14 PDT
Dear Truth Seeker, 

What you're referring to cannot be reproduced. However, yellow colour
in urine could be also created by riboflavin (vitamin B2). Too much
vitamin B2, also if we just eat it as a supplement, will create a "too
yellow"/fluorescent colour. Many drug test "cheat" kits also use this
solution for colouring. However, this will naturally require some
testing as to the level that is to be used.
truth_seeker7-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars
I am very happy with the answer.  Thanks for taking the time to research this.

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