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In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds
that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that
fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena
are the result of material interactions. Science uses a working
assumption, sometimes known as methodological naturalism, that
observable events in nature are explained only by natural causes
without assuming the existence or non-existence of the supernatural.
As a theory, materialism belongs to the class of monist ontology. As
such, it is different from ontological theories based on dualism or
pluralism. In terms of singular explanations of the phenomenal
reality, materialism stands in sharp contrast to idealism.
Metaphysical naturalism is any worldview in which nature is all there
is and all things supernatural (which stipulatively includes as well
as spirits and souls, non-natural values, and universals as they are
commonly conceived) do not exist. It is often simply referred to as
naturalism, and occasionally as philosophical naturalism or
ontological naturalism, though all those terms have other meanings as
well, with naturalism often referring to methodological naturalism.
This article presents only a basic outline of the definition and
history of metaphysical naturalism and the major arguments for and