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Q: The European Union and Terrorism ( Answered 4 out of 5 stars,   1 Comment )
Subject: The European Union and Terrorism
Category: Relationships and Society > Politics
Asked by: inquisitiveperson-ga
List Price: $25.00
Posted: 29 Nov 2006 14:17 PST
Expires: 29 Dec 2006 14:17 PST
Question ID: 786737
I need information on the Policy (External or Foreign Policy) of the
European Union towards Terrorism.  I would appreciate analytical
answer with information on current issues and relevant web links
(preferably scholarly articles).

Clarification of Question by inquisitiveperson-ga on 29 Nov 2006 14:23 PST
I will not hesitate to add a few dollars and a high rating for a good answer.

Clarification of Question by inquisitiveperson-ga on 30 Nov 2006 00:20 PST
I need this answer AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. I will be satisfied with a
"satisfactory" answer.
Subject: Re: The European Union and Terrorism
Answered By: umiat-ga on 30 Nov 2006 21:39 PST
Rated:4 out of 5 stars
Hello, inquisitiveperson-ga! 

 I know you are desirous of a speedy answer. The first two sites I am
presenting to you will provide virtually ALL you need to know about
the European Union's policy toward terrorism. They are very
comprehensive and up-to-date!


See the EurActive site on "Anti-terrorism Policy." Updated: 10 November 2006

"Europe has suffered from terrorism from various sources for decades
(eg ETA, IRA) and a policy of increased judicial co-operation between
member states had already been agreed as part of the Tampere Programme
when the attack against the US took place in 2001."

"Immediate reaction to the twin tower attacks was the September 2001
anti-terrorism action plan, followed by a framework decision defining
terrorist offences and aligning the level of sanctions between member
states. Following the Madrid bombings, the Council issued a
declaration against terrorism and appointed Gijs de Vries as
counter-terrorism co-ordinator (see EurActiv interview with Mr de
Vries). The action plan is updated every 6 months, most recently in
June 2005.

(See more on this section of website)

New EU Strategy

"In December 2005 the Council of justice ministers approved a new
strategy for counter terrorism. Its main aim is to set out EU policy
clearly and comprehensively for the general public. A set of slides
accompanied by written details explains the strategy under four broad
objectives: prevent, protect, pursue and respond."

European Arrest and Evidence Warrants

"The European arrest warrant, introduced in Jan 2004, replaces old
extradition procedures and has been implemented in all member states,
the last being Italy on 21 July 2005. A Commission report in February
2005 held it to be a success, from the fact that 104 people have been
surrendered under the warrants in an average of 45 days (the previous
average was 9 months). There have, however,  been arguments in Germany
and some other member states that implementing legislation breaches
national constitutional rights (see EurActiv 19 July 2005).

Read more.......

Exchange of Information

"Specific criminal and therefore anti-terrorist measures are within
the competence of the member states only. The main role of the EU,
therefore, is co-ordination and the greatest emphasis so far has been
on the exchange and sharing of information among member states. A
specific programme to create a legal enforcement network (LEN) which
will facilitate exchange of information between police forces has been
launched. Other main agencies promoting co-operation are Europol,
Eurojust and latterly, the European Border Agency. Also, within the
Council, a body called SitCen brings together external and internal
intelligence experts to co-ordinate strategies (see interview with
Gijs de Vries)."

"The Hague programme introduced the idea of the 'principle of
availability', meaning that information available to law enforcement
officers in one member state should be accessible whenever necessary
by their counterparts in all other member states. The concept is to be
fully defined and introduced by January 2008."

"A far more complex problem is the extent to which information can be
shared with third countries. The European Parliament is not happy with
the agreement reached with the US on passenger name records

Border and Travel Security 

"From 2005, biometric data is to be included in passports and,
eventually, visas, which will be made computer-readable. The Schengen
Information system (SIS) already stores data on persons wanted for
arrest, those to be refused entry to the EU, missing persons and
persons to be put under surveillance. Biometric identifiers will be
stored on the second generation SIS II (see Biometrics LinksDossier).

"An External Borders Agency (FRONTEX) to co-ordinate between member
states, provide training for border guards and carry out risk
assessments formally opened in July 2005. A proposal for a corps of
external border guards is under consideration. The Commission has also
put forward proposals to extend police powers of surveillance and
pursuit of suspects in border areas (see Euractiv 20 July 2005)."

Data Retention

"A proposal that telephone companies and internet providers be
compelled to keep details (not including content) of all phone calls,
e-mails and website visits was first put forward by the UK, France and
Sweden in 2004. It did not succeed following doubts over the legal
procedure used and firm rejection by Parliament. In September 2005 the
Commission published a new proposed directive whereby phone call data
(mobile and fixed) would be kept for one year and internet
communications for 6 months. The cost of the system is to be met by
member states (see EurActiv 21 Sept 2005). In parallel to this the
Commission published proposals on 4 October 2005 for a framework
decision on data protection, seen as necessary to balance the
increased exchange of personal data between member states being
necessitated by the fight against terrorism and organised crime."

CBRN/ Prevention and Readiness

"Following the US anthrax scare, fears have been raised that
terrorists could resort to chemical, biological, radiological or
nuclear (CBRN) weapons. In June 2003, the Commission adopted a
communication on preparedness and response to biological and chemical
agent attacks. DG Health has issued guidelines on the management of
specific bioterrorist disease outbreaks and general guidelines for the

"The Council has also finalised a new CBRN programme which sets out
steps to be taken to prevent an attack and (were an attack to happen)
to limit its consequences (i.e. risk assessment, protecting critical
infrastructure and co-operation between emergency services). This will
be complemented by a European programme for critical infrastructure
protection and a crisis alert system to be called ARGUS. (See also
EurActiv 14 Feb 2005.)"

Terrorist Financing 

"The third money laundering directive was adopted by the Council on 20
September 2005. It extends the existing provisions to terrorist crimes
and is designed to reflect the recommendations of the international
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FAFT). It provides
that suspicious transactions of 15000 or more must be reported to
special national financial intelligence units by the bodies covered by
the directive (e.g. financial institutions, accountants, lawyers,
estate agents and casinos). These measures have been highly 

** See website for section on Further proposals:


Recruitment and radicalisation

"This strand of anti-terrorism policy, a new element in the 2004
action plan, is increasing in importance. Many are arguing,
particularly since it was discovered that the London bombers had been
living in the UK, that looking at the reasons why young men are
resorting to such action is key. In September 2005, the Commission
published a communication which analyses ways in which  the
radicalisation of individuals can be deterred through education (both
in schools and through the internet), integration policies, interfaith
dialogue and the promotion of inter-cultural understanding. The
December 2005 Council approved a paper outlining the work in this

External Policies

"EU  leaders have pledged to deal with the roots of terrorism, i.e.
the social economic and political problems on which Islamic fanaticism
is built. The action plan involves using trade agreements to reduce
the poverty that can lead to radicalisation. Technical aid will also
be given to build up anti-terrorism capacity. Work with third
countries, the US in particular, and international agencies continues
to be of fundamental importance."

Fundamental Rights

"EU action against terrorism has been predicated on the preservation
of fundamental rights and liberties as enshrined by the European
Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Some of the member state actions,
however, have been heavily criticised for riding roughshod over these
principles and EU policies have been questioned for being overly
influenced by the US, which has pushed its own approach at
international level through the G8."

"The Commission is advised by a network of experts on fundamental
rights, made up of one expert per member state, who report annually on
the state of fundamental rights in the EU and who have been critical
on specific issues."

"In addition, in June 2005, Commissioner Frattini announced that a
European Agency for Fundamental Rights would be established by
extending the remit of the existing European Monitoring Centre on
Racism and Xenophobia. A proposal for a regulation is underway."

** Proceed to website for section on Positions, links to Documents,
Organizations, Governments, Think Tanks, etc.


Another comprehensive website is the European Union - Delegation of
the European Commission to the United States. You can proceed back
through actions taken in preceeding years as well as the present.

See "The EU & Counterterrorism:  Actions in 2006."


"The European Union's Response to Terrorism." Akiva Lorenz. ICT

British Ambassador to France. Paris, 9 December 2005

European Commission - Terrorism


 I think these resources just about cover all you are wanting to know!



Search Strategy

European Union AND terrorism
policy of European Union toward terrorism

Request for Answer Clarification by inquisitiveperson-ga on 01 Dec 2006 05:49 PST
I would be grateful if you could add a few more good links to
SCHOLARLY Articles related to "the EU's FOREIGN POLICY regarding
terrorism" (within Dec. 2 ).

Request for Answer Clarification by inquisitiveperson-ga on 01 Dec 2006 05:51 PST
I mean Analytical articles; not merely descriptive.

Clarification of Answer by umiat-ga on 01 Dec 2006 14:33 PST
Sure - I will try to find some more analytical articles and post them
this evening. Did the first two references under "Additional Articles"
seem like what you are looking for?

Clarification of Answer by umiat-ga on 01 Dec 2006 19:51 PST
Hello again! 

Many of the articles I found in journals require subscription or
payment. I don't know what your resources are. I have provided some
opinion articles that appear for free, and links to abstracts for the
others in case you want to pay for them or subscribe.

"Europe?s clampdown on terrorism risks backfiring." Dick Oosting.
Europe's World. Spring 2006

"The European Union?s Role in the Fight Against Terrorism." Gijs de
Vries. Irish Studies in International Affairs, Vol. 16 (2005)

"9/11 and the Europeanisation of anti-terrorism policy: a critical
assessment." Monica Den Boer.

Please look through the articles on the Cato Institute website
returned for a search for "EU terrorism policy"

(news article)
"E.U.'s Patchwork Of Policies Leaves It Vulnerable to 9/11-Style
Attack," By Craig Whitlock. Washington Post Foreign Service. January
18, 2006

"Shaping a credible EU foreign policy," by Steven Everts. CER


Articles for purchase from the Journal of European Public Policy


Abstracts only:

The EU: A Global Military Actor? HENRIK LARSEN Cooperation and
Conflict, Vol. 37, No. 3, 283-302 (2002)

"Towards a Common European Security and Defence Policy? The Debate on
NATO, the European Army and Transatlantic Security." Neil Winn.
Geopolitics. Volume 8, Number 2 / Summer 2003,5,17;journal,13,17;linkingpublicationresults,1:110520,1

"The Eu's Response to 9/11: A Case Study of Institutional Roles and
Policy Processes with Special Reference to Issues of Accountability
and Human Rights." FRANK GREGORY. Terrorism and Political Violence,
Volume 17, Number 1-2 / Spring-Summer 2005,9,19;journal,7,23;linkingpublicationresults,1:108550,1
inquisitiveperson-ga rated this answer:4 out of 5 stars

Subject: Re: The European Union and Terrorism
From: frde-ga on 30 Nov 2006 04:12 PST
In no way an answer, just a pointer, the French have been very helpful
to the UK, despite the UK formerly being referred to as 'Londonistan'.

The Germans were helpful after 9/11

Italy and the UK have turned a blind eye to 'extraordinary rendition'.

Rather a lot of European states have had 'home grown' terrorism, and
none of them have liked it.

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