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Q: Crystallised and fluid intelligence ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   0 Comments )
Subject: Crystallised and fluid intelligence
Category: Science > Social Sciences
Asked by: gareth981-ga
List Price: $2.50
Posted: 14 May 2003 12:39 PDT
Expires: 13 Jun 2003 12:39 PDT
Question ID: 203714
What is the difference between crystallised and fluid intelligence?
Subject: Re: Crystallised and fluid intelligence
Answered By: bobbie7-ga on 14 May 2003 13:15 PDT
Rated:5 out of 5 stars

Thank you for your question.

"Fluid intelligence is tied to biology. It is defined as our
"on-the-spot reasoning ability, a skill not basically dependant on our
experience." (Belsky, 1990, p. 125) Belsky (1990) indicates this type
of intelligence is active when the central nervous system (CNS) is at
its physiological peak."

"Crystallized intelligence can be defined as "the extent to which a
person has absorbed the content of culture."(Belsky, 1990, p. 125) It
is the store of knowledge or information that a given society has
accumulated over time."

Fluid Intelligence is:  “a natural ability which is not dependant on
acquired knowledge”

Crystallized Intelligence is: “ability dependent on acquired
Dowling College

In a report by Thomas G. Stidht – Applied behavior & Cognitive
sciences Inc the difference between fluid and crystallized
intelligence is discussed.

“Cattell and various collaborators, and later many independent
investigators, made the distinction between "fluid intelligence" and
"crystallized intelligence."

"Cattell (1983) states, "Fluid intelligence is involved in tests that
have very little cultural content, whereas crystallized intelligence
loads abilities that have obviously been acquired, such as verbal and
numerical ability, mechanical aptitude, social skills, and so on."

"The age curve of these two abilities is quite different. They both
increase up to the age of about 15 or 16, and slightly thereafter, to
the early 20s perhaps. But thereafter fluid intelligence steadily
declines whereas crystallized intelligence stays high"

From a West Virginia University article: 

“Fluid intelligence is tied to biology and deals with an individual's
ability to make on-the-spot decisions that are not dependent on
experience. Crystallized intelligence is the amount of information a
person has absorbed and accumulated from a society's culture over
West Virginia University

“Fluid intelligence (also called "native mental ability") is the
information processing system. It refers to the ability to think and
reason. It includes the speed with which information can be analyzed,
and also includes attention and memory capacity."

"Crystallized intelligence is accumulated information and vocabulary
acquired from school and everyday life. It also encompasses the
application of skills and knowledge to solving problems."

"Many studies have shown that fluid intelligence is more likely to
decline with age than crystallized intelligence. In fact, crystallized
intelligence may continue to improve with age. Many people continue to
gain expertise and skills in particular areas throughout life.”

Novartis Foundation for Gerontology

Here’s a simple example that illustrates the difference between fluid
and crystallized intelligence.

“Scientists like to compare these two kinds of intelligences to a
computer. Think of Fluid Intelligence as the computer hardware (the
processing chip, all the wires, and the other electronic and
mechanical parts) which is like the person's brain and central nervous
system. Now think of Crystallized Intelligence as the computer
software (programs that control the computer) which is the person's
strategies. Finally think of the data stored inside the computer as an
individual's lifetime of accumulated knowledge.”

Search Criteria:
"crystallized intelligence"  "fluid intelligence"

I hope the above references help you understand the difference between
fluid and crystallized intelligence. If anything is unclear I'll be
glad to offer further assistance before you rate my answer and close
the question.

Best Regards,

Clarification of Answer by bobbie7-ga on 14 May 2003 13:55 PDT
Crystallized Intelligence:
- Results from education, experience and acculturation.
- Measured with tests of verbal comprehension, vocabulary and
numerical skill.”

Fluid Intelligence:
- Ability to adjust one’s thinking to unfamiliar situations.
- Measured through performance on tests that involve solving new
gareth981-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars
This was very clear.

There are no comments at this time.

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