Wow! This was quite a project. However, I found all 100 websites for
you with enough diversity to avoid too much repetition. It was very
Here they are!
The Yangshao Culture
"Prehistoric Times (1.7 million years - 21st century BC)
-- Yangshao Culture." TravelChinaGuide.com
"Yangshao Culture (6000-5000BC)" Chinavoc.com.
"Arts of Yangshao Period (5000-3000 B.C.)"
"The Ancient Period - Yanshao Culture."
"Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in Eastern and Southeast Asia." Jane
Eastman. Department of Anthropology.College of Arts and Sciences. East
2. Yangshao Culture is the best known early farming culture (Banpo
a. two Yangshao sites have been extensively excavated
b. villages built on higher terraces (out of flood plain) next to
c. used hoes and simple digging sticks to till loess soils
d. villages moved periodically as soil became exhausted
e. presence of large communal structures at villages indicates
social structure with clans or other larger grouping of related
f. Yangshao has roots of distinctly Chinese culture (cuisine -
steaming food, naturalistic art, and also Chinese language with root
in Yangshao tradition)
The Yellow Peril
"The Yello Peril: Anit-Asian Sentiment in 19th and Early 20th Century
America. Eras of Elegance
"The Yellow Peril Revisited," by Jim Lobe and Tom Barry. Foreign
Policy in Focus. (7/12/2002)
"Yellow Peril - Taiwan Fears What China Learned," by James Ridgeway.
The Village Voice.
"Yellow Peril Reinfects America," by David Boaz. The Cato Institute.
"Bronzes of Ancient China." Ancient China: Shang & Tang Objects.
"Bronzes." Design Arts. Destiny: The Culture of China.
"The Great Bronze Age of China: An Exhibition from the People's
Republic of China." Essay by Dr. Emily Sano.
"Ancient Chinese Bronzes." St. Louis Art Museum.
"A number of ceremonial bronze vessels with inscriptions date from
the Shang period; the workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high
level of civilization."
Shang High God (Di)
"Shang Tomb of Fu Hao."
"Among the most important finds from Shang tombs are "oracle bones,"
recording the questions Shang kings posed to their ancestors. From
them we learn of the divinities they recognized, from the high god Di
to nature gods and ancestors, as well as the issues that concerned
them, such as harvests, childbirth, and military campaigns. The king
did not address Di directly, but called on his ancestors to act as an
intermediary for him. Sacrifices to Di or the ancestors could include
human sacrifices of war captives and others."
"Shang Religion." Sacrifice, Divination and the Mandate of Heaven: The
Shang and Western Zhou Periods. Chapter 2. Chinese Religious
"In a heavenly realm that paralleled the earthly royal court, these
ancestors served under a god called Di (Lord) or Shang Di (High Lord
or Lord Above).(1) There were also lesser gods who personified the
powers of mountains, rivers, and other natural features. Di had the
power to control or influence natural and human phenomena, such as the
weather, the success of crops, the success of royal hunting
expeditions and military campaigns, and the health of the king, over
which the king's ancestors also had power. The ancestors could also
intercede on behalf of the king with Di himself (it is most likely
that Di was conceived as being male), a position that made them
extremely important in Shang theology and government."
"The Shang kings had essentially a two-way channel of communication
with their ancestors and Di. Through an elaborate system of
sacrificial offerings, mainly to their ancestors, they attempted to
maintain good relations with their counterparts above. Through the
practice of divination, using the oracle bones discovered around
Anyang, they determined whether their sacrifices had been
well-received, whether their plans would be likely to succeed, whether
any misfortunes were being caused by ancestors, and what kinds of
offerings would be needed to make things right again. Through this
system of communication with the gods and ancestors the Shang kings
acted as the crucial pivot between Heaven and Earth: it was their
responsibility to maintain harmonious relations with Di and the
ancestors, so that they in turn would bestow good fortune on the King,
his family, and the state. The welfare of the state and its people
depended on this relationship. Affairs of state were therefore
necessarily religious, and the religious practices of sacrifice and
divination had inherently political implications."
"In Search of a Happy Life."
"What is the historical background of the term "Shang Di" (God)? How
is it used in the Chinese classics?".....Read more
"Form Immanentism to Athesim," by Gabriel Ly Chen. Fujen
"Several scholars, among them Kwo Mo-jo, claim that the cult of
ancestors was developed in the Shang Dynasty as a form of ideology
whose purpose is to consolidate imperial power. This means that the
concept of God comes rather from the cult of the chief of a clan. Fu
Pei-jung contests this view by pointing out:
"Relying on the documents studied on the oracle-bones, we can
absolutely reject these claims because: 1) there is no trace of what
we call the God of Shang-clan. We possess no empirical fact showing
the blood-relationship between Di (the sovereign) and the royals. 2)
The description of the cult of ancestors and of natural god is
completely different, because Di is considered as the omnipotent God
in high. 3) It shows in the oracle-bones that Di is empowered to
command, reward and punish Shang dynasty. That clearly indicates that
the God in high is not only the Lord of the Shang. 4) Human feeling
and their relationship to God inscribed on the oracle-bones are also
recorded in the Book of History. In this book, the attitude of the
people of Xia, Shang and Chou is not much different from that of those
of the earlier Chou.(22)"
"Shang religion included a pantheon of spiritual powers. Chief of the
hierarchy was Di, the high god, who controlled the rains and could
send natural disasters. Below him were ranks of lesser natural powers
and the ancestral spirits."
The Yahoi Culture
"Yayoi Culture," by Charles T. Keally.
"Japanese Culture from Yayoi to Asuka Periods." Outline Chronology of
Japanes Culture History.
"Basic Information." Japan-guide.com
"During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was
imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of
agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the
country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers
during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko
(or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought
also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into
Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name."
"Ancient Japan," by Dr. Robert Churchill. Handbook for the Study of
The Songs of the South (Chuci)
"Chu ci: The Songs of the South: An Ancient Chinese Anthology of
Poems." Translated by David Hawkes. Chinese Literature in Translation.
"Example of the Poetry of the South - (Chu Ci)." Chinese Literature at
"Scenes Illustrating Melodies of the Chu Ci."
"Chinese Literature." Chines AtoZ.
"The aristocratic, or court, style finds its best expression, however,
in a group of poems collected in the Chuci (Songs of Chu). A feudal
state in south-central China, Chu was the home of Qu Yuan (Ch'ü Yüan),
the first great Chinese poet. A noble by birth, Qu Yuan wrote Li Sao
(On Encountering Sorrow), a long, autobiographical poem full of
historical allusions, allegories, and similes, lyrically expressed and
concerned with the intimate revelation of a poetic soul tormented
because it has failed in its search for a beautiful ideal. Other poems
by Qu Yuan are equally rich in images and sentiment, and they form a
body of romantic poetry entirely different from the simple, realistic
poetry of the Shi Jing.
"During the 400 years of the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) the romantic
and realistic modes developed into schools of poetry with many
followers. The verses of Qu, which were irregular in form, initiated a
new literary genre, the fu, or prose poem. Chinese poetry was further
enriched by the folk songs collected by the Music Bureau (Yuefu, or
Yüeh-fu), an institution founded about the 2nd century BC."
"Chinese Poetic Tradition in the "New Literature": The Reception of
Chuci in the Modern Fairy Tale "Westwind." Koei, Dr. Lang-Tan Goat
(halfway down the page!)
The Confucian Teaching of Li
"Themes in Confucian Teaching - Li Rites." Chinese Cultural Studies.
"Confucion Political Theory." Empereur.com
"Confucius did not talk of God but the concept of "Jen", benevolence
or "Li", respect. "Jen" is a very vast notion, it include human
compassion, the respect for social hierarchy and the ideal of a
government. K'ung-fu-tzu argued that if the father demonstrate his
"Jen" toward family and son, in return his will receive their
obedience and "Li" the respect."
"Confucian Education: A Moral Approach," by Dr. Edmond Yee.
"The Temple of Confucius (551 BC-479 BC)." Bejing Municipal Bureau of
"In his teaching of Li he emphasized the value of the cultural
heritage of society and the accepted rules of proper conduct. But he
was aware of the evils that might result from the over-emphasis on Li;
formalism, hypocrisy, or arbitrariness. Morality would become an
external thing; to abide by customary regulations or accepted rules
only would regarded as moral, and the beach of them would be regarded
as sinful. In order to safeguard one against such dangers, on the one
hand, Confucius emphasized the value of love (Ren), and on the other
hand, gave new interpretations on Li by putting the individual motive,
especially sincerity and reverence, as the foundation of Li."
"Ritual propriety is the third doctrine. Confucius emphasized right
behavior in one's relations; man should act in accordance with
propriety. Thus one behaves ritualistically with the other. Such
behavior is called li; it refers to social and aesthetic norms that
guide people in their social relations."
Li Si (Li Ssu) ? the man
"LiSsu." English translatin from French
"Legalism and the Ch'in Dynasty."
"Li Ssu (d. 208 B.C.)
"He advised the first emperor on how to conquer the neighboring states
and made large contribution toward unifying China. He became the first
prime minister after the Ch'in ruler unified China. The first emperor
died eleven years after he had consolidated the Chinese world. Li Ssu
plotted with a eunuch to do away with the First Emperor's eldest son
(who is said to have favored Confucianism) and made a weakling emperor
in his place. Two years later, the eunuch caused Li Ssu to be
- made laws and regulations uniform
- standardized weights, measures, and gauge of all vehicles
- made forms of written characters uniform
"Qin Dynasty Chronology." Science Maniacs Laboratory.
247 BC King Juang Shiang dies. Chin Shih Huang is named king. But,
due to his young age, Lu Pu-wei serves as his closest advisor. Li Ssu
is also named an advisor.
237 BC Year 10 Li Ssu suggests to Chin Shih Huang to invite Wei state
military strategist Wei Liao to carry out Chin military planning. Lu
Pu-wei is fired.
208 BC 2nd emperor(Year 2) Chin Shih Huang's prime minister Li Ssu is
put to death.
"Now is the Time."
"The state of Ch'in had a reputation for being hungry for land and
power. This reputation enticed Li Ssu, an official from the state of
Ch'u, to travel to Ch'in because Ch'in could provide him with the
opportunities that he needed enable to do great things. Li Ssu arrived
in Ch'in and was welcomed by Lu Pu-wei. Through Lu Pu-wei, Li Ssu was
able to address the future King Cheng. Li Ssu wanted to fire the
future king's ambitions for conquest of China. In his first speech Li
"The feudal lords already offer allegiance to Ch'in, as if they were
commanderies and prefectures. With the might of Ch'in and the ability
of Your Majesty, their conquest should be as easy as sweeping dust
from the top of a kitchen stove. Ch'in's strength is enough to destroy
the feudal lords, found a single empire, and unify the world. This is
onetime in ten thousand generations. If Your Majesty lets it pass
unused, the feudal lords will recover their power and will form a
great allegiance, against which you could never prevail, even if you
were the Yellow Emperor himself.""
The Good Earth
"Essay Topics and Critical Commentary." The Good Earth.
"The Good Earth," by Pearl S. Buck. PinkMonkey.com Booknotes.
Book Summary -- The Good Earth." CampusNut.com
"What's So Bad about the Good Earth?" by Charles. W. Hayford.
Education about Asia. Volume 3, Number 3, Winter 1998.
"Pearl Buck's The Good Earth." Columbia University, East Asian
"When her second novel, The Good Earth, was published in 1931, Pearl
Buck became famous throughout the world for her moving story of the
joys and tragedies of the Chinese peasant farmer Wang Lung and his
family. The novel was a best seller in the United States, and it was
soon translated into more than thirty foreign languages; it has
appeared in Chinese alone in at least seven different translations.
The Good Earth was made into a Broadway play and a motion picture. For
this book Pearl Buck received the Pulitzer Prize in 1932 and the
William Dean Howells Medal for Distinguished Fiction in 1935. Her
international reputation was established when she was awarded the
Nobel Prize for Literature in l938, primarily in recognition of her
masterpiece novel, The Good Earth..."
"Chinese Philosphy - Mencius. Richard Hooker (1996)
"Chinese Cultural Studies: Mengzi Meng-tse [Mencius]: Selections from
the Mencius (c.300 BCE) Chinese Civilization : A Sourcebook, 2d ed.
(New York: Free Press, 1993), pp. 22-24.
"The Works of Mencius." Taken from James Legge's translation of (The
Works of Mencius)
"Confucius, Mencius and Xun-zi." From the book "Ancient Wisdom And
"Marco Polo and His Travels." Silkroad Foundation.
"Marco Polo's Asia," by by John Hubbard. Macalester College (1994)
"Marco Polo's Travels in China - 1275-1292." China and East Asia
"Marco Polo." New Advent
"Marco Polo: Part I," by By Mike Edwards. National Geographic. (2001)
"Legalism and the Ch'in Dynasty."
"Chinese Philosphy - Legalism," by Richard Hooker (1996)
"The Chou,1050-256 BC," by Richard Hooker. Ancient China.
"Finally, the last of the major schools were the Legalists. In reality
an off-shoot of Confucianism, the Legalists believed that humans were
basically evil and selfish. The best form of government, that is, the
government that best contributed to the welfare of the people, would
be one that strictly held humankind's base instincts in check. This
government would be ruled by strict and harsh laws; punishment would
be severe and swift. This belief in rule by law is why this school is
called "Legalist." None of these schools of thought, which all had
government reform as their target, ever influenced the Chou
government. The first government to adopt any of these theories of
government was the Ch'in, who adopted Legalism. The result was brutal,
but the Ch'in Legalist inventions became absolutely central to later
"The Hundred Schools of Thought." The Ancient Dynasties II.
"Xun Zi's unsentimental and authoritarian inclinations were developed
into the doctrine embodied in the School of Law ( or fa), or Legalism.
The doctrine was formulated by Han Fei Zi ( d. 233 B.C.) and Li Si (
d. 208 B.C.), who maintained that human nature was incorrigibly
selfish and therefore the only way to preserve the social order was to
impose discipline from above and to enforce laws strictly. The
Legalists exalted the state and sought its prosperity and martial
prowess above the welfare of the common people. Legalism became the
philosophic basis for the imperial form of government. When the most
practical and useful aspects of Confucianism and Legalism were
synthesized in the Han period (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), a system of
governance came into existence that was to survive largely intact
until the late nineteenth century."
"Chapter Five: Legalism."
Yin and Yang Principles
"Chinese Philosophy - Yin and Yang," by Richard Hooker (1996)
"Chapter 5: The Chinese After Life: Yin and Yang Souls.
"The Principles of Yin and Yang." Do You Feng Shui?
"Yin and Yang." Acupuncture. Holistic-online.com
"Yin, Yang and the Five Elements," by Misty Colvin, MD.
The Zhou Dynasty concept of Tian
"The Role of Tian as Sky and Heaven: Conceptual Implications," by
Sarah Allan, University of London. From Session 51: Contrasting
Cosmologies: The Search for a Coherent World View?
"Tian means 'sky' but in its role as the supreme force, tian is
conventionally translated as 'heaven,' giving it religious overtones
from our own tradition in which 'heaven' is either a place in the sky
where the souls of the good go after death or a euphemism for God.
This sounds more natural in English-to say that the ruler of China,
especially in the sophisticated imperial court of later times, was the
'son of the sky' would seem very strange to us. However, the role of
'heaven' in English as a euphemism for God gives tian a specifically
anthropomorphic character and suggests a supreme creator with a
personal will, as well as a sphere of transcendence. This equation
obscures an understanding of the Chinese term."
"Although tian was identified with Shang Di, the 'high lord' of the
Shang people at the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty, it was also, quite
literally, the sky-the realm of the heavenly bodies-and thus
responsible for cycles of time, or 'timeliness.' In nature, it
governed the shi, the seasons upon which plant life depended. For men,
too, it determined the appropriate times at which one lineage might
succeed in replacing another in its dominance over the world, 'below
the sky' or, as convention has it, 'under heaven.' The two roles are
never separate. Natural phenomenon and human life were assumed to be
governed by the same principles. This assumption is a key to
understanding Chinese conceptions of time and early divination
"The Formation of Confucianism."
"In the Zhou dynasty, the concept of Supreme Heaven-God was
substituted for the concept of Heaven(Tian).........."
"Shang, Zhou and the Classics." From the book part of the book Ancient
Wisdom And Folly.
"Though they followed the traditional Shang religion, the Zhou
developed the concept of heaven (tian) as a guiding force which
supported those who ruled virtuously and abandoned those who did not.
The king was known as the son of heaven. Patriarchal families were the
basis of power and relationship, politically as well as personally,
and whole families were often held responsible for the actions of
their individual members."
"Chinese Belief Systems: From Past to Present, and Present to Past,"
by Geoff E. Foy. AskAsia.
Confucius (Kongzi, or "Master Kong," ca. 551-479 B.C.E.):
"Two other concepts that were predominant in Confucius's worldview
were Tian (Heaven) and Dao (Way). His heaven represented a celestial
power connected with the will of mighty ancestors, such as the widely
known Yao, Shun, and Yü. The Way, on the other hand, constituted a
natural path for humanity. Whereas Heaven emphasized choice, the Way
required a yielding heart-mind (xin); both were crucial for achieving
harmony in the earthly realm."
"Zhou - (c.1050 - 256 B.C.)"
"Zhou rule was established by setting up 'feudal' networks consisting
of fifty or more vassal states presided over by sons of Zhou rulers.
While this kinship system of authority continued from the Shang
period, the Zhou rulers also introduced the theory of Heaven's mandate
claiming their sanctions to rule from a broad, impersonal diety -
Heaven (tian). This mandate (tianming) was ostensibly conferred on a
family that was morally worthy of the responsibility of kingship."
"Zhou Dynasty." Dynasties of Ancient China.
"The Mandate of Heaven says that Heaven, or tian, places the mandate,
tianming, to rule on any family that is morally worthy of the
responsibility. Also, the only way to know if the Mandate of Heaven
had been removed from the ruling family was if they were overthrown.
If the ruler is overthrown, then the victors had the Mandate of
"Legalist Philosopher: Han Feizi." Who's Who AtoZ.
"Han Feizi was a prince from the royal family of the Han kingdom.
Together with Li Si (the First Emperor's Grand Counsellor), he was a
disciple of the philosopher Xunzi. Han Feizi was considered a leading
Legalist scholar and was greatly admired by the First Emperor, who
adopted his "seven methods":
Know and compare all the various possibilities.
Punish failure with unvarying severity to the awe in which he is held.
Grant generous and reliable rewards for success.
Listen to all views, and hold the proposer responsible for every word.
Issue unfathomable orders and make deceptive assignments.
Conceal ones own knowledge when making enquiries of a minister.
Speak in opposites and act in contraries.
"However, like other notable Legalists, he met with a bad end. The
King of Han, seeing an imminent attack by Qin, sent Han Feizi to
negotiate peace with Ying Zheng, then the King of Qin. Ying Zheng was
very pleased to meet his `idol', but Li Si, a former fellow-disciple
of Han Feizi who always felt inferior to him, advised the King of Qin
to imprison Han Feizi as he might be a spy. And while in prison, Li Si
ordered Han Feizi to commit suicide by drinking poison. By the time
Ying Zheng wanted to release him, Han Feizi was already dead."
"Legalism." Founded by: Han Feizi, Shangzi.
"Han Feizi, as a student, was taught in the Confucian tradition.
Because of a problem with stuttering, he did not go the way most
wandering philosophers of this age did: making the rounds of kings'
courts and making speeches. Instead, he wrote. His book, the Han
Feizi, brought him some prominence during his life and ended up being
the main text of the school of Legalism. Han Feizi died as a result of
political intrigue in 233 BC, but Legalism would go on to become the
philosophy which finally managed to unify China."
"Legalism was founded by Han Feizi and Shangzi. Its primary text was
written by Han Feizi and carries the same name.Han Feizi was schooled
in the teachings of Confucianism from a young age and became a fine
philosopher. However, a speech impediment stopped him from lecturing
and touring the Emperor's courts. As he could not speak to a large
audience he chose to write - the result was the Han Feizi. The Han
Feizi is a 55 chapter guide to ruling as is directed at kings."
"Maps in Times of War," by By Joel Kovarsky. Mercator's World.
"Specific references to maps appear in the Guanzi (Book of Master
Guan), and the philosophical writings of Han Feizi pay honor to the
value of cartographic materials for warfare and national security,
even to the extent that these materials were considered appropriate
tribute to a conqueror.
"Han Feizi was schooled in the teachings of Confucianism from a young
age and became a fine philosopher. He became an avid student
especially concerned with the study of law and government. The primary
text of Legalism was written by Han Feizi and carries the same name.
His student Li Si (d. 208 B.C.) advised the first emperor of Qin on
how to conquer the neighboring states and made large contribution
toward unifying China. Li Si later became the first prime minister
after the Qin ruler unified China."
The Daodejing (Tao Te Ching)
"Daode Jing (Tao TE Ching)
"Selections from Lao-tzu (Laozi):Tao Te Ching (Daode-jing)."
"Tao Te Ching." Translated by Charles Muller.
"The Daode Jing (Tao Te Ching), written by Lao-tzu, is the single most
important text of Chinese Taoism."
"Laozi and Daode Jing."
"Daode Jing," deeply rooted in Chinese culture, is the basic doctrine
of Daoism (Taoism), which is one of the three main pillars of Chinese
thoughts, i.e., Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism. "Daode Jing" is
divided into two parts, Dao and De. Dao literally means road or way
and it is often translated into way, but it is not an accurate
translation. De literally means virtue, but it is also not a perfect
"The Chou:1050-256 BC," by Richard Hooker. Ancient China. (1996)
"The third major school of the period was founded by Mo Tzu, who also
sought to reform government so that it guaranteed the welfare of the
people. He, however, believed that the root cause of human misery was
"selective love," and so he preached a "universal love." By that he
did not mean some 1960's emotionalism; rather, he believed that humans
should regard their obligations to other humans as universal.
Normally, we believe that we owe our close relations a level of
courtesy and help that we would not ordinarily afford to perfect
strangers. Mo Tzu believed that we owe all humans the same obligations
we owe to our closest relations. If we all observe those obligations,
such things as warfare and starvation would disappear."
"Mo Zi and "Universal Love."
"Compared with Confucius, the teachings of Mo Zi (c.470 BC-391 BC),
by contemporary Western standards, are more democratic and
other-regarding. Today, two aspects of Mo Zi continue to be quoted in
a largely Confucian China: universal love, and peace (no war)."
"Shang Civilization." THE RISE OF ANCIENT CHINA.
Mo-zi -- Rival to Confucius:
"After Confucius' death, his teachings were overshadowed by the
scholar Mo-zi (Master Mo), who was born nine years after Confucius
died. Like Confucius, he was trained in classical literature. Mo-zi
saw the Confucianists of his time as pretentious and selfish
aristocrats -- further evidence that Confucius did not support
equality or democracy. He condemned Confucian preoccupation with
religious ritual, and he ridiculed Confucianists for putting family
and class above the welfare of common people.
"Unlike Confucius and his followers, Mo-zi believed that all men were
equal before the lord of the heavens. He believed that the powers of
heaven acted on the world and exercised a love for all humankind. He
spoke of the value of the labor of common folks, and he advocated
promoting people to positions of power solely on the strength of their
abilities and virtues."
"In place of Confucianism's dutiful love for the father of a family,
Mo-zi supported a wider devotion: he urged people to follow heaven and
reciprocate or duplicate heaven's love with their own love for all. He
claimed that members of the aristocracy should love commoners and that
commoners should love members of the aristocracy. Unlike the haughty
Confucianists, who would lecture for only those who treated them with
what they thought was proper respect, Mo-zi and his followers would
lecture anyone willing to listen."
"MO DI," by John Knoblock.
"The distinctive doctrines of Mo Di (also known as Mo Tzu) included:
"Universal Love--it is only by an ungraded love that allows no special
treatment for one's own kin that a secure society can be constructed;
"Mo Di was motivated by a conviction that only ungraded love, which
recognized no special distinctions for one's own kin, would protect
society from the evils of greed, partiality, and warfare."
"China: The Hundred Schools of Thought."
"Still another school of thought was based on the doctrine of Mo Zi
(470-391 B.C.?), or Mo Di. Mo Zi believed that "all men are equal
before God" and that mankind should follow heaven by practicing
universal love. Advocating that all action must be utilitarian, Mo Zi
condemned the Confucian emphasis on ritual and music. He regarded
warfare as wasteful and advocated pacificism. Mo Zi also believed that
unity of thought and action were necessary to achieve social goals. He
maintained that the people should obey their leaders and that the
leaders should follow the will of heaven. Although Moism failed to
establish itself as a major school of thought, its views are said to
be "strongly echoed" in Legalist thought. In general, the teachings of
Mo Zi left an indelible impression on the Chinese mind."
The Burning of Books
"The Burning of the Books: 213 BC." China and East Asia Chronology
"In 213 BC, all Confucian books were burned save one copy of each
which was kept in the Chinese State Library. Destroying literature and
persecuting Confucians was an extension of the original plans to
consolidate the Qin dynasty composed by Shi Huang (246-210 BC). They
were carried out further by Prime Minister Li Si (208 BC)."
"Book Burning and the Reflex." Interview with Max Kamien
"The burning of books has a long tradition. An early example was in
China in 213 BC when the first sovereign emperor of a newly united
China, Sheh Huang-ti, ordered burned all copies of the first anthology
of Chinese poetry compiled by Confucius 200 years earlier. This was in
retaliation for the opposition of Confucian scholars to his disbanding
of feudalism and their mocking of his single-minded search for an
elixir of immortality. He never did find it, and settled instead for
the now famous tomb guarded by 6000 terracotta soldiers near Xian.
When the burning of this one anthology failed to quell the opposition
of the Confucian scholars, Sheh Huang-ti burned all their books, with
the exception of those with a utilitarian use such as medicine,
agriculture and of course, those related to the pursuit of everlasting
"The Legalists." Mr. Dowling's Chinese History.
"To stop any criticism, Shih Huang-ti and the Legalists banned all
books on history and of classics glorifying past rulers. The First
Emperor ordered all "non-essential" books collected and burned, and
hundreds of scholars put to death. He allowed only books on
agriculture, medicine and pharmacy. Books written about Confucius and
his philosophy were destroyed. The Legalists lost power shortly after
the death of the First Emperor, and the succeeding rulers ended laws
against books. Confucius teaching managed to survive the Burning of
the Books because his philosophy was often handed down orally from
master to student; thus it was possible to reconstruct the texts from
memory and preserved manuscripts."
"China's First Emperor: The Life of Ying Zheng."
"A ruthlessly brutal dictator, Zheng sought to control the minds of
his people by killing scholars and burning most of the books in China.
No longer content to be called "king," he gave himself the title Shi
Huangdi, "First August God," or First Emperor. His son would be the
Second Emperor, and so on for 10,000 generations... at least, that was
"The First Emporer of China," by Christopher S. Mackay (2001)
"The First Emperor was annoyed by the writings of speech-makers who
took it upon themselves to criticize the new regime. Accordingly, all
works except those on medicine, agriculture and divination were
burned. In 213 there was a burning of books and at the same time 400
opponents of the regime were executed in the capital. This was very
much in the Legalist tradition of judging everything on the sole
criterion of its utility to the state and suppressing anything judged
not to be useful to the state. Confucianism in particular was
condemned as a pointless waste of time.""
Shang Dynasty Government
"The Shang Dynasty."
"Shang Dynasty (16th - 11 th century B.C.)" Warrior Tours.
"From Myth to History: Shang Dynasty (12th - 11th cent. BC)"
"The Shang Dynasty."
The concept of Wu-wei
"The Taoist concept of Wu-Wei."
"A dispute concerning the confusion in interpreting Taoist concept of
"Anarcho-Pacifism and Radical Non-Violence: an introduction."
"Philosophical Taoism and Wu Wei."
"Quotations from Tao Te Ching Concerning Wu Wei."
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listed subjects plus several variations