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Q: What is the history of the Nobel Prize? ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   1 Comment )
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Subject: What is the history of the Nobel Prize?
Category: Reference, Education and News > Education
Asked by: pendleton-ga
List Price: $10.00
Posted: 07 Aug 2003 15:41 PDT
Expires: 06 Sep 2003 15:41 PDT
Question ID: 241184
You may notice that I have asked a similar question. No results.
So I up my price and change the question some to maybe get an answer.

What is the history of the Nobel Prize?
Who has won it for what?
Who decides who gets the Nobel Prize?
How often is a Nobel Prize given for whatever area?
What are some good web sites for Nobel Prize information?
What does it take to be a Nobel Prize winner?
What else can you tell me about the Nobel Prize that I have not asked?

Go--------------- Answers researchers!!!!
Answer  
Subject: Re: What is the history of the Nobel Prize?
Answered By: missy-ga on 07 Aug 2003 20:30 PDT
Rated:5 out of 5 stars
 
Hi Pendleton!

You've asked quite the interesting series of questions!

What is the history of the Nobel Prize?
---------------------------------------

" The Nobel Foundation is established under the terms of the will of
the engineer Dr. Alfred Bernhard Nobel, drawn up on November 27, 1895,
which in its relevant parts states:

"The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in
the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my
executors, shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be
annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the
preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind.
The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall
be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made
the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics;
one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical
discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall have made
the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or
medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field
of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction; and one
part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for
fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing
armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses. The
prize for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish
Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical works by
Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy
in Stockholm; and that for champions of peace by a committee of five
persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting. It is my express wish
that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given
to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall
receive the prize, whether he be a Scandinavian or not."

The Nobel Foundation - Objects of the Foundation
http://www.nobel.se/nobel/nobel-foundation/statutes.html

The foundation was finally establised in 1900, and the first Nobel
Prizes were awarded in 1901 for achievements in physics, chemistry,
medicine, literature and peace.  The Nobel Prize for Economics did not
come into being until 1968.  You can read a complete history of the
establishment of the Nobel Foundation here:

The Nobel Foundation: A Century of Growth and Change
http://www.nobel.se/nobel/nobel-foundation/history/lemmel/index.html

Who has won it for what?
------------------------

The Nobel Prize is awarded in six categories:  Physics, Chemistry,
Medicine, Literature, Peace and Economics.  The Nobel Foundation
maintains a complete listing of Laureates for each category:

Physics
http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/index.html

Chemistry
http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/index.html

Medicine
http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/index.html

Literature
http://www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/index.html

Peace
http://www.nobel.se/peace/laureates/index.html

Economics
http://www.nobel.se/economics/laureates/index.html

Each listings page includes the names of all Laureates as clickable
links, which lead to press releases about each, speeches, biographies,
and their presentations.

Who decides who gets the Nobel Prize?
-------------------------------------

Nobel Prizes are awarded by institutions designated as a Prize
Awarding Institution by the Nobel Institute.  They are:

Physics, Chemistry and Economics -  The Royal Swedish Academy of
Sciences
http://www.nobel.se/physics/prize-awarder/index.html

[ A note on the Economics Prize:

"In 1968, the Bank of Sweden (Sveriges Riksbank) instituted the "Bank
of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel", and
it has since been awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences,
Stockholm."

Economics - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
http://www.nobel.se/economics/prize-awarder/index.html ]

Medicine -  The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet
http://www.nobel.se/medicine/prize-awarder/index.html

Literature - The Swedish Academy
http://www.nobel.se/literature/prize-awarder/index.html

Peace -  The Norwegian Nobel Committee
http://www.nobel.se/peace/prize-awarder/index.html

Each Awarding Institution's page offers virtual tours of the
institutions, as well as information about the history of each.

How often is a Nobel Prize given for whatever area?
---------------------------------------------------

The Nobel Prize is typically awarded every calendar year.  If,
however, it is determined that a particular prize cannot be awarded,
the prize money is allocated to a special fund of the Awarding
Institution.

This inability to award the Prize has occurred:

Peace:

1914, 1915, 1916, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1948, 1955, 1956,
1967, 1972

http://www.nobel.se/peace/laureates/index.html

Physics:

1916, 1931, 1934, 1940, 1941, 1942

http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/index.html

Chemistry:

1916, 1917, 1924, 1933, 1940, 1941, 1942


http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/index.html

Medicine:

1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1925, 1940, 1941, 1942

http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/index.html

Literature:

1918, 1935, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943

http://www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/index.html

What are some good web sites for Nobel Prize information? 
---------------------------------------------------------

The best, most complete, most accurate website for Nobel Prize
information is that of the Nobel Institute and eMuseum:

Nobel eMuseum
http://www.nobel.se/index.html

Other interesting sites about the Nobel Prize include:

The Norwegian Nobel Institute
http://www.nobel.no/

The Nobel Prize Internet Archive
http://www.almaz.com/nobel/

The Nobel Channel
http://www.nobelchannel.com/

Jewish Nobel Laureates
http://www.science.co.il/Nobel.asp

Nobel Prize Winners Hate School
http://learninfreedom.org/Nobel_hates_school.html

Essays on the Nobel Prize
http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/prize/prize.html

What does it take to be a Nobel Prize winner?
---------------------------------------------

Patience, dedication, passion for your work, devotion to the greater
good, a demonstrable body of work in your field, and a nomination from
a qualified nominator:

"To be considered eligible for an award, it is necessary to be
nominated in writing by a person competent to make such a nomination."

Nomination and Selection of Nobel Laureates
http://www.nobel.se/literature/nomination/index.html

Each Awardng Institution has its own criteria for who is qualified to
make a nomination:

Physics
http://www.nobel.se/physics/nomination/nominators.html

Chemistry
http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/nomination/nominators.html

Medicine
http://www.nobel.se/medicine/nomination/nominators.html

Literature
http://www.nobel.se/literature/nomination/nominators.html

Peace
http://www.nobel.se/peace/nomination/nominators.html

Economics
http://www.nobel.se/economics/nomination/nominators.html

Only the winners are announced.  Nominations, nominators, criteria,
deliberations and opinions on deliberations are kept confidential for
fifty years:

"Confidential Nominations
According to the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation, information about
the nominations is not to be disclosed, publicly or privately, for a
period of fifty years. The restriction not only concerns the nominees
and nominators, but also investigations and opinions in the awarding
of a prize."

Nomination and Selection of Nobel Laureates
http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/nomination/index.html

What else can you tell me about the Nobel Prize that I have not asked?
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Alfred Nobel, in whose memory the Nobel Prizes are awarded, was known
in his day as the inventor of Dynamite:

Alfred Nobel - Timeline
http://www.nobel.se/nobel/alfred-nobel/biographical/timeline/index.html

The Nobel Prize has been awarded posthumously a total of three times:

Erik Axel Karlfeldt (Literature Prize, 1931)
Dag Hammarskj÷ld (Peace Prize, 1961)
William Vickrey (1996 Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred
Nobel)

Since 1970, the only way a Nobel Prize can be awarded posthumously is
if the winner is announced in October, but s/he dies before the awards
ceremony in December.

I hope this satisfies your curiosity about the Nobel Prize!  If you
need further assistance, please just ask for clarification.  I'll be
glad to help!

--Missy

Search terms: [ Nobel Prize ]
pendleton-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars
Dear Missy-ga. Excellent job! You about deserve a Nobel prize for that
most thorough, complete, helpful, full-of-web-sites answer.

Now it is up to me to get to work to win the Nobel Prize!!

God bless you to know and do His will!
John P.

Comments  
Subject: Re: What is the history of the Nobel Prize?
From: missy-ga on 08 Aug 2003 09:09 PDT
 
Awww, thanks John!  Actually, the query was very informative and fun,
and I ended up going back to poke around in the archives later.

Getting interested in the queries is something of a "job hazard", but
it makes for great games of Trivial Pursuit later!

--Missy

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