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Q: Deviant Psychology ( No Answer,   18 Comments )
Subject: Deviant Psychology
Category: Relationships and Society
Asked by: chris58-ga
List Price: $30.00
Posted: 30 Oct 2003 14:37 PST
Expires: 29 Nov 2003 14:37 PST
Question ID: 271255
I'm looking for essays and thesis on the backgrounds, motivations and
psychological makeup of males who derive sexual gratification
observing their wives/partners have sexual intercourse with other
males.  I would like to find a single psychological term for this
behavior.  I interested in this only from a psychological perspective,
and not interested in the psychology of voyerism or cuckolding.
There is no answer at this time.

Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: amalik-ga on 30 Oct 2003 23:33 PST
Partial answer to just one part of your question.

"I would like to find a single psychological term for this behavior."

The term is either paraphilia, or the more specific term, sexual

Given this example of behavior, the sexual sadist would be aroused by
the act of both humiliating and controlling the wife/partner to the
extent of  actively  "directing" or managing the wife/partner's
actions during the course of the sexual intercourse.



Sexual feelings or behaviors that may involve sexual partners that are
not human, not consenting, or that involve suffering by one or both
In psychoanalytic theory, sadism is related to the fear of castration,
while the behaviorist explanation of sadomasochism is that its
constituent feelings are physiologically similar to sexual arousal.
Separate but parallel descriptions are given for sexual sadism and
sexual masochism in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Diagnostic criteria for 302.84 Sexual Sadism 
A. Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent, intense sexually
arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving acts (real,
not simulated) in which the psychological or physical suffering
(including humiliation) of the victim is sexually exciting to the
B. The person has acted on these urges with a nonconsenting person, or
the sexual urges or fantasies cause marked distress or interpersonal
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: chris58-ga on 30 Oct 2003 23:59 PST
thank you for your partial answer.  Although controlling -
'"directing" or managing the wife/partner's actions during the course
of the sexual intercourse', is part of the pathology I'm researching,
humiliation or non-consentual sex is not.
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: cynthia-ga on 31 Oct 2003 05:23 PST
Hi chris58, 

I must agree with you, the activity you describe is most definitely
consensual. It has NOTHING to do with sadism OR paraphilia, to the
contrary, both human parties (well, all three!) --consent to, and
Enjoy the activity. It is in no way related to BD/DS/SM (Bondage &
Discipline, Dominance & Submission, Sadism & Masochism).  It CAN be
related, and used in a *scene*, --but this is definitely a kink

If it's not consensual, it's called rape.

I do however think the classification is more "abnormal" than
"deviant."  Comment?

I'm just browsing right now, and I have a heavy work schedule the next
3 days.  This is one of my areas of expertise, so I will check back to
see if it's been answered as soon as I can give it some search time...
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: cynthia-ga on 31 Oct 2003 06:33 PST
The exact term for this activity is:

Candalagnia - Spouse who watches partner have sex with someone else.

This is all I have time to do for you right now. As I said, I'll check
the Q later to see if it still needs answering.

Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: amalik-ga on 31 Oct 2003 09:00 PST
Normally, scientific words and psychological terms are constructed
from Greek and Latin roots.  The word candalagnia certainly appears to
have this form

candal   agnia

However, when one looks up the meanings of the constituents of the
word in question in both Latin and Greek dictionaries (as well as

-agnia looks promising 
                    - art or craft done by the person  (see citation

but candal has no meaning I can find in these dictionaries.

Unless I can see how this word was constructed and citations from the
psychological literature I do not think this word answers the

"I would like to find a single psychological term for this behavior. "


Note:  Sadism and Masochism are often consensual, as are acts of
sexual sadism, and acts in which a person consents to experience
humiliation.    And nowhere in the original question was the
motivation or consent of the wife/partner mentioned.  Therefore an
accurate response to the original question before it was clarified
would have to be a psychological term or word in which consent  or
whether the wife experienced humiliation/enjoyment, or both,  from 
the experience were not assumed.

chris58-ga's clarification ruling out the element of humiliation is
important, as well as confirming the following:

"Although controlling - '"directing" or managing the wife/partner's
actions during the course of the sexual intercourse',"

This clarification would tend to direct the search for a psychological
term into the area of "controlling behavior".


Citation 1

Using a Latin dictionary


i SUFFIX art or craft done by the person (abstract noun of person);
office of, -ship; agni.a N 1 1 NOM S F agni.a N 1 1 ABL S F

Citation 2

Latin and Greek Lexicon (Project Perseus)
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: voila-ga on 31 Oct 2003 10:56 PST

1. Deliberately exhibiting one's wife naked to another man in order to
show her off. Named after King Candaules of ancient Lydia, who is said
to have revealed his queen's nakedness to Gyges. (See Herodotus,
History 1.8-12. The story, by the way, did not end well for King
Candaules, since the queen took offense.)

2. Feeling pleasure and pride in watching one's wife engage in sexual
activity with another man.

3. Participation in a group of three comprised of a woman, her
husband, and another man, where the husband watches his wife engage in
sexual activity with the other man.

lagnia" from the Greek "lagneia" = "coition, intercourse."
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: amalik-ga on 31 Oct 2003 11:11 PST
I'd like to thank voila-ga for the citation. 
I searched under mythology in case this term
was based on a mythological or historical figure
(such as narcissism) but missed the reference to
King Candaules.
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: chris58-ga on 31 Oct 2003 14:57 PST
Thank you the interest in this query.  

Use of the term "Abnormal" is probably better than "Deviant". 
Psychology seems to be shying away from using the "deviant" label, and
for good reason.

Although the psycholological makeup of the wife/partner is a major
concern, my current question involves the psychological makeup and
motivation of the husband/partner.

Allow me to present a hypothetical situation in order to clarify my

Husband has  fantasies about seeing his wife conduct various sexual
acts with another man/men.  He becomes obsessed with the idea.  He
hints at it to his wife, or if he thinks she'll be receptive, he
proposes it outright.

Regardless of the wife's reaction,  Husband continues to obsess.  If
the wife is reluctant, He finds someone he thinks may be able to
seduce his wife, finds the right circumstances, or even plies her with
alcohol if necessary.  His methods for attaining his desires stop
short of anything that would clearly be non-consentual sex.

While the wife and other man are having sex, the husband watches -
most likely engaging in masturbation, but never becomming physically
involved with the wife and other man.  Eventually he may begin
"directing" the couple in order to get them to act out his fantasies.

The husband may or may not experience orgasm during the act, and may
or may not have negative emotions afterward. If the wife feels
negative emotions afterward and asks that such activity stop, the
husband will continue to press her.  If she demands that it stop, the
husband may cease his attempts for a few months, but eventually he
will feel compeled to persue his obsession again.

Please note that I've used the words "may or may not".  This is only a
hypothetical, and the details may not fit every case.

hope this helps
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: chris58-ga on 31 Oct 2003 15:25 PST
I will be gone for the nest 36 hours, and will look in this site as soon as I return
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: amalik-ga on 01 Nov 2003 00:41 PST
This is going to be my final comment unless there is a request to
amplify a given remark that can be answered quickly.

Disclaimer:  I am not a psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker,
etc.  The following is offered solely for the purpose of directing the
questioner to information they may or may not find helpful in their

First, I'd like to thank chris58-ga for offering a more detailed case
history.  The additional details were most helpful.

Second:  Given that neither the terms candaulism or Candalagnia
returned hits within the PubMed library and one of the purposes of the
questioner was to "look for essays and thesis" on this subject, I
would regard these terms as descriptive of behavior, but not of the
underlying psychology, and so not meet the request for a psychological

All citations below can be found at PubMed, the National Library of

First I am going to take the case history offered and remove the
actual fantasy itself leaving only the passages I find of significance
to deriving a psychological term.

The actual fantasy is not needed for a first level approximation of
the underlying mental disorder,  it becomes useful in refining the

1. Husband has fantasies xxx. 
2. He becomes obsessed xxxx
3. Regardless of the wife's reaction, Husband continues to obsess. 
4.  If the wife is reluctant, xxx, or even **plies her with alcohol**
if necessary.
5.  His methods for attaining his desires stop short of anything that
would **clearly**  be non-consentual sex.
6.  Eventually he may begin "directing" the couple in order to get
them to act out  ** his fantasies **.
7.  The husband may or **may not** experience orgasm during the act,
and may or may not have negative emotions afterward.
8.  If the wife **feels negative*** emotions afterward and asks that
such activity stop, the husband will **continue to press her***.
9.  If she ***demands*** that it stop, the husband may cease his
attempts for a few months, but eventually he will feel ***compeled***
to pursue his ***obsession**  again.

Point A - coercive element

If wife is reluctant, patient is willing to incapacitate her judgement
with alcohol (3),  engage in behavior that might be construed under
certain circumstances as having resulted in non-consensual sex (4), 
and will continue to press her (8) if she asks that such activity

See Citation 1 below for link
Prevalence of wife rape and other intimate partner sexual coercion in
a nationally representative sample of women.
"Other findings reveal that women had unwanted sex with a current
spouse or partner ...
after the partner begged and pleaded with them (26%), and after their
partner said things to bully them (9%). The importance of examining a
continuum of sexual coercion is discussed and findings are compared
and contrasted with other prevalence rates for sexual coercion in

The element of coercion is not physical - but physical force is not
necessary for behavior to be considered coercion.  See Citation 2
below for link

Varying forms of husband sexual aggression: predictors and subgroup

 "The relationships between two forms of husband sexual aggression
(coercion and threatened/forced sex) and husband physical and
psychological aggression were examined ...physically nonviolent
husbands were found to engage in sexual coercion, "

Pont B - non-consensual 

There are both psychological and legal theories based on the assertion
that coercion negates consent.  So even though point 5 states "stop
short of anything that would **clearly**  be non-consentual sex"  from
a psychological standpoint, the pleading and bullying (not to say
intoxicating the wife) may negate consent.

Point C - psychological suffering by wife/partner

          8. If the wife **feels negative*** emotions 
          9. If she ***demands*** that it stop

If points 8 and 9 occur, it is plausible to infer that the wife is
undergoing some form of psychological suffering ("feels negative
emotions").  Otherwise, why the "demand" that it stop.

Point D  - interpersonal difficulty

	fantasies cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.

If the wife/partner demands the activity stop, interpersonal
difficulty has clearly occured.


Now I'm going to return to the diagnosis of Paraphilia - but use two
different citation/definitions.

The second definition does not require non-consensual or suffering of
partner as an necessay element in the diagnosis.

Remember paraphilia is a broad classification which is why the fine
details of the fantasy may not be necessary for a first order

The first is the one I gave before that included coercion and
suffering by one of the partners.
        "Sexual feelings or behaviors that may involve sexual partners
that are not human, not consenting, or that involve suffering by one
or both partners."


And I hope it is clear from points B, C, & D above that under some
circumstances, the case history you gave can be tentatively classified
as paraphilia.  In fact, within the very historical anecdote given for
the construction of the term candaulism,  the Queen was so humiliated
(suffered so greatly) she ordered Gyges to kill the King.

The second definition does not require  suffering by one of the
partners or non-consensual participation and gives three viewpoints on
paraphilia.  (Don't be mislead by the criteria for sexual dysfunction.
 That does not mean impotence.  Indeed hypersexuality is often found
accompanying paraphilia but it is focused in the areas of masturbation
while fantasizing.)

Essay on the diagnosis and nature of paraphilia.  (CItation 3 below)

i)  Paraphilia is a disorder of sexual identity development, often
solely of the intention component, that has three characteristics:
      a) a long-standing, highly arousing, unusual erotic
      b) a pressure to act upon the erotic fantasy; 
      c)  sexual dysfunction with a partner during conventional sexual

ii) Paraphilia is also a disorder of self-regulation characterized by
a considerable gap between personal aspirations and behaviors.

iii)  Finally, paraphilia is a dramatic impairment in the capacity to

I realize that the use of the phrase "may or may not"  limits  the
applicability of my response to a limited number or subset of the
phenonema you are researching.

However, I would recommend an article similar to the third citation be
included in your future research.

I hope this response has been helpful to you in pointing you to some
articles you may not have considered.

Citation 1
Prevalence of wife rape and other intimate partner sexual coercion in
a nationally representative sample of women

Citation 2
Varying forms of husband sexual aggression: predictors and subgroup

Citation 3

Essay on the diagnosis and nature of paraphilia.

Levine SB, Risen CB, Althof SE.

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio.

Increasing clinical experience has allowed the formulation of three
psychodynamic viewpoints about the nature of the paraphilic disorder.
Paraphilia is a disorder of sexual identity development, often solely
of the intention component, that has three characteristics: a
long-standing, highly arousing, unusual erotic preoccupation; a
pressure to act upon the erotic fantasy; sexual dysfunction with a
partner during conventional sexual behavior. Paraphilia is also a
disorder of self-regulation characterized by a considerable gap
between personal aspirations and behaviors. Finally, paraphilia is a
dramatic impairment in the capacity to love. Two rarely recognized
issues complicate the nosology of paraphilia: Many related sexual
problems are often confused with paraphilia, and some paraphilias
manifest themselves as variations in gender identity and object
choice. The defensive functions of paraphilia are discussed and common
terms used in conjunction with paraphilia are redefined.

PMID: 2398505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

Other Citations not mentioned in discussion above but included as
possible sources of further information.

Men's erotic fantasies.

Crepault C, Couture M.

Ninety-four men were interviewed about their erotic fantasies.  .. .
The contents during heterosexual activity center on three main themes:
confirmation of sexual power, aggressiveness, and masochistic

The paraphilias. The extent and nature of sexually deviant and
criminal behavior.

Abel GG, Osborn C.

Behavioral Medicine Institute of Atlanta, Georgia.

This article presents data that indicate that paraphiliacs tend to
carry out a variety of paraphilic behaviors and cross a number of
boundaries within individual paraphilias.
Publication Types: 
Review, Tutorial
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: voila-ga on 01 Nov 2003 08:47 PST
Hello chris58, 

As this appears to be your first question with Google Answers, could I
explain that we generally look at the comment section more as a
thinking aloud/discussion/clue area rather than any kind of formal
'answer' to your question.  You are never charged for comments. 
Sometimes people enjoy helping by posting pieces that may be a part of
the puzzle, but is far from a complete answer.   Something offered in
the comment area may spark some insight as to how a researcher may
best tailor their search approach.

Your question, however, seemed to have two elements -- the actual
naming of the behavior and the characteristics of that behavior. 
While 'candaulism' may be the -specific- name for this behavior within
the confines of marriage, it may be somewhat of a 'nomen nudum,'
falling under a more general category of paraphilia (as amalik-ga
suggests) and have a constellation of overlying characteristic

I've had little time to research your question with any gusto, other
than trying to locate its name, but I have been giving it a lot of
thought along with several of my colleagues.  I hope you can be
patient with us and aren't working against a deadline.

Re-reading your question, I grasped that you're not interested in
voyerurism per se, but is not what you describe a case of 'selective'
voyeurism and involve some of the same psychological makeup?  
Granted, it doesn't factor in the coersive/consensual nature of the
act, nor is it surreptitious viewing, but I think you'll find there
are overlapping characteristics.

Checking an incredibly ancient offline reference, "Abnormal Psychology
and Modern Life, 5th Ed." under 'voyeurism,' I came up with some
similar characteristics as amalik-ga's search under 'paraphilia.'


"Peeping activities often provide important compensatory feelings of
power and superiority over the one being looked at which may
contribute materially to the maintenance of the pattern.  Also, the
suspense and danger associated with conditions of peeping may lead to
emotional excitement and a reinforcement of the sexual stimulation."

Additionally from this website:

scoptophilia (or scopophilia; adjective, scotophilic) 
a paraphilia of the solicitational/ allurative type in which
sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are
responsive to, and contingent on watching others engaging in sexual
activity, including sexual intercourse [from Greek, skopein, to view +
-philia]. the condition in which a person is dependent on looking at
sexual organs and watching their coital performance in order to obtain
erotic arousal and facilitate and achieve orgasm. It is not
surreptitious, as in voyeurism. The reciprocal paraphilic condition is
sometimes also referred to as scoptophilia; or by its own name,
autagonistophilia. Synonyms, mixophilia; mixoscopia; scopophilia. See
also scoptolagnia; troilism.

I offer the above as clues for possible avenues of investigation, not
to further muddy the waters or clutter your comment section, chris58. 
;-)  Sometimes it takes a GA village on questions such as yours;
however, I can assure you several researchers are working diligently
in the background and we appreciate your patience.

Thanks to amalik-ga and all commenters who have and continue to offer
their research services freely.

Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: chris58-ga on 02 Nov 2003 06:39 PST
Thank you, Viola-ga and all the rest!  you've already been very

I'm not near any deadline for this information.  As for amalik-ga's
disclaimer, I'd like to say that the product of this research will not
be used as a substitute for professional psychological or psychiatric
intervention, counseling or therapy.

At this point your assistance is right on track with the behavior I
need to research.  Although I agree there might be some shared
characteristics with voyerism, I wanted to avoid any misunderstanding
that there was anything surreptitious about the nature of the act.
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: gabrielleadams-ga on 03 Nov 2003 15:03 PST
I would say this is more "atypical" sexual behavior, rather than
"abnormal", or "deviant". It's certainly not rare. It's just simply
not discussed  due to social stigma. Orgies would fall into this
category, to some extent. I suppose it depends where you live. In my
region of the country, it's fairly well accepted. I live near the
"polyamory capital of the world". Not only do people indulge in it as
a sexual act, but form long term relationships with one woman and two
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: chris58-ga on 04 Nov 2003 12:15 PST
thanks gabrielleadams-ga for your comment.

One of the of things I would change if I were to pose the question
today is to list it under "health" instead of "relationships and
society".  I am not interested in "'atypical' sexual behavior" but
abnormal psychology.  I understand polyamory, swinger, and D/s
lifestyles, and based on how I worded my question, such a person could
exist within those lifestyles. This is not, however, what I am looking
for.  The composite case history I wrote a few comments ago was
intended to clarify that.

The husband may or may not have any emotional bond with man who has
sex with his wife.  He would most likely prefer that his wife had no
emotional bond with the other man, and would probably insist that all
sexual activity occur in front of him.  He would probably not wish to
see forms of affection such as hand holding, hugging or light kissing.
 The husband's concern is for his own gratification, and considers the
sexual activity as being played out for him. His interest in his
wife's enjoyment is linked only to her willingness to continue the
behavior.  In most cases he would like to either provide specific
directions for which sexual acts he wishes to see beforehand, or
instruct the participants to do what he wants to see during the
"scene".  Typically the husband would be a controling personality, and
could possibly have some sort of social/sexual disfunction and/or
gender issue.  Most telling, however, is that the husband is so driven
by his desires that he willing to subject his wife to severe emotional
trauma, experience some emotional trauma himself, and risk
destablizing his marriage to satisfy this need.  This behavior does
not meet the alternate lifestyles credo of "safe, sane and
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: voila-ga on 11 Dec 2003 05:01 PST
Hello again,

I regret that I've been too busy to work for Google Answers of late
but I wanted to post my research even though your question has
expired.  Since I don't know the depths you're studying this behavior,
I went a bit broad in my research.  Please discard anything not of


From P. 602, "The Dictionary of Psychology," by Raymond J. Corsini
{using 'search inside this book feature at Amazon}

mixoscopia:  a form of voyeurism where sexual satisfaction is achieved
by observing sexual intercourse, particularly between the voyeur's
lover and another person {see peeping Tom, perversion, scotophilia}.

mixoscopia (mixo·sco·pia) (mik²so-sko¢pe-[schwa]) [Gr. mixis
intercourse + skopein to examine]:  a paraphilia in which
gratification is obtained by the sight of the object of one's desire
engaged in sexual intercourse with another.

para-: a word prefix that means beside, near, beyond, aside, amiss,
and sometimes implying alteration or modification.
-philia: a word suffix meaning love, or erotic / sexual love of a
person, thing, or activity. from Greek: philos, which means loving.

Whether you categorize paraphilia as 'sexual deviation' or merely odd
points of sexual arousal, it is sexual arousal in response to unusual
stimuli.  The text I referred to earlier classifies this behavior
under 'maladaptive and socially disapproved sexual patterns.'

And since we're on the topic of language, I have not come across a
*single* psychological term to describe this behavior.  Candualism may
suit a lexicomane, but this term hasn't been embraced by the
psychiatric community.  If you're seeking a definition for
classification or diagnostic purposes, it would probably fall under
'paraphilia or sexual NOS (not otherwise specified)' or 302.9 in the
 This would, of course, depend on other factors in the client's
diagnostic presentation.

If the behavior exists as an egodystonic problem, it would probably be
coded as an Axis I diagnosis; an egosystonic one, on Axis II, and
might be coupled with an obsessive compulsive or narcissistic
personality disorder.  The DSM will include expanded code types in
their updated DSM-V version and, indeed, there are additional F
(65-66) codes which exist in ICD-10 diagnostic classifications for
sexual disorders.

However, it's my best guess you'd more often see the partner of a
triad in therapy rather than the voyeur.
"Because voyeurs do not hurt anyone and because they are secretive,
they are rarely caught. As with most sexual disorders of this type,
they rarely seek treatment on their own. As a result, we do not know
much about voyeurs and voyeurism. The average age of onset appears to
be before age 15. The disorder appears to be lifelong unless treated."

Additionally, I've seen several interpretions of the definition for
"troilism," including this one:
"Troilism is obtaining sexual arousal and gratification by sharing a
sexual partner (or close relative) while watching or looking.  A
troilist becomes aroused and gratified by the "sharing."


"Troilism (psychology) A noncoerced type of paraphilia in which a male
observes his usual sexual partner engaging in sexual activity with
another person; in contrast to coercive voyeurism, all parties consent
to this activity in troilism."

and troilism's etymology:

(...) the first known incidence of the word in writing occurs in
Dorland's Medical Dictionary of 1941.  This indicates that troilism
was (if it isn't still) a medical/psychological term.

That's all I have for you in the terminology department.


In the causality/motivation realm, the language and opinions are even
more diverse.  Psychologists/psychiatrists tend to attach certain
prime motivations to behavior when they can be diverse as we are as
human beings.   One label does not fit all and there is little
likelihood for agreement in the profiling of this behavior.  I will,
however, list as many as possible as further sources of investigation.

From a purely textbook perspective ("Abnormal Psychology and Modern
Life"), some of the causal factors in deviant sexual behavior include:

** Learning and reinforcement.  "Among preadolescents/adolescents
erotic literature, sex scenes in films, nude pictures or other objects
intimately associated with members of the opposite sex may spark
sexual arousal and strong emotional reactions -- such as fear and
excitement -- especially if associated with the performance of a
forbidden act.  With time, some stimuli come to be preferred to others
and and erotic arousal/gratification are limited to a relatively
narrow range of stimuli and behavior.  Social expectations, models,
instruction, information, and chance occurrences all play key roles in
the learning process."

**Faulty information and lack of interpersonal competencies.  "A
curtain of ignorance plus highly emotional attitudes about erotic
matters provide a fertile culture medium for the growth myths and
misconceptions.  (...) Anxiety and guilt can be generated when there
is a discrpancy between real experience and unrealistic expectations."
 Misconceptions + emotional reactions may equal sexual
maladjustment/dysfunction.  Kaplan, H.S., "The Illustrated Manual of
Sex Therapy," 1975.

**Sexual frustration and other life stresses.   "Society abounds in
subtle/not so subtle forms of sexual stimulation, yet strong social
pressures are exerted to confine sexual behavior to a few patterns
under specific conditions."  Stimulation + frustration + stress may
lead to socially disapproved sexual patterns.

**Provocation of the 'victim.'  Most assurely the most controversial
of these theories.  Does the 'victim' consciously/unconsciously emit
cues that lead to an evoked response and how and why are these cues
may be misintrepreted?

**Association with other psychopathology.  Again from Kaplan (1975)
(...) "Causality lies on a continuum which extends from minor and
transitory conditions to profound psychopathology.  Pathological
conditions may involve inadequate development or lowering of inner
reality and ethical controls.  Neurotics may come to the attention of
law enforcement through peeping and/or exhibitionism; sociopaths
through forcible rape."

Additional online research brought up additional theories:

Object loss:
Psychoanal Q. 1979 Oct;48(4):601-19.
Scopophilia and object loss.
Almansi RJ.

"The study of a case of voyeuristic perversion and of some previously
published cases of simple scopophilia suggests that fear of object
loss early in life may be an important factor predisposing one to a
propensity for voyeurism. The increased need to maintain visual
contact with the object and to incorporate it visually leads to a
hypercathexis of the visual function which is at the base of
voyeurism. This need later becomes sexualized, while still retaining
its pregenital connotations. Although object loss was apparently
significant in the case of the patient described in this paper, it is
not necessarily a factor in all cases of perverse voyeurism and, when
present, may be considered as only one element in its pathogenesis."

Unconscious hostility:  
"Our word for intercourse, sex, comes from a Latin root meaning to cut
or sever. Nexus means to connect, so why, when we make love, do we
have sex and not nex? Robert Stoller in Sexual Excitement: Dynamics of
Erotic Life concludes that "it is hostility -- the desire, overt or
hidden, to harm another person -- that generates and enhances sexual
excitement. The absence of hostility leads to sexual indifference and
boredom. The hostility of erotism is an attempt, repeated over and
over, to undo childhood traumas and frustrations that threaten the
development of one's masculinity or femininity."

"When hiding and defying authority are paired with the intense sexual
arousal that often characterizes early sexual exploration in our
culture, these qualities become part of the building blocks in our
sexual development. Forbidden fruit tastes the sweetest because that
is what we cut our teeth on. There is something very exciting about
being rebellious and self-assertive that comes with secretive sex. For
some people, engaging in forbidden sex is one of the few ways they
assert themselves, even if the taboo act remains covert."

Adventure/Curiosity/Sensation-Seeking Behavior:

"If two people can create sexual adventure in a long-term
relationship, where they can explore all the variations on a sexual
theme of physical arousal, emotional arousal, and eroticism, including
a variety of different kinds of sex play and orgasms, this could be
the most sexually adventurous opportunity of all. Of course, this is
not easy because our cultural bias is that excitement and commitment
do not quite go together. But when a committed relationship is not
exciting, it is usually because one or both partners is playing it
safe and withholding feelings with the other just to keep the peace."

"Curiosity is externally stimulated, and that the curiosity drive is
aroused by external stimuli specifically stimulus conflict. This
encompasses complexity, novelty and surprise. (...) Stimulus change
and novelty is accompanied by physiological change. However, over
longer periods of time, investigating behaviors are not accompanied by
readily identifiable physiological changes.  (...) Exploratory
behavior serves to maintain or attain a medium to optimal activation
level for the organism. In all cases where exploration takes place,
arousal or desire is reduced.

Exploratory behavior:
"More research is needed to study curiosity behavior in its own
cultural context to gain a better understanding of the functional
relationships between various environmental and social facilitators
and inhibitors of curiosity in a given society."

"Zuckerman (1994) defines sensation seeking as "the seeking of varied,
novel, complex and intense sensations and experiences, and the
willingness to take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for
the sake of such experiences."

"The study shows that personality traits--such as sensation-seeking,
sexual inhibition and excitation, mood, and assertiveness--play a role
in decisions to take risks. In the study, men with high
sensation-seeking scores or depression were more likely to participate
in risky behavior they later regretted, and several also reported that
sexual arousal impeded their judgment, says Erick Janssen, PhD,
psychologist and associate scientist at the Kinsey Institute. Janssen
says they mainly focused on men's risky behavior in this particular
study because the theoretical model they used was based on research
about men."

Childhood trauma:
"Freud considered the primal scene to be traumatic because he believed
the child would be overstimulated to a point at which his/her
defensive barrier is breached, and the undischarged libido creates
anxiety that then results in symptom formation or psychic
disequilibrium. Another reason for the traumatic nature of the primal
scene is explained by the child's narcissistic injury at feeling
rejected, excluded, or treated like an unwelcomed intruder. The child
often interprets the sexual act as a sadistic one, adding to his/her
feelings of unease."

Sperm competition syndrome or SCS (Terry Gould):
"A heightening of arousal on the part of a male from watching his
female mate flirt or engage in sexual activity with one or more other
males, this due to the triggering of biological responses in the
presence or suspected presence of sperm that might compete with his
own.  See also candaulism, mixoscopia, Sherfey syndrome, sperm wars,
swing, troilism, watching, zelophilia.


I had therefore derived a 'syndrome' for husbands who were
counterintuitively aroused by their wives' enjoyments -- from soft-end
flirtation to the extreme Sherfian response. I called it 'sperm
competition syndrome' -- SCS. 'It's a biological explanation for why
swinging men get excited by watching their wives flirt or have sex,'  
It has to do with increased sperm ejaculation and orgasm pleasure.'
The Lifestyle: A Look at the Erotic Rites of Swingers, [by] Terry
Gould (Buffalo, N.Y.: Firefly Books, c1999): p. 174, cf. pp. 206-213.

From a brain chemistry perspective:
"Studies comparing the functional neuroanatomy of patients with
paraphilias to normal individuals as well as to patients with OCD and
impulse control disorders could be potentially useful.  (...) They
found significant differences regarding ventricle-brain ratios (VBR),
with larger ventricles in patients with OCD. Rapoport et al. (1988)
reported smaller caudates in adolescents and children with OCD
measured with volumetric computerized tomography."

And in the legal realm:
"Paraphilias are characterized by arousal in response to sexual
objects or situations that are not part of normative arousal-activity
patterns and that in varying degrees may interfere with the capacity
for reciprocal, affectionate sexual activity.?  The essential features
of paraphilias are ?recurrent intense sexual urges and sexually
arousing fantasies involving either (1) nonhuman objects, (2) the
suffering or humiliation of oneself or one?s partner, (not merely
simulated), or (3) children or other nonconsenting persons.?  A
diagnosis of paraphilia is made ?only if the person has acted on these
urges, or is markedly distressed by them.?  In addition to pedophilia,
the paraphilias include exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, sexual
masochism, sexual sadism, transvestic fetishism, voyeurism, and
paraphilias not otherwise specified."

The emotional battery issue:
"A batterer is a person who exercises a pattern of coercive control in
a partner relationship, punctuated by one or more acts of intimidating
physical violence, sexual assault, or credible threat of physical
violence. This pattern of control and intimidation may be
predominantly psychological, economic, or sexual in nature, or may
rely primarily on the use of physical violence."

The overarching behavioral characteristic of batterers is the
imposition of a pattern of control over his partner (Lloyd & Emery,
2000; Pence & Paymar, 1993; Adams, 1989)."

One useful way to encapsulate the nature of the batterer's problem is
that he perceives his partner as an owned object (Lloyd & Emery, 2000;
Adams, 1991)


Most of these references dealing with paraphilia are from PubMed, so I
hope you have easy access to their library:

General Characteristics of Paraphilias
"Research has shown paraphilic behaviors occur with high frequency.
They are found almost exclusively in males and tend to have their
onset during puberty. They are reported in many cultures and have long
been reported or described in history.Several paraphilias frequently
may overlap with each other."


(...) Think of paraphilia as a continuum both in term of desire and
severity (i.e., some paraphilic behaviours do not harm anyone
(transvestic fetishism), while others can be devastating


J Clin Psychol. 1998 Aug;54(5):689-700.  Related Articles, Links  
Lay theories of etiology and "cure" for four types of paraphilia:
fetishism; pedophilia; sexual sadism; and voyeurism.
Furnham A, Haraldsen E.
University College London.


Arch Sex Behav. 1991 Apr;20(2):137-50.  Related Articles, Links  
Patterns of sexual arousal and history in a "normal" sample of young men.
Templeman TL, Stinnett RD.
Eastern Oregon Psychological Association, Pendleton 97801.


Psychoanal Rev. 1991 Fall;78(3):391-410.  Related Articles, Links  
The addiction to negativity.
Lane RC, Hull JW, Foehrenbach LM.
J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 1989;37(2):365-99.  Related Articles, Links


Psychoanal Q. 1979 Oct;48(4):601-19.  Related Articles, Links  
Proust and perversion: some clinical and theoretical considerations.
Halberstadt-Freud HC.


Daniel Traub-Werner 
Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis 
6(1): 35?50 

"The case of a patient whose scoptophilic drive was organized around
voyeurism is presented. Analysis reveals the presence of early and
inordinate castration anxiety as the source of his passive
scoptophilia. Overstimulation contributed to the failure to neutralize
oral sadism. Lingerie represents the fetish that the erotized gaze
searched for. Incorporation via the oral gaze and primitive
identification with the devoured object are some of the vicissitudes
of the component instinct. Specific use of language betray the
structures of this man?s reality. His voyeurism rests on an
organizational triad constituted by castration anxiety, scoptophilia,
and fetishism. "


John Money (1986). Lovemaps: Clinical Concepts of Sexual/Erotic Health
and Pathology, Paraphilia, and Gender Transposition of Childhood,
Adolescence, and Maturity. Irvington Publishers; ISBN: 0829015892.

John Money and Margaret Lamacz (Contributor) (1989). Vandalized
Lovemaps: Paraphilic Outcome of Seven Cases in Pediatric Sexology.
Prometheus Books; ISBN: 087975513X.

John Money (1990). Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of
Exotic Orientation. Oxford University Press (Trade); ISBN: 0195063317.

Richard Stoller.  Observing the Erotic Imagination

Richard Stoller.  The Erotic Form of Hatred.

Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment and Treatment. D.Richard Laws &
William O'Donohue, eds. Guilford Press. New York. 1997

Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking


The Erotization of the Gaze

Peeping Tom

Film d'Amore

The Eyes of Laura Mulvey

I hope the above information will be helpful in understanding this
very complex behavior.

Very best wishes,

Search strategy:
Offline sources
Combination of terms on Google/MSN Search/Teoma/Northern Light
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: chris58-ga on 12 Dec 2003 20:07 PST
wow.  that represents significant research a closed question!  Is
there any way to pay a tip for a comment?
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: voila-ga on 13 Dec 2003 08:20 PST
Hi Chris,

Very kind of you to offer.  When I polled my colleagues who expressed
an interest in your question and found no one was going to follow up,
I felt a little guilty that I'd offered you a sense of false hope.

I have this search under every rock strategy, so it always takes me a
painfully long time to complete an answer.  I almost offered up a 'the
dog ate my homework' excuse since it was *so* very late, but I do hate
research going to waste.   I've just been frightfully busy.

Your topic was an interesting one but there seems to be a paucity of
information out there on a particular profile for this behavior,
absent a few adult chat sites where people gather and who have their
own set of theories.  From every indication, this behavior seems to be
on the rise, so it absolutely bears further investigation.

If any of my research is valuable to you, as I tend veer hopelessly
off-track sometimes, you can post a $2 question directed to voila-ga
and place a tip inside that question.  Please do not feel obligated to
tip on quantity; I'd prefer your satisfaction as it relates to

Thanks for a very fascinating question.  We get so few of them!

Happy holidays!
Subject: Re: Deviant Psychology
From: chris58-ga on 15 Dec 2003 14:16 PST
Viola -

I'm sure I'm going to need a two-buck question answered in this
subject area when I take abnornal psych next quarter - when I do, I'll
remember your your help this time


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