Hello again, jmswilsn-ga!
I have tried to compile the best references which reveal the methods
that liars and cheaters use to fool their "prey", as well as the
characteristics and signals that one can learn to recognize to become
wise to their ways.
As mentioned in my clarification, there are not many "how to"
articles or books on the subject. I was hoping for more articles along
the lines of "How to Get Away with Lying", or the "Hidden Talents of
Cheats." Nevertheless, each link I have referenced includes worthwhile
information though you may need to scroll through the article to find
the choice nuggets.
I hope you can use these references to strategize your methods of
counter attack!!! If you feel I have left anything out or have not
pursued an angle that you would like me to investigate, please feel
free to ask. I will be happy to help if I can.
And once again, thank you so much for an enormously fun and
interesting question to research!
LIARS AND CHEATS
"So You Wanna Lie Persuasively?"
"Master The Art of Cheating." Mox Lifestyle. (December 2003)
"Keep Your Secrets?"
"How to Cheat and Not Get Caught Having Affairs -- Still Keep Healthy
Relationships," by Richard Terry Lovelace, MSW, Ph.D.
"Methods of Lie Detection.
"Jack Trimarco, former FBI profiler and host of the new Court TV game
show 'Fake Out' discusses lying." (Oct 1, 2003)
"How to Win at Cheating - 19 steps to successful adultery," by Aliza Davidovit.
"The Face in Deception."
"Become a Better Liar - It's Easy!" (humorous but an element of truth)
"Become a Human Lie Detector," by Marty Nemko.
"How to Spot a Liar," by James Geary. Time Europe. (March 13, 2000)
"The Naked Face," by Malcolm Gladwell. Annals of Psychology. (August 5, 2002)
"Born Liars," by Jerome Burne
"Liars in the Workplace - People who lie their way to the top - and
how to deal with them!" by Michelle Palmer & Annemarie Failla.
"AIDS Patients Schooled on Lying to Revive ," by Tara Meyer, Associated Press
(May 18, 1997)
"Three ways to spot a liar," by Mark Garay. ABC13 Eyewitness News. (Nov. 11, 2002)
"The Jayson Blair Project - How did he bamboozle the New York Times?"
by Jack Shafer.
"And now, the lying game. From Clinton to Archer, the combination of
charm and deceit is powerful," by David Graham. Toronto Star (July
"Truth About Lies: Telling Them Can Reveal a Lot," by RICHARD A.
FRIEDMAN, M.D. New York Times. (July 29, 2003)
"ON LIE DETECTION," by JOHN W. DEAN. FindLaw.com (March 15, 2002)
"How to spot someone who?s not telling the truth." OM Personal.
"The Nose Knows." (lying causes slight nasal swelling and itch)
Psychology Today, May, 2000
"Understanding Compulsive Liars," by Chris Jozefowicz. Psychology
Today. (Oct 23, 2003)
"A Nation of Cheaters? Interview with author David Callahan"
"The Truth About Lying: Why We Do It and When It Might BE OK," by
Kathllen Kelleher. Los Angeles Times (3-10-98)
"Some police see through killer's lies," by Bruce Bower. Science News.
(March 3, 2001) http://www.sciencenews.org/20010303/fob4.asp
"Spotting Liars," by Cynthia R. Cohen. Trial Techniques Committee
"What gives a liar away? BBC News. (Nov. 2001)
"Liar, liar, nose on fire," by Dr. Gifford-Jones. C Health(Dec. 31, 2001)
Online directory for Lying and Truthfullness articles/books:
"Cheating on Tests: How to Do It, Detect It, and Prevent It," by
Gregory J. Cizek. http://www.assess.com/Books/b-31444.htm
"Why People Lie," by John J. Busak
"Detecting Lies." BBC.
"Why people lie," by Mark Kendall. The Press-Enterprise. (1998)
"The Psychology of Lying," by Michael Terzian. SLS Health.
"Regarding lying: fib and fiction," by Larry Good.
"Liar, liar!" by CATHY STAPELLS. Toronto Sun (July 24, 2000)
"Topic: Top 10 ways to tell someone is lying to you." NoDeception Forum.
"Mrs. Covert's Spying Lesson #3 : Detecting Lies."
What makes a good con artist?
"5 biggest con artists - and what they taught us," by Jeff Wuorio.
(Though this article may seem off the track, it is interesting to note
the personal strategies each one used to pull of the deceit)
"Master of Deception," by Linda Tischler. Fast Company. (January 2003)
Lies! Lies!! Lies!!!: The Psychology of Deceit by Charles V. Ford (Hardcover)
"Pathological Lying, Accusation, and Swindling - A Study in Forensic Psychology
by William and Mary Healy.
"LYING AND ITS DETECTION - A STUDY OF DECEPTION AND DECEPTION TESTS,"
by JOHN A. LARSON Assistant State Criminologist, State of Illinois
(All are available on Amazon.com at the following page
However, I have also provided each book with another link so you can
get a better idea of the content matter.
Detecting Lies and Deceit : The Psychology of Lying and the
Implications for Professional Practice," by Aldert Vrij
Never Be Lied To Again : How to Get the Truth In 5 Minutes Or Less In
Any Conversation Or Situation by David J. Lieberman
Principles of Kinesic Interview and Interrogation, Second Edition by
Stan B. Walters. http://enotalone.com/books/0849310717.html
The Truth About Lying: How to Spot a Lie and Protect Yourself from
Deception by Stan B. Walters.
"How to Sting the Polygraph."
"Art Of Lying," by Sakai, Kazuo. Published: November 2000.
"In this intriguing study of the role of lies in human behavior, a
noted Japanese psychiatrist and a successful businessman argue that
despite everything we've been taught in America, lies make the world
go 'round. They bring to light the benefits of lying that long have
been hidden behind the universal belief that lying is wrong."
"How to Spot a Liar." Insight Video Training
how people lie
methods of cheating
how to cheat on your wife
how people get away with cheating
how to get away with lying
how to get away with an affair
lying to get to the top
psychology and lying
psychology and cheating
cheating in relationships
cheating to get ahead
is cheating justified?
is it okay to lie?
characteristics of liars
benefits of lying
be a better liar
spotting a liar
good con artists
lying to get ahead
the tricks of lying
how to fool people
how to detect a liar
famous liars and cheats
the art of bluffing
Request for Answer Clarification by
24 Dec 2003 06:51 PST
I'm sorry for answering so late, but its all GoogleAnswer's fault.
They disabled my account for some billing problems, and didnt activate
it in time, I had to complain for everything to be fixed.
Now, this problem didnt allow me to contact you nor to post a
clarification when you asked for one.
By the way, you did a great job! Thank you very much I enjoyed the
information you have provided (havent gone through all of them)
"I stayed away from individual tricks perpetrated by con men because
they tend to focus on the particular con as opposed to the personality
characteristics of such individuals. However, you may also be
interested in the following"
Infact, my job is to deal with such people, thus whatever links/info
you have on the con-men (offline and online), please present it.
""The 'foot in the door' factor is where the focus of a persuasion
attempt already knows you or has had experience of dealing with you.
This is a particularly effective and was known by con men as the
'confidence trick'. Psychological research showed that people are more
likely to comply with a large request if they have had previously
complied to a far smaller one. If this 'foot in the door' includes a
positive history of cooperation, where things have gone well in the
past, then the chances of co-operation are greatly increased.""
That is precisely the point. The foor in the door phenomena is one of
my favorites and I've been searching for such things more than
anything else. If its not too hard, provide some additional
information on that too.
Additional Request: Alot of the information you have provided is based
on mostly the 'reason' why people lie and the 'methods of detecting'
people lying. My interests are mostly concerned with understanding the
lying itself, not the reasons nor ways to catch it. Sort of the, "how"
and not "why, what for". Would you be so kind as to provide more
resources concentrating on that issue? I tried to provide the question
clarification so you would put more time into researching that
specific topic rather than very general.
But altogether, you did a great job! I'd give you a A+ (5 stars) once
the rest of the information is in (blame Google for not letting me
request it sooner and in time,) and a nice, juicy bonus.
Thank you for all your time
Clarification of Answer by
25 Dec 2003 23:52 PST
I have compiled some additional references should shed further light
on "how" people lie or perpetrate frauds. Although I understand what
you are asking for, I have to admit that a general overview about the
"hows" of lying are extremely hard to find.
If you were asking about "how" people cheat at card games or on
tests, there would be no shortage of information. If you were asking
"why" people lie or how to "detect" a lie, there are a number of
references which I have already provided.
But an overview concerning "how" people lie is an extremely broad
concept with a shortage of precise information. I have been running in
circles for many hours over the last two days and don't feel that I
can offer much more than the extra references I have provided below.
I hope you have had an opportunity to read through some of my earlier
references. I think you will find that there are some articles which
contain valuable information about how people perpetrate lies.
If you need some detailed information specific to a certain scam or
fraud, please don't hesitate to ask. Specific information is often
easier to pinpoint than a general overview. And since lying and
cheating are not the most ethical activities, there is far more
information available concerning how to detect a lie rather than how
to perpetrate one!
Finally, I want to thank you for your patience while I tried to
finish this answer during the holidays!! I truly hope you can put some
of this extra information to good use.
"You could be vulnerable to a scam artist or con." DateSmart.com
"SWINDLERS ARE CALLING." Alliance Against Fraud in Telemarketing
The following articles are from Fraud-Aid.com:
"PROFILE OF A CON ARTIST: The Insideman."
"WHAT A CON ARTIST LOOKS FOR IN A SCAM VICTIM."
"HOW CON ARTISTS SET UP THEIR VICTIMS."
"WHAT A CON ARTIST WON'T TELL YOU."
"WHAT A CON ARTIST WILL TELL YOU."
"THE 12 MOST COMMON EXCUSES USED BY SWINDLERS FOR NOT RETURNING YOUR MONEY."
"It Was Only A Matter Of Time - Con men may be trying to fleece senior
citizens in L.A., using fears over the Southern California firestorms
as their foot in the door."
"Avoiding Women Scams."
How To Lie Like A Politician
This is Your Brain on Public Relations," by Kenny Ausubel, AlterNet
Case Study 5 - Liar, Liar
Learn to lie by being honest - "from your own point of view!"
"A team of designers in a high profile ebusiness environment had
problems with some of the other groups they dealt with. Individuals
within these groups would commit to completing work and then not
deliver. They would commit to one thing and do another - using the
normal management channels simply let to a recrimination spiral. The
design team began to think they were dealing with people who were
being deliberately deceptive."
"The coach put together a 1-day workshop which included rapport,
active communication and learning how to lie effectively! The design
team learnt that in normal circumstances its very difficult to lie
effectively. The undercurrent of this was that the individuals they
were dealing with were being honest - from their point of view."
"The design team were then taught how to elicit outcomes and
motivation. By aligning their own outcomes with their suppliers and
customers they found they could create an atmosphere of greater trust.
To their surprise the design team found that people started honoring
their promises and the working atmosphere changed dramatically."
"Of Lyers." Gnosis
"Successful lying requires three distinct skills: imagination,
empathy, and memory. Imagination is the fundamental requirement
because lying is, at its root, making up a story, seeing things as
they could be or as you would like them to be rather than as they are.
Empathy, though not necessary to simply tell a lie, is necessary to
tell a lie that will be compelling to its intended audience. It's very
difficult to lie convincingly to people if you can't anticipate their
expectations or reactions. And memory is needed to tell lies of any
complexity or lies that are meant to persist. Without memory, you find
yourself entangled in the details of your creation or, over time,
you'll forget yourself and revert to the truth.
"Scams and fraud have weaved their way into everyday lives," by
Indicators of Deception