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Q: Fast Food ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: Fast Food
Category: Reference, Education and News > Teaching and Research
Asked by: lavania-ga
List Price: $200.00
Posted: 22 Apr 2004 04:10 PDT
Expires: 22 May 2004 04:10 PDT
Question ID: 334236
I want to know Everything About Fast Food, Starting from its orign,
then New trends, etc Everything on fast food.

Request for Question Clarification by easterangel-ga on 22 Apr 2004 04:21 PDT
Hi lavania-ga!

Since it will be hard to find out if we can truly find "everything"
about fast food in available resources, would it be ok to post here as
much as we can find?

Second can you describe to us what particular information must be
present in this report.

What information will be nice to have only if available?


Request for Question Clarification by easterangel-ga on 24 Apr 2004 02:52 PDT
Furthermore, what country should we focus on?

Thanks again!

Clarification of Question by lavania-ga on 25 Apr 2004 08:35 PDT
It should talk about Fast food world wide, the latest trends in fast food,
how it evolved.
everything about fast food. whatever u find in minimal resources of yours,
a quality work is desired
Subject: Re: Fast Food
Answered By: easterangel-ga on 26 Apr 2004 03:54 PDT
Hi! Thanks for the question.

I will try to present the answer according to different segments that
will be of interest to you about fast foods. One is the history of
fast food, the overview of its industry, the current and latest
trends, the fast food industry in different countries and finally some
interesting statistics.

Whenever possible I will try to provide small snippets from the
articles I will cite but I highly recommend that you read them in
their entirety to get a better grasp of the concepts.

A. History:

Our point of reference for the history of fast food will go beyond
that of the US but we will always go back to the American setting
since it is where the fast food industry really grew and became a part
of our lifestyle.

Our first link provides a timeline of the most important developments
of the different and separated elements of the fast-food industry.

1. Timeline:
Origin - Turkey or Macedonia 
Date - 6000 B.C.E. 

Bread (raised): 
Origin - Egypt 
Date - 3000 B.C.E.

Origin - Germany 
Date - 18th Century

Origin - U.S.  
Date - Late 19th century 

?The Historical Cheeseburger and Cola? 

2. We can also discuss the possible theories on how such food products
were able to make their way to the US.

?Very few of the products that we eat originated or were domesticated
in the United States. So how did these foods arrive here? Many food
products originated in the Middle East and Asia. For instance, pepper
and many spices are grown only in India and Southeast Asia. Many
spices continue to be imported into the United States.?

?In turn, many Asian foods could be grown in the Mediterranean or
Western European climates. Many Asian foods were introduced into
Europe in prehistoric times. Food products consumed in antiquity by
Egyptians, Greeks and Romans including bread (wheat), cheese, lettuce,
pickle (cucumber), beef, vinegar, chicken eggs, olive oil, and
mustard. As Europeans colonized the New World during the 16th century,
these products were imported into what is today the United States.?

?Another way in which Asian foods arrived in the United States was
through the Caribbean. For instance, sugarcane originated in Southeast
Asia, and was introduced into India 2,500 years ago. From India sugar
was introduced to Persia (today Iran) by 600 CE. Moslem Arabs
introduced sugar into the Mediterranean region and to southern Italy
and Spain. Europeans introduced sugarcane to the Atlantic Islands, and
European explorers, beginning with Columbus, introduced sugar into the

?Patterns of Food Introductions into the United States?

3. A history of the development of the different ingredients to make a
hamburger, hotdog or any other sandwich is discussed here.

?The cheeseburger is more than just the sum of is parts. Many
components have been combined to make other foods. For instance,
raised bread appears to have been first made in ancient Egypt. Raised
bread requires high concentrations of yeast added to flour dough. The
technique was perfected in the ancient Mediterranean and passed
subsequently to northern Europeans.?

?Ketchup, originally a Chinese word (ke-tsiap) meaning a fermented
fish or soy sauce, was extensively used in Southeast Asia. The British
encountered the sauce in Indonesia and tried to duplicate it upon
returning home. Early 18th century ketchups were composed of
anchovies, walnuts and mushrooms.?

?Mayonnaise is a combination of olive oil and egg which probably
originated in Roman times. The word mayonnaise is derived probably
from the French language in the mid-18th century. The French
redeveloped the condiment and introduced it in the United Kingdom and
subsequently into the United States.?

?Ground beef has been consumed since prehistorical times in Europe.
The word "hamburger" was first used in Hamburg, Germany in the 18th
century, to refer to a particular type of sausage. The combination of
hamburger with bread was a British creation.?

?Origins of Manufactured Products?

4. The start of the American fast food phenomena is the topic of the
next links. Aside from the food, another element of fast food, the
softdrink or cola beverages will also be noted here as well.

a. The Hamburger:

?The origin of the hamburger is clouded in history and controversy. In
Medieval times the Tartars, a band or warriors from the plains of
Central Asia would place pieces of beef under their saddles while they
rode. This would tenderize the meat that would then be eaten raw. This
is the legend of the origin of the
modern dish, Beef Tartare? 

?In the nineteenth century, German immigrants brought a dish called
Hamburg Style Beef to the United States, which had traveled to the
seaport city of Hamburg, Germany from Russia.?

?In 1934 the Wimpy Burger appeared. Named for Popeye's hamburger
eating character, this burger went for the upscale market at 10 cents
a burger. In keeping with the founder's wishes, all 1,500 restaurants
were closed down when he died in 1978.?

?By the late 1930's, Bob Wain of Bob's Big Boy, introduced the first
double patty burger. Variety in Hamburgers was beginning and like
White Castle the Big Boy found a lot of imitators. But it wasn't until
1948 when the first McDonald's opened that the modern fast food
Hamburger was set to revolutionize the way we eat.?

?The History of Hamburgers? 

?Richard and Maurice McDonald chalked out a design for a new type of
hamburger restaurant on a tennis court in 1948. Their goal was to make
the operation as efficient as possible. Compared with previous
fast-food chains they planned to reduce their expenses, thereby
permitting them to sell hamburgers at a lower price.?

?The McDonalds' success encouraged others to imitate them. Based on
his observation of their burger stand, Keith Cramer began a fast-food
hamburger restaurant in Florida which eventually became the Burger
King chain. In 1954 Ray Kroc, a salesman who sold Multimixers, visited
the McDonald's operation. He was so impressed that he arranged with
the McDonalds to sell franchises.?

?Mcfast-food Conquers America? 

?In 1954, a fifty-two-year-old milk-shake machine salesman saw a
hamburger stand in San Bernardino, California, and envisioned a
massive new industry: fast food. In what should have been his golden
years, Raymond Kroc, the founder and builder of McDonald's
Corporation, proved himself an industrial pioneer no less capable than
Henry Ford.?

?Kroc felt sure the McDonald brothers' operation could succeed wildly
if it expanded. So the next day, he offered them a proposition. "Why
don't you open a series of units like this?" he asked. The brothers
demurred. They had already sold franchises in Phoenix and Sacramento
for very little money, and had reaped no great benefits. At root, they
were indifferent businessmen, satisfied with the $100,000 they earned
annually and unwilling to invest the energy to build a chain. But Kroc
was a veteran salesman with more that thirty years of experience.
Using every ounce of persuasion he could muster, he finally convinced
the brothers to cut a deal: Kroc would sell McDonald's franchises for
the low price of $950.?
 ?With the deal in hand, Kroc set about fulfilling his vision of
McDonald's restaurants blooming from coast to coast. He started by
building the chain's first link -- an experimental model in Des
Plaines, Illinois, outside Chicago, that featured the same low prices,
limited menu, and rapid service as the San Bernardino stand. Opening
on April 15, 1955, the store rang up a respectable $366.12 in sales,
and quickly became profitable.?

?Instead of simply supplying franchisees with milk-shake formula and
ice cream, Kroc wanted to sell his new partners an operating system.
In other words, he branded a service. And this was the revolutionary
means McDonald's would use to create a chain in which a store in
Delaware and a store in Nevada could serve burgers of the exact same
size and quality, each containing the same number of pickle slices and
topped with the same-size dollops of mustard and ketchup, each arrayed
on similar tray alongside potatoes deep-fried for the exact same
length of time.?

?Ray Kroc, McDonald's, And The Fast-Food Industry?

b. French Fries:

?America's craving for french fries may be traced back to the
thousands of hungry soldiers stationed in Northern France and Belgium
during World War I, when American servicemen first tasted the
irresistible, thinly-sliced regional potato specialty. They dubbed the
hot and crispy fried snack "French Fries," after the french-speaking
people who sold them.?

?However, America's introduction to french fries actually dates to the
early 19th century. In 1802, President Thomas Jefferson, who authored
the Declaration of Independence and brought many notable innovations
to America, served french fries at a White House dinner. And although
Jefferson's predecessor, John Adams, thought Jefferson was "putting on
airs by serving such novelties," french fries soon became the most
popular form of potato preparation in America.?


c. Hotdogs:

?Although the history of sausage goes back a long way, hot dogs are as
American as apple pie. There's no sure etiology of the term hot dog,
but two theories are the most prominent.?

?The popularity of the term hot dog is generally attributed to sports
cartoonist T. A. ?Tad? Dorgan, who caricatured German figures as
dachshund dogs just after the turn of the 19th century.?

?German Americans brought us weinerwurst, German for Vienna sausage,
which eventually shortened to wiener. Other German immigrants referred
to smoked sausages as bundewurst, German for dog sausage. By the late
1920's, weinie roasts became the rage, with guests bringing their own
hot dogs to roast over an open fire.?

?Where did the terms come from?? 

d. Colas

?Long before fast-food chains dotted our landscape, the cola industry
was running full speed ahead. While apparatuses for making soda
(Carbon dioxide, CO2) water were invented in the early 19th century,
they became particularly important after the Civil War. In 1876 soda
vendors popularized soft drinks at the Centennial Exposition held in
Philadelphia. Alcoholic beverages had been banned at the exposition,
and the summer proved to be extremely hot. Many fair goers liked what
they drank and demanded soda drinks when they returned home.?

?Soft Drinks Conquer America? 

5. The start of the fast food culture:

?While fast-food stands began to pop up during the 1920s, the 1950s
first witnessed their rapid proliferation. Several factors that
contributed to this explosive growth: 1) America' s love affair with
the automobile; 2) the construction of a major new highway system; 3)
the development of suburban communities; and 4) the "baby boom"
subsequent to World War II.?

?Fast-food chains initially catered to automobile owners in suburbia.
The notion of "fast" food reflected our American culture in which
speed and efficiency are highly prized.?

?McCola Culture? 

B. Fast Food Industry Overview:

?Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food
restaurant or shop at low cost. Fast food is a multi-billion dollar
industry which is continuing to grow at a rapid pace in the early 21st
century in many countries as fewer people cook at home.?

?Fast food is often highly processed and prepared in an industrial
fashion, i.e., with standard ingredients and methodical cooking and
production methods. It is served usually in cartons or bags in a rapid
manner in order to minimize costs. Fast food outlets often provide
take-away or take-out food in addition to a sit-down service.
Drive-throughs allow food to be ordered and delivered without leaving
the car to further speed service.?

?Fast food? 

?The McDonald's Corporation has become a powerful symbol of America's
service economy, which is now responsible for 90 percent of the
country's new jobs. In 1968, McDonald's operated about one thousand
restaurants. Today it has about twenty-eight thousand restaurants
worldwide and opens almost two thousand new ones each year. An
estimated one out of every eight workers in the United States has at
some point been employed by McDonald's. The company annually hires
about one million people, more than any other American organization,
public or private. McDonald's is the nation's largest purchaser of
beef, pork, and potatoes -- and the second largest purchaser of
chicken. The McDonald's Corporation is the largest owner of retail
property in the world. Indeed, the company earns the majority of its
profits not from selling food but from collecting rent.?

?The fast food chains' vast purchasing power and their demand for a
uniform product have encouraged fundamental changes in how cattle are
raised, slaughtered, and processed into ground beef.?

?Fast food has joined Hollywood movies, blue jeans, and pop music as
one of America's most prominent cultural exports. Unlike other
commodities, however, fast food isn't viewed, read, played, or worn.
It enters the body and becomes part of the consumer. No other industry
offers, both literally and figuratively, so much insight into the
nature of mass consumption.?

?Fast Food Nation? - Book Review


Our next segment will be about trends. Articles from 2004 and 2003
will usually be featured here but some from 2002 are also included
since the trends mentioned there are still applicable for today.

1. Market Figures
2003 Report

?The chain (Burger King), with 18% of the fast-food burger market
(versus McDonald's 43%), had operating income of only $230 million on
$11.3 billion in revenue in the year in which the deal was negotiated.
The all-cash deal was originally pegged at $2.2 billion but got
negotiated down to just $1.5 billion.?

?Burger King's Flame-Broiled Future? 

2. Health Concerns

a. Obesity

?A recent assessment of obesity in the US found that more than a half
of all adult Americans were overweight.?
?Health groups say one of the biggest culprits for this growing
epidemic is junk food, and that the best time to break the cycle
between obesity and bad eating habits is when people are young.?

?Fast food companies - such as McDonald's and Burger King - are
currently participating in a campaign urging young Americans to eat a
healthier diet.?

?Fat Americans sue fast food firms? 

?The researchers combined knowledge gained from meticulous studies on
volunteers in the UK and Africa with information on the composition of
foods obtained from fast food company websites.?

?Studies with volunteers have shown that energy density (the amount of
calories different foods contain weight for weight) is a critical
factor in regulating food intake. Foods with a high energy density can
cause people to accidentally eat more calories than they need.?

?A typical fast food meal has a very high energy density. It is more
than one and a half times higher than an average traditional British
meal and two and a half times higher than a traditional African meal.?

?Fast food encourages over-eating and weight gain?

b. Low-carb food

?The battle between the two biggest burger chains is definitely a
tit-for-tat rivalry. Often, when McDonald's does something, whether a
new burger or marketing campaign, Burger King answers with a new
sandwich or new ad.?
?Now, the latest battle in the burger wars isn't over burgers -- it's
over low-carb food.?

?In fact, many credit Subway with changing fast food by making low-fat
foods more popular. That helps explain why McDonald's is now pushing
premium salads, while Burger King offers low-fat baguettes.?

?McDonald's, Burger King in a low-carb grill-off? 

?In the wake of the weight-obsessed American public?s enthusiasm for
all things Atkins, new ?low? or ?reduced? carb offerings are flying
off the shelves (with their high carb counterparts seeing a decline in

?Low-carb fast food: The latest trends?  

?McDonald's plans to introduce a new, all white-meat Chicken McNugget
with less fat and fewer calories, the latest move by the fast-food
giant to offer healthier fare.?

?In the next six weeks, McDonald's will begin offering the smaller
McNuggets in all of its 13,600 U.S restaurants, the Chicago Tribune
reported in Sunday's edition.?

?McDonald's to offer white-meat nuggets? 

c. Use of Warning Labels

?Fast food's biggest players on Thursday will receive a jolting demand
from the law professor who helped bring Big Tobacco to its knees:
Display warning notices about the alleged addictive nature of fatty

?What he is demanding is the posting of signs in all restaurants
warning customers that studies on animals have shown that eating fatty
foods causes addiction-like reactions.?

?Fast-food restaurants told to warn of addiction? 

3. Marketing to Children

?Big foodmakers like McDonald's and Kraft Foods are finding every
imaginable way to put their names in front of children. And they are
spending more than ever - $15 billion last year, compared with $12.5
billion in 1998, according to research conducted at Texas A&M

?Product tie-ins are everywhere. There are SpongeBob SquarePants
Popsicles, Oreo Cookie preschool counting books and Keebler's Scooby
Doo Cookies. There is even a Play-Doh Lunchables play set.?

?Fast Food Industry Zeroes In On Children?

?Businesses spend an estimated $13 billion a year marketing food and
drinks to U.S. children and their parents, according to "Food
Politics, "a newly released book written by Marion Nestle, chair of
the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at New York University.
That's an increase of $5 billion in the last decade. Often, the stuff
they're selling is not the perfect nourishment for growing minds and
bodies. Many experts say unhealthy diets are partly to blame for a
growing weight problem among U.S. kids.?


4. Low Level Customer Commitments

?The quick-serve restaurant (QSR) marketplace is plagued by a lack of
customer commitment1. Despite consistent investment in innovation and
marketing from QSR companies, consumers show very thin commitment to
the quick-service restaurants where they eat.?

?TNS Intersearch recently measured the degree to which QSR consumers
are committed to the restaurant chains they regularly visit. Compared
to the commitment level in a broad range of other categories,
commitment to QSR brands is near the bottom of the list. Regardless of
how often they eat at QSR?s, consumers are more committed to their
brands of cigarettes, beer, coffee, soft drinks and, even, cars.?

?The national chains with the highest consumer commitment are Subway
and Wendy?s. McDonald?s is somewhat stronger than Burger King. Pizza
chains generally tend to have lower commitment.?

?The study indicates that some QSR consumers are indeed concerned
about the nutritional value of what they are eating and are taking
action accordingly. This explains the shift from traditional QSR
chains to fast casual chains, which are perceived as offering more
healthy options.?
?The Indifferent Nature of QSR Consumers? 

5. Value Added Technology Services

?Hotspot vendor Wayport is the winner in the contest to provide
hotspots to McDonalds restaurants in the U.S., the companies said in a
statement Tuesday.?

?The decision came after the fast food chain ran a pilot of WayPort
hotspots in some of its restaurants in the San Francisco, Portland,
Boise, Idaho and Raleigh, North Carolina areas. Other hotspot vendors,
most notably Cometa, were piloting hotspots in McDonalds restaurants
in locations such as New York, Chicago and Seattle.?

?McDonalds Adds Wayport Hotspots To Menu?   

6. Attracting Different Segments of the Market

?Many of the fast food chains in the USA and Canada went through a
phase a few years ago of trying to be all things to all men (and to
all women, and most especially to all children). They tended to offer
many product lines very similar in concept to those of their rivals,
presumably in a bid to avoid the problem of one member of a party
objecting to them as a choice of venue because they didn't have what
that person wanted. More recently this trend seems to have eased
somewhat, as evidenced by the rapid growth over the last few years of
the Mexican fast food specialist chains such as Taco Bell.?

?Another recent trend is the move to "Express" mini-restaurants in gas
stations and department stores. Most of the fast food chains have
taken this approach, but to my mind this "brand stretching" is more
like "brand diluting" and probably counter-productive in the long
term. These outlets often operate with minimum staffing and as a
result service is frequently unacceptably slow.?

?Fast Food Restaurants in the USA and Canada ? Trends?  

7. Other trends:

a. Asian Food
?Asian diets that emphasize vegetables, fish, and balanced portions of
grains have long been considered among the healthiest diets in the
world. Now more than ever, American consumers are looking east for
nutritional advice. Asian restaurants, with tasty treats from China,
Japan, Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam continue to be hot franchise

b. Spicy Foods
?Mexican food continues to be a fiery favorite. But today's food
consumers want even more spice and a variety of exotic tastes.
Franchises are responding to changing American tastes, the growing
Latino market, and a general curiosity among consumers to try hotter,
spicier foods. Extra-hot menus now include cuisine from Thailand,
Korea, Malaysia, India, and Jamaica as well.?

c. New Products
?New fast food franchise choices are attracting the attention of
customers and franchise buyers alike. Frozen custard is a hot choice
for dessert lovers, and frozen custard franchises are quickly catching
up with ice cream or frozen yogurt establishments in the race for
customer taste buds.?

?Super-sized Franchise Opportunities in Fast Food? 

?Breaded, then deep-fried and served with ketchup or barbecue sauce,
cheeseburger fries, as they're called, have found their way onto menus
in Nebraska, Minnesota and Texas, according to the New York Times.?

?Looking to follow the success of Chicken McNuggets and fried
mozzarella sticks at fast food chains, the National Cattlemen's Beef
Association hopes the new snacks can revive the sagging popularity of
beef in the American diet.?

?Chicken McNuggets, move over!? 

d. Co-Branding

?Besides aiming to provide customers with more choices in one
convenient location, cobranding was also designed so franchisees could
optimize their space and personnel while increasing profits with the
addition of one or more brands. However, "that didn't work very well,"
says Seid. "You were taking two different day parts, shoving them
together and saying, 'This should extend my business,' but the
location didn't fit and a lot of the benefits weren't realized.?"

?But don't discount cobranding altogether. It will continue, but
probably not with same emphasis. ?I see it being used intelligently,
but I don't see it being used anywhere near the rate it's been in the
past,? Seid says. ?It just doesn't make sense. The results aren't
there to support it except in certain situations.?"

?The Future of Fast Food?,4621,307616,00.html

C. International Trends: 

Unlike the US or UK, some countries do not publish reports in a timely
manner so some reports maybe a few years back plus they are not as
detailed as the free coverage in the US. Some details are available in
reports that you have to purchase. But these articles will still be
valuable to your study of the markets and trends in that particular

1. International

Fast Food Annual Expenditure:

US - $1429 per annum per person
West Europe - $467

- ?North America, Western Europe and Japan together account for86% of
the global foodservice market?

- A fat tax is being considered for implementation in the US, UK and Australia

?Can Fastfood be healthy?? (You can get more figures and facts from this report) 

?While McDonald's and other fast food chains are under fire from legal
action from obese people in the US and continuing pressure in
Australia over their role in child obesity, the research claims that
young people are rejecting their parents' fast food habits and are
favouring healthier food. It predicts chains offering fresh,
convenient foods will be in a good position to appeal to the group.?

?Fast food out, family companies in, says study? 

?The fast food industry in Asia is estimated to be worth approximately
US$200 billion, with potential to continue to grow for both large
multinationals such as McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), as
well as local chains.?

?McDonalds has outlets in almost every country in the world. Although
the core menu is similar throughout the chain's 30,000+ restaurants,
modifications are made to accommodate cultural and local tastes.?

?Fast Food in Asia? 

2. UK 
2003 Report:

?The UK market for fast food and home delivery/takeaway has grown by
5% since 2001 to reach a value of 6.8 billion (US$10.1 billion) in

?Per capita consumption of fast food increased over the review period
to reach 152.19.7 in 2001. This translates for a period growth of

?The bakery products sector is likely to dominate the fast food
market, accounting for almost 44% of value sales by 2007, an increase
of over 22% over the forecast period.?

?Fast Food in UK? 

?The largest market sector, and one of the most buoyant, is
sandwiches. Shorter lunch breaks, consumer tastes turning to light
lunches and snacks, and the spread of more branded sandwich outlets
across the UK have all contributed to sales growth. The second-largest
sector is burgers. However, the burger market has been one of the
weaker-performing sectors in 2002, with price discounting and
competition from other fast food brands affecting sales. Both the
pizza and chicken sectors have benefited from consumers switching from

?The 'other' fast food and home delivery outlets sector includes a
variety of outlets, such as coffee shops, Indian and Chinese outlets,
sushi and noodle bars, soup bars, doughnut, muffin, and other pastry
shops. Sushi and noodle bars saw healthy growth in 2002, along with
coffee shops.?

?Fast Food and Home Delivery Outlets: Market Report Plus 2003? 

?The clear star of the food market has been the convenience foods
sector, growing by an impressive 70 per cent over the past 10 years,
outstripping staple foods such as dairy, bread, meat and fruit and

"?Not only has the convenience food sector grown the fastest over
these years, it is also the largest sector, with almost 17 billion
spent on convenience food in 2003,? says the report.?

?Once again, confirming evident trends in the industry, and intimately
tied up with ?convenience concept?, Mintel found that fast food was
the largest sector of the food market. Today, UK consumers
collectively spend a massive 10 billion on hamburgers, fried chicken,
chips and other fast food.?

?UK consumer opts out of cooking as convenience grows? 

?Technology is playing a vital role in McDonald?s plans to lure more
customers into its 1,230 UK fast food restaurants -- as well as
driving cost savings and operational efficiency across the

?McSalads are not the only new things on the menu, as the company is
also introducing wireless  networking, PlayStation 2  video games
consoles, Internet terminals, flat-screen televisions and music videos
into its revamped stores.?

?McDonald's Offers Customers a Bigger Taste of Technology? (UK)  

3. Germany
2003 Report

?The German market for fast food has grown by just over 2% since 2001
to reach a value of nearly ?5 billion in 2002.?

?It is primarily the younger generation and those living alone without
a partner that are more likely to visit a fast food restaurant.
Teenagers regard fast food as a way of escaping their parental care
and singles often do not to cook for themselves and choose fast food

?Burgers are by far the largest sector, accounting for 63.4% of total
value sales in 2002.?

?Fast Food in Germany? 

?International companies are still responding to Germany's
environmental mandates on packaging and waste disposal. Last fall, one
city and a Berlin-based federal court teamed up to put fast food
disposable packaging in its sights. The city of Kassel enacted an
ordinance in 1992 that requires each restaurant to pay taxes up to 30
for each piece of nonreturnable packaging or tableware supplied to

?Two McDonald's restaurants and two vending companies challenged the
ordinance, but a Federal Administrative court upheld the right of
Kassel to enact it, noting that ?the policy goal is to reduce the
amount of garbage.?"

?Germany now targets fast food ware? 

4. Japan
2003 Report

?The Japanese market for fast food restaurants was worth 1,570.1
billion (or US$12.5 billion) in 2002, having grown by 1.5% since

?Expenditure on foodservice fluctuated during the review period. In
2002, foodservice accounted for approximately 20% of total consumer
expenditure on food.?

?In 2006, the independent fast food sector is forecast to remain as
the largest sector, accounting for a reduced 54% of the fast food
market. The 1,710 billion sector is expected to continue its nearly
1% decline over the forecast period.?

?Fast Food in Japan? 

?McDonald's Japan slips into the red for the first time in 30 years.
Blame deflation -- and fashion.?

?Accordingly, the analysts and economists believe there is a far more
fundamental reason that McDonald's has run into trouble, and it
centers on those JPY59 burgers. The mistake, they say, is to see
McDonald's as an astute player of Japan's precipitous deflationary
curve. In fact, McDonald's is emerging as its first major victim.?

?As shares in McDonald's Japan continue their relentless decline,
several key figures stand out. Foremost among these are statistics
released last September showing customer numbers smashing through
monthly record highs. The problem is that those customers have only
walked under the golden arches because the food is so cheap.?

?Japan's Fast Food Funk?

?Walk into any convenience store, or burger joint in North America and
you're faced with only one choice, high fat content and even higher
calories. Those same places in Japan however, offer fresh salads of
all varieties, soba, and even sushi.?

?Or how about Japanese Rice Dog which offers a healthy alternative to
that fourth of July favorite, a dog wrapped in rice and made of
chicken or shrimp, served with pickles and a glass of ice cold green

?At the fast food restaurant Morinaga Love, you can chow down on
salmon burgers and miso soup. Worried about dessert? No problem, a
baked yam should satisfy your sweet tooth without clogging your
arteries. These are just a few examples of how Japan has tailored it's
fast food to the country's busy population without sacrificing
nutritional value.?

?Japan's healthy fast food?

5. China
2003 Report

?The China fast food market was worth RMB67.6 billion (US$8.1 billion)
in 2002, an increase of 14.6% since 2001.?

?Consumer expenditure on food climbed steadily over the course of the
review period. China has a strong food culture and eating out in China
is not expensive.?

?Fast Food in China? 

?Colonel Sanders, whose bearded, down-home visage adorns chicken
restaurants from Kentucky to Karachi, is headed for a new frontier --
the mountains of Tibet.?
?There's more: Taco Bell will expand across China in the near future.
Pizza Hut will step up its home deliveries. And McDonald's is adding
100 more restaurants to the 560 it already has in the country.?

?Super-size market: U.S. fast-food chains hit the spot across China? 

?According to a recent public survey, 80% of the people (15~45 years
age) interviewed like fast food. 90% of them like fast food on a
regular basis, and 10% of them claimed that they like fast food "very
much", or "love" fast food. The survey also provided the following
particular reasons for the increasing popularity of fast food:?

?White-collars working in offices stop bring lunch, and change to
enjoy KFC chicken, hamburger, pizza or other fast food in the

?Western style fast food has been very successful in the China market
in terms its high speed of development and its warm acceptance by the
Chinese consumers. In recent two or three years, however, it was
challenged by Chinese nutrition experts for its ?lack of a healthy
nutrition balance?.?

?Another interesting issue is localization of western style fast
foods. As can be expected, KFC has taken the lead here. KFC changed
the style and decoration, for the very first time in its history, of
its Qian Men restaurant in Beijing to a totally traditional Chinese
style, with typical Chinese decorations like kites and paper-cut

?China's fast food industry is currently growing 20% annually, and its
profit margins reach 10~20%. This makes the industry one of China's
most promising sectors and most attractive in the labour market.?

?Do You Want A Big Mac or Rice?? (2002 Report) 

6. France
2003 Report

?The French market for fast food has grown by 5.8% since 2001 to reach
a value of ?3.4 billion (US$3.2 billion) in 2002.?

?Consumer expenditure on food totaled ?179 billion in 2002, of which
spending in foodservice represented 26.7%, one percentage drop from

?Fast Food in France? 

?McDonald's France reported 2003 revenue approaching $3 billion and is
the most profitable subsidiary in Europe. It is opening 40 more
restaurants in 2004, 10 percent of the chain's new outlets worldwide.?

?To a young generation, those golden arches in 750 big cities and tiny
towns say as much, in their way, as the stately Arc de Triomphe that
Napoleon raised two centuries ago on the Champs-Elysees.?

?The issue goes far beyond hamburgers. In a society that asserts
dominion over fine food -- and places priority on protecting labor --
the phenomenon of "McDo," as the French call it, exposes flaws in the
French self-image.?

?France's embrace of fast-food chain is a McDone deal? 

7. Canada

?Amongst stern criticism from a variety of health advocates, McDonalds
Canada is throwing in the towel and committing to listing the number
of calories in each of their menu items - which for some diners may
change the way they order.?

?Nutritional details will be posted at the counter on the back of
every tray-liner staring customers in the face. Everything from a
double cheeseburger to a package of ketchup will be listed.?

?A Healthier McDonald's -- in Canada!? 

8. Nigeria
?It is difficult to escape noticing the colourful edifices and
billboards of these fast food outlets. One is probably just around the
corner of your street. The list is endless; Mr. Biggs, Tantalizers,
Tastees Fried Chicken (TFC), Sweet Sensation, Big Treat, Favorites,
Kas Chicken, Frenchies, Chiquita, Gina?s Fast Food Delite, Kingstine
Jo Snacks & Burger, Friends, The Kitchen, Charlies and new entrants
like Quarter Jack in Ogunlana Drive, Surulere, The Triangle along
Kodesho Street, Ikeja, Trendy?s and Domino Dina both in Sabo, Yaba,
Choppies in Ojuelegba among others too numerous to mention.?

?Due to the competitive nature of the market, many of the outlets have
started to blend their menus with African cuisines like Pounded Yam,
Amala, Moin Moin, Eba, Semovita, Fufu etc. This trend is more
noticeable in the new entrants to the sector, a visit to Trendy?s in
Sabo will give such a wide variety of Nigerian foods and The Triangle
in Ikeja plans to have 3 tiers of service which includes fast food,
African cuisines and Continental cuisines.?

?The Fast Track Nigerian Fast Food Industry? 

9. Philippines

?First, the growth in both urban areas and urban populations has
resulted in busy lifestyles, and office work has taken much time away
from household chores. This has shifted consumption from traditional
foods to a fast-food diet to cope with or to go with fastpaced
lifestyles. Second, the growth in the number of fast-food chains like
Jollibee, McDonald?s, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Kenny Rogers, and even
mobile canteens has caused a shift in food demands from the
traditional rice-fish-vegetable Filipino diet to a more Westernized
bread-noodles-meat combination. Third, the proliferation of different
establishments, specifically gasoline stations on major roads and
highways, is associated with the proliferation of fast-food chains and
minimarts. These, in many ways, have affected the food demands and
consumption patterns of Filipino consumers.?

?THE PHILIPPINES? (2002 Report) 

?There is an estimated 50,000 restaurants in the country. The eating
out spending of families, excluding corporate representation expenses,
is currently valued at almost P90 billion (approximately $1.8 billion)
with an average growth of 15% to 20% per annum over the last ten
years. However, growth slowed down since 1998 following the Asian
financial crisis.?

?The past five years saw the entry of many food players. Local store
chains keep on expanding in major urban areas, while foreign food
outlets are coming in. In 2000, thirty five percent (35%) of foreign
franchises are in the food business. Meanwhile, local franchises have
gone international like Red Ribbon Bakeshop, Max's Fried Chicken,
Josephine's Restaurant, and Jollibee.?

?The dominant players in the fastfood industry are Jollibee,
McDonald's, Wendy's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Kenny Rogers Roasters,
Pizza Hut, Greenwhich and Chowking.?

?Advertising and Promotion. To maintain a competitive edge in the
industry, players spend millions on advertising. There are different
kinds of gimmicks like a toy in every set meal for kids, discounted
food items if you purchase two items, free gift items, raffle draws
and a lot more. Some food companies even get celebrity endorsers to
create brand consciousness and market loyalty.?

?Proper Pricing. With the present economic slowdown, people eat out
but with a limited budget. Price cuts and discounts are offered to
increase sales.?

?An Update on the Philippine Fastfood Industry? (2001 Report) 

??Some 60 million Filipinos are major supporters of the fast-food
industry and when they have a little discretionary income they spend
it on eating out.??

??Local and multinational food manufacturers are beginning to realise
the enormous potential. Companies such as Pure Foods, Alaska Milk, Del
Monte, Universal Food and California Manufacturing have established
foodservice divisions with separate product lines, field forces and
distribution networks,? Mangosi said.?

?But quick service restaurants (QSR) are the exception to the rule,
with the Philippines having one of the most developed QSR segments in

?Cashed-up Filipinos feast on fast food? 

D: Statistics

Our last segment will deal with links to the different statistics that
concerns the fast food world like nutrition figures and some Guinness

Here are some nutrition facts for generic fast food products. 

Click on the brand link to get figures of nutritional content of each
fast food restaurant:

?Americas have a gargantuan fixation with fast food. Burgers, fries,
chicken wings, thick shakes? oh yeah, bring it on! US citizens spent
$110 billion on fast food in 2000 ? that's more than any other country
in the world, and a lot more than the $6 billion spent 30?years ago in
1970. The USA has 300 different types of fast food chain and these
account for 40% of all restaurant sales each year.?

?Greatest Fast Food Spending? 

Search terms used:  
?fast food? fast-food fastfood industry market trends international world

I hope these links would help you in your research. Before rating this
answer, please ask for a clarification if you have a question or if
you would need further information.
Thanks for visiting us.                              
Google Answers Researcher

Clarification of Answer by easterangel-ga on 26 Apr 2004 04:05 PDT
Additional Trends: (Sorry I wasn't able to add this one)

10. Australia

"McDONALD'S is struggling to maintain its place at the top of the
fast-food chain, despite a dramatic turnaround in its financial
fortunes over the past 12 months."

"Pressures on the once-mighty golden arches keep coming - from fellow
US franchise Subway to local newcomers such as emerging burger baron
Antonio Cerquera, whose Portuguese-style Oporto chicken outlets are
multiplying up and down Australia's east coast."

"Maccas in fast-food battle",4057,9178840%25255E462,00.html+%22fast+food%22+Australia&hl=en

11. New Zealand

"Pummelled by perceptions that they contribute to "globesity", New
Zealand fast-food chains are trying to woo the weight-conscious by
developing lower-fat items."

"But Ms Cook said: 'The salad presentations at Burger King, McDonald's
and Wendy's were boring, like a typical Kiwi salad of 20 or 30 years
ago with few tasty ingredients. They were also presented in a very
stylised way, which is out of vogue.'"

"Healthy fast food lacks a crucial ingredient"


Request for Answer Clarification by lavania-ga on 27 Apr 2004 01:21 PDT
i want to know different and latest in trends in fast foods , which
product is catching up in which country, something like that,
different outlets for fast food,
definations of Fast food by different authors.

Clarification of Answer by easterangel-ga on 27 Apr 2004 03:58 PDT
Hi lavania-ga!

It seems that these are really the only trends I can find for
different countries. Furthermore, unlike the US, the fast food
industies in different nations just go along with the trends with
those in the US based on my observations. I really tried to find as
much as I can on different countries before I posted the answer. I am
really sorry about this.

Before I proceed further, I would like to know by what you mean by the
question "definitions of Fast food by different authors".  Do you mean
links like these?


Are these the types of resources are you looking for when you want to
find a definition of "fast food"?

I hope this was of great help. Thanks!


Clarification of Answer by easterangel-ga on 27 Apr 2004 04:18 PDT
I really seek to give you the best answer possible here so please
advise me on how to proceed knowing the limitations of the resources
we have.

Thanks again!

There are no comments at this time.

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