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Q: Prison Expenditures ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: Prison Expenditures
Category: Business and Money
Asked by: andrew1979-ga
List Price: $10.00
Posted: 11 Jun 2004 08:00 PDT
Expires: 11 Jul 2004 08:00 PDT
Question ID: 359684
How Much does it cost to incarcerate an imate for one year in a state
prison and a federal prison? What percentage of the total cost per
prisoner is attributed to prison gaurd payroll and training? How many
prison guards per prisoner in a federal and state prison?

Request for Question Clarification by czh-ga on 12 Jun 2004 14:01 PDT
Which states are you interested in? 

~ czh ~

Clarification of Question by andrew1979-ga on 18 Jun 2004 07:30 PDT
is there a great range in expenditures between states? if giving two
states is easier, then i would pick vermont and california. thank you.
Subject: Re: Prison Expenditures
Answered By: czh-ga on 24 Jun 2004 18:35 PDT
Hello andrew1979-ga,

This turned out to be a tougher search than I expected. I discovered
lots of statistics on cost per inmate and salaries for correctional
officers but very little correlating the two. I was also able to find
lots of information about the California?s prison system but not too
much about Vermont. I was able to find some summary tables that cover
all states. I?m also including some federal and state agency sites
that offer lots of additional statistics so that you can continue your

I hope that the information I?ve found covers your interests. Best
wishes for your further explorations.

~ czh ~

Bureau of Justice Statistics

The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD) preserves and
distributes computerized crime and justice data from Federal agencies,
state agencies, and investigator initiated research projects to users
for secondary statistical analysis.

***** You can explore a huge variety of reports on state and federal corrections.

Budget Trend Data 1975 Through the President's 2003 Request to the Congress
Budget Staff, Justice Management Division, Spring 2002 

***** See especially reports and tables for the  Federal Prison System:

Federal Prison System Operating Cost Per Inmate 
Federal Prison System ? Cost Per Inmate for Fiscal Years 1975 - 2003


***** See tables for details.


The Costs of Prohibition -- The Prison State

On average, it costs $20,000 per year to maintain one prisoner,
$100,000 to build a single prison cell, and $20,000 per year to staff
a prison cell.

Prison Statistics, 1990 - 2000 
Certain Information from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin 

It costs $100,000 to build a new prison cell. It costs $200,000 over
25 years to pay interest on the construction debt; and in excess of
$22,000 per year/per cell to operate.


Judge Myron Bright tells it right
A concurring but separate opinion in US v Roberto Gallardo Chavez, US
Court of Appeals (8th Cir, No. 00-1404, filed October 20, 2000)

** In Fiscal 1994 it cost an average of $58.50 per day to house an
inmate in a federal institution. The average annual amount was
$21,352. The cost varies depending upon the security level of the
institution in which an inmate is confined, as well as the geographic
location of the facility. The figure, $58.50, is the system-wide
average [daily] cost. In Fiscal 1995 we estimate the average cost per
day per inmate will be $60.26, with an average annual amount of
$21,995. (Letter from Kathleen M Hawk, Director, United States
Department of Justice, and Federal Bureau of Prisons to the Honorable
Myron H Bright (July 6, 1995), on file with Judge Bright.)
Undoubtedly, these costs have increased over the past six years and
may well continue to increase in the future.

National Institute of Corrections

***** This is an excellent portal site. Be sure to check out the
search capability to continue your explorations.

US Department of Justice ? Federal Bureau of Prisons
National Institute of Corrections

Private Prisons Do Not Save Money

The United States General Accounting Office (GAO), a nonpartisan
congressional agency, spent a full year examining comprehensive
studies of private and public operational costs of several state
prisons. The GAO detected "little difference," "mixed results," and
ultimately "could not conclude whether privatization saved money."2

State Prison Expenditures -- 2001

***** This is a nine page report. Table 2 provides total, operating
and capital expenditures and operating costs per State inmate and per
US resident, fiscal year 2001.

National Institute of Corrections
In the following table, what I've tried to do rather than producing
just another alphabetical list is create a way to do research on what
corrections departments are doing right or wrong, as well as allow the
viewer to visit their websites.  The rankings are based primarily on
ACA 2003 cost figures with higher ranked states representing the
lowest costs per inmate.  The content available column may or may not
lead to a part of that state's website, and if other known content is
available about that state, I try to provide a link to it.  All
numbers are approximate, as inmate population counts change daily, but
generally fluctuate no more than 20% up or down every year.
States that Don't Report Their Annual Inmate Costs:
California, Vermont 

***** This site also offers an excellent collection of links for
researching prisons.

Incarceration May Not Work, but it Sure Can Be Profitable

They call it "selling the walls." Corporations such as CCA assemble
pre-fabricated modular units, minimizing construction costs. Small
"pods" of cells surround a control booth, enabling one guard to do the
work that five traditionally did. (Payroll is 75 percent of a typical
prison's operating costs.) Like a hotel -- charging the client state,
say, $50 per day per inmate -- the private prison sub-contracts all
services from food to medical care, then takes its cut. Telephone
companies such as AT&T and MCI, for example, compete for prisoners,
who make $1 billion worth of calls every year. In 1997, New York made
$21.2 million from prison telephone call commissions.

California Department Of Corrections
Facts And Figures -- Second Quarter 2004 

Budget: $5.7 billion (2003-2004 Budget Act)
Avg. yearly cost: per inmate, $30,929; per parolee, $3,364
Staff: 49,276 currently employed including 42,628 in Institutions,
3,137 in Parole, and 3,511 in Administration (about 33,289 sworn peace
Total offenders under CDC jurisdiction: 300,085. One year change: -1,552 -0.5% 

***** This page provides lots of additional statistics about California prisons.

Lawmakers Seek To Reduce Costs of State Prison Health Care System
June 2, 2004 

Average health care costs per inmate currently exceed $5,500 annually,
compared with less than $4,000 three years ago.

Feb. 12, 2004 -- Prison hiring defied budget
SACRAMENTO - During the past three years, California's troubled prison
system hired 1,000 guards at a cost of up to $100 million and without
permission from the Legislature, state finance officials revealed

Indians, Teachers, and Prison Guards Spent Their Way to Power in Sacramento

The California Correctional Peace Officers Association (CCPOA),
meanwhile, was fashioning a political powerhouse of its own, again
symbolized by a building, a fancy new headquarters in West Sacramento.
From 20,000 inmates in 1980, the state prison system expanded rapidly
to 160,000 in 2000, while Department of Corrections spending ballooned
from $400 million to $4 billion and its payroll from about 9,000 to
45,000 workers?virtually all of them potential CCPOA members.

May 19, 2004, SACRAMENTO 
Dems oppose prison guards' pay increase  17 senators want contract renegotiated

The contract awarded guards a nearly 7 percent raise in July that
pushed the annual take-home pay of a guard to an average of $64,000,
according to figures compiled by the state controller.

Overtime high for prison directors

Last week, the Mercury News reported that 391 officers earned more
than $100,000 in 2003. The average overtime for these officers, mostly
guards, was $44,700.

The department is currently spending about $5.7 billion a year to
house, clothe, feed and watch 161,000 inmates. It is the nation's
largest prison system, rapidly expanding in the 1980s and 1990s as the
public wanted to crack down on crime. Overall overtime costs last year
fell to $178 million from $204 million in 2002, according to the

Prison guards, state strike deal on 5-year pact
Dec. 17, 2001
While the overall value of the contract between the state and
correctional officers could not be determined, the state assumes the
28,000 workers covered by the deal earn an average of $50,000 a year.
If pay hikes in the later years amount to 20% to 30%, the contract
could be worth between $280 million and $420 million, spread over five
years. At the end of the contract, officers' pay could average $60,000
to $65,00.

April 27, 2004
Prison headcounts: a tale of two states

California has just declared a prison crowding emergency and has begun
triple-bunking prisoners. A friend just back from New York reports
that, with crime rates falling, New York State has begun shutting down
vacant prisons, and wants to know why California is so different?

April 2002 -- Spending $16 Million to Save $5 Million: Closing
California?s Five Privately Owned Prisons is Nonsense

The governor?s proposed 2002-03 state budget will close five private
community correctional facilities (CCFs) as of June 30t unless the
Legislature takes action. This so-called cost-saving decision will
actually increase the cost to taxpayers, lose badly needed jobs, and
terminate key drug rehabilitation and education programs that reduce
State Senate Select Committee on Government Oversight
Oversight of State Prisons

***** This site offers a variety of reports on the California corrections system.

California Department of Corrections

***** See sections on Facilities and Reports & Statistics.

California Board of Corrections
Serving California's County and City Jails, Probation Departments and
Juvenile Facilities


State of Vermont--Job Specifications

***** See job description and pay rates.

Frequently Asked Questions About Becoming a Correctional Officer 

Vt. legislators eye inmate treatment outside the state - Mar. 11, 2004

Illuzzi, who has been a critic of the conditions at many of Vermont's
correctional facilities, said he is concerned about the caliber of
treatment out of state and whether Vermont will face costs beyond the
negotiated $42.15 per inmate per day.

State auditor: Corrections mistakes costly - May. 26, 2004

Last year, an average of 1,848 inmates per day were housed in Vermont
prisons or in out-of-state facilities under contract to the state,
according to the Department of Corrections. Vermont's facilities can
house up to 1,636 inmates.
Firm vows prisoners cared for outside Vt. - Mar. 11, 2004

May 27, 2004 -- Report: 1 of Every 75 U.S. Men in Prison

The inmate population in 10 states increased at least 5 percent. Some
of the smallest state prison systems saw the largest increase:
Vermont's grew by 12.2 percent, Minnesota was up 9.4 percent and Maine
9.1 percent.

January 18, 2004  -- Inmate exports tax families
Hawaii joins 10 states in shipping off large numbers of prisoners for
lack of cell space

Vermont has just signed a contract to house up to 700 inmates in
private prisons in Kentucky and Tennessee.

State of Vermont -- Department of Public Safety


cost per inmate per year federal prison
cost per inmate per year state prison
prison guard payroll per inmate
prison guard payroll California
prison guard payroll Vermont
cost per inmate per year state prisons California
cost per inmate per year state prisons Vermont
corrections officer pay
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