Thank you for the interesting question.
I believe the only way to answer is to look at deaths that took place
*before* the Gulf War (1990-91). I don?t believe there?s any way to
*legitimately* distinguish between uprisings ?caused? by the Gulf War,
unless we can get into individual minds to see how much the Gulf War
affected their actions.
With that in mind, here?s a list of crimes that we?re aware of:
In 1959, before Hussein was the leader of Iraq (before he had
completed high school, even), he participated in the assignation of
the then-current Iraqi leader. (?Crimes Against Iraq,?
In 1968, Hussein, actively engaged in ?purifying the government and
society of potential dissidents.? (?Biography of Saddam Hussein of
Tikrit,? Iraq Foundation:
In 1974, Hussein participated in the killing of five religious
leaders. (?Saddam?s Crimes,?
) Hundreds of other religious people were arrested and tortured.
In 1977, Hussein was responsible for the arrest of thousand of
religious people, and the killing of hundreds of them.
In 1978, Hussein participated in the assignation of former
Prime-Minister Abdul Razzaq Al naef in London. Between 1978-79,
Hussein helped ?eliminate? 7,000 communists in Iraq.
In 1979, Hussein ordered another purge to eliminate political
opponents. Hundreds of top ranking Ba'thists and army officers were
During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88), 730,000 Iranians died. You will
recall that Hussein was the aggressor in this war, because he wanted
full control of the Arvand/Shatt al-Arab waterway at the head of the
Persian Gulf. (For more information on the war, see ?Iran-Iraq War,?
at Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/i/irani1raq.asp
) Approximately 1,000 Kuwaiti nationals were killed in the Iraqi
invasion of Kuwait. It?s estimated there were 1,500,000 refugees from
this war, displaced by Iraq?s occupation of Kuwait. 750,000 ?endured
brutalities, oppression, and torture.? Although the date for the end
of the war is usually given as 1988, the struggle continued, and
500,000 Iranians were late killed (the Iranians say it was closer to 1
million), 100,000 by Hussein?s chemical weapons. In one day, 5,000
men, women, and children were gassed. (?Sadaam?s Other Crime,? In The
National Interest: http://www.inthenationalinterest.com/Articles/Vol3Issue29/Vol3Issue29Askari.html
and ?Charges Facing Saddam Hussein,? BBC:
Between 1987-1988, 180,000 Kurds ?disappeared,? and 4,000 villages
were razed, in an effort at ?ethnic cleansing.?
In 1983, Hussein killed of 8,000 members of the Barzani clan. Also in
1983, Hussein arrested 90 members of Al Hakim family and executed 16
Between 1988 and 1999, Hussein killed 7,000 prisoners in what was
called ?prison cleansing.? (?NoBody Count,?
We also know that Hussein killed and tortured many other ?enemies?
before the Gulf War. For example: Ayatollah Mohamad baqir Al Sadr and
his sister Amina Al Sadr (Bint Al Huda) were arrested, tortured, and
killed in 1980. In 1981, Haj Sahal Al Salman in UAE in 1981, Sami
Mahdi was killed. In 1987, Ni'ma Mohamad in Pakistan was killed. In
1988, Sayed Mahdi Al Hakim in Sudan was killed.
In addition, we know from Iraqi officials that Hussein put to death
?officers who did not agree to execute people in the street,?
religious leaders who didn?t lavish praise of Hussein, and Shiite
Muslims (for their religious views). (See, as an example, ?Officer's
tale: Iraq's web of assassination, ? Christian Science Monitor:
http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0424/p01s04-woiq.html ) Remember, too,
that mass graves were found during the FIRST Gulf War. (?Charges
Against Saddam,? TalkLeft:
In the 1990s, Hussein killed 40,000 Shia?s (or Shiite Muslims) for
their religious uprisings; among those who became prisoners,
approximately 2,000 were executed on November 1993 alone. (?Death
Tolls,? http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat5.htm#Iraq For more on
Shia?s, see ?Shiites,? http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/shiites.htm ) As
further evidence that the Gulf War did not play a role in Shia deaths,
in 1980, before war with Iran, Hussein hanged two leading Shia
figures. (?Radical Shias Worry Bush as well as Sadaam,? Daily Times:
Since 1974, at least hundreds of Shia leaders have been arrested.
I leave you to draw your own conclusions. Would fewer people have been
killed if the U.S. had not participated in the Gulf War? Or would
Hussein have continued to kill, even without U.S. intervension?
For a look at the usual figures we hear about Hussein, see ?Killer
"first gulf war" Iraqis killed Saddam
Saddam ?charges against?