Clarification of Answer by
26 Jan 2006 04:50 PST
"new species to emerge?"
Term 'speciacion' is used in chemistry in a different meaning,
in biology it means 'emergence of a new specie, as used here:
Cornell experts find two new species of crane fly have invaded New
York, threatening lawns, golf courses and pastures
Salmon in a US lake split into two separate populations in just 13
generations, or about 60-70 years, researchers have revealed.
THERE ARE TWO BASIC TYPES:
Allopatric speciation happens when a geographical change - a river
changing course for example or a new mountain range - splits a species
in two. Once separated, as happened to antelope squirrels on either
side of the Grand Canyon in the US, the populations evolve
independently, eventually becoming distinct and reproductively
Sympatric speciation occurs when new species emerge without
separation, such as the 13 species of Galapagos finch or Africa's
cichlid fish. These species adapt to different opportunities in the
environment, and then cease to interbreed - perhaps due to some
isolating mechanism. Rarely new species can also form through
hybridisation, such as sunflowers.
MORE SPECIFIC AND SOMEWHAT TECHNICAl: computer models
Punc equation model:
The program has a genome of 384 "nucleotides"
A nucleotide in this context is a computer bit, a 0 or a 1.
These nucleotides are mutated and a new screen form is produced...
Sci. American article
The researchers then devised a computer model to test whether this mating regime
could lead to reproductive isolation and subsequent speciation. ...
1) Kondrashov AS 1983 Multilocus model of sympatric speciation. I. One character.
Theor. Pop. Biol. 24, 121. ... 5) Practical work with computer models ...
2)Simulation of Sympatric Speciation. with Penna Ageing Model. K. Luz-Burgoa ...
More technical bibliography