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Q: Mathematics / Modelling of Evolution ( Answered ,   0 Comments )
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 Subject: Mathematics / Modelling of Evolution Category: Science Asked by: dork_knight-ga List Price: \$20.00 Posted: 25 Jan 2006 19:21 PST Expires: 24 Feb 2006 19:21 PST Question ID: 437723
 ```Can anyone recommend a good book or set of articles on the mathematics/modelling of evolution? In other words, models or simulations of how many generations, what rate of mutation, how much predatory pressure or other natural selection factors, etc. must be present in order for a new species to emerge? I've seen some very simple models/simulations but I was hoping for a more detailed explanation or analysis. It would need to be somewhat accessible to a "lay person" as I don't have any graduate level math skills :( Thanks much!```
 ```There are two branches of activity in the modeling of evolution. 1) The first can be found under the SEARCH TERM: genetic algorithms It is well illustrated by this Introduction to genetic algorithms with interactive Java applets. http://cs.felk.cvut.cz/~xobitko/ga/ The genetic algorithms were inspired by biological evolution, but evolved into its own field of study, part of AI and numerical method for finding a minina of complex functions. Application shows that a system can indeed evolve from 'simple to complex'. 2) The second branch of activity is the application of mathematical methods and computer models to biological evolution itself. This is part of theoretical biology, which is merging with the study of Complex Systems. http://dmoz.org/Science/Math/Applications/Complex_Systems/ Two subcategories are relevant to your question: (A)The "Evolution and Dynamics" subcategory deals with models , paticularly the exciting 'Tree of Life project' (= TOL project). Insprect the three TOL links at the bottom of the list: Computational infrastructure - Resources for reconstructing the evolutionary history of all organisms. Tree of Life project - Evolution of Life on this Planet Building a Tree of Life for All Species - How living things have evolved since the origins of life (B) The 'artificial life' subcategory http://dmoz.org/Computers/Artificial_Life/ is an intermediate field between both branches. It is study of multi-agent systems which show increases in complexity, just as biological systems do. These studies do not attempt to correlate results with experimental (paleontological data) facts about the evolution of life on Earth. .............................. If you are just entering this field you 'must' start by reading Lotka: Alfred Lotka, American physicist-philosopher of Ukrainian origin, http://users.pandora.be/ronald.rousseau/html/lotka.html http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Lotka.html is best known for initiating Population Dynamics studies http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Lotka-VolterraEquations.html Book: Analytical Theory of Biological Populations but in his classical book Elements of physical biology he did much more than that; he founded mathematical biology, precursor of today's Complex Systems Lotka's books are described in more detail on this page: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/search-handle-url/ref=br_ss_hs/103-5131209-7933403?platform=gurupa&url=index%3Dstripbooks%3Arelevance-above%26dispatch%3Dsearch%26results-process%3Dbin&field-keywords=Alfred+Lotka&Go.x=0&Go.y=0 For the history and relationship of these overlapping fields, see: http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=524379 More recent books: http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=524379tp://www.amazon.com/gp/ product/052162570X/103-5131209-7933403?v=glance&n=283155 http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262731215/ref=pd_trkn_qp_b_t/103-5131209-7933403?v=glance&n=283155 Feel free to ask for clarification. When all is clear, rating is appreciated. Hedgie``` Clarification of Answer by hedgie-ga on 26 Jan 2006 04:50 PST ```Specifically re: "new species to emerge?" Term 'speciacion' is used in chemistry in a different meaning, in biology it means 'emergence of a new specie, as used here: Cornell experts find two new species of crane fly have invaded New York, threatening lawns, golf courses and pastures http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Aug05/crane.flies.invade.ssl.html Salmon in a US lake split into two separate populations in just 13 generations, or about 60-70 years, researchers have revealed. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/979950.stm THERE ARE TWO BASIC TYPES: Allopatric speciation happens when a geographical change - a river changing course for example or a new mountain range - splits a species in two. Once separated, as happened to antelope squirrels on either side of the Grand Canyon in the US, the populations evolve independently, eventually becoming distinct and reproductively isolated. Sympatric speciation occurs when new species emerge without separation, such as the 13 species of Galapagos finch or Africa's cichlid fish. These species adapt to different opportunities in the environment, and then cease to interbreed - perhaps due to some isolating mechanism. Rarely new species can also form through hybridisation, such as sunflowers. http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in85 MORE SPECIFIC AND SOMEWHAT TECHNICAl: computer models Punc equation model: The program has a genome of 384 "nucleotides" A nucleotide in this context is a computer bit, a 0 or a 1. These nucleotides are mutated and a new screen form is produced... http://home.entouch.net/dmd/nonlin.htm Sci. American article The researchers then devised a computer model to test whether this mating regime could lead to reproductive isolation and subsequent speciation. ... http://www.sciam.com/ article.cfm?articleID=000214BD-E52F-1EB7-BDC0809EC588EED SYMPATRIC SPECIATION 1) Kondrashov AS 1983 Multilocus model of sympatric speciation. I. One character. Theor. Pop. Biol. 24, 121. ... 5) Practical work with computer models ... http//www.bgu.ac.il/desert_ecology/ Novoplansky/camp%20evolution/syllabi.htm 2)Simulation of Sympatric Speciation. with Penna Ageing Model. K. Luz-Burgoa ... http://www.sbfisica.org.br/bjp/files/v33_623.pdf More technical bibliography http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/2900_Speciation.htm ...```
 dork_knight-ga rated this answer: `Thank you. That was really outstanding.`