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Q: Food adulteration ( Answered,   0 Comments )
Subject: Food adulteration
Category: Miscellaneous
Asked by: matseric-ga
List Price: $50.00
Posted: 18 Jan 2005 07:48 PST
Expires: 17 Feb 2005 07:48 PST
Question ID: 459213
I'd like to have a list of books, magazines, news paper stories and
websites dealing with food adulteration from a consumer perspective. 
How the industry manipulates food contents and make you think they
give you the real thing.
I'm only interested in recent examples, say from the last ten years,
and the language should be English, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish or

Request for Question Clarification by czh-ga on 18 Jan 2005 13:41 PST
Hello matseric-ga,

Please give some examples of what you mean by "food adulteration"?
What kinds of additives are of concern to you? Some might say that
salt and sugar adulterate food. Thanks.

~ czh ~

Clarification of Question by matseric-ga on 19 Jan 2005 02:07 PST
I mean any additive, chemical or other, that is not supposed to be
there when you make this food the traditional, home-made way. For
example fake flavours and substitutes for genuine ingredients. Ice
cream that is artificially flavoured and not made from egg, cream and
sugar is one good example. Chicken breast injected with water is
another. If sugar is added to a product that traditionally doesn't
contain sugar that is of interest to me. But if sugar is in a
blueberry pie, leave it out.
Best regards,
Mats-Eric Nilsson
Subject: Re: Food adulteration
Answered By: czh-ga on 20 Jan 2005 02:34 PST
Hello again matseric-ga,

Researching your question I discovered that the topic of the claims
made for the nutrition and health value of food and what it contains
is an extremely complex and controversial topic. You asked for
resources on how ?industry manipulates food contents and make you
think they give you the real thing.? You clarified by saying you were
interested in any additive ?that is not supposed to be there? or what
would be considered ?fake.?

The first step in order to make sense of the issues involved with
modern food processing and preparation is to examine what is included
under the ?additives? label. I?ve collected a large selection of
resources to help you get familiar with the various types of additives
that make food tasty and appealing and keep it healthy and nutritious
until it?s consumed. The use of additives and what must be disclosed
about them is regulated in most countries. I?ve included a selection
of government agency sites to help you with examining the various
approaches to regulation. Health and nutrition claims may be part of
how ?industry manipulates? what you think about food. These claims are
also governed by ever-evolving regulations.

You also asked about the tension between consumer and industry
interests by your statement that consumers are manipulated. I?ve
included a selection of articles discussing consumer perceptions as
well as various resources for helping the consumer make sense of the
barrage of confusing information available about food, diet and

It is not possible to make sense of this whole subject without looking
at the industry perspective as well. I?ve included a collection of
industry research reports and trade association and other industry
organization sites to help you with looking at the food additives

This is an enormous topic and I hope that the links I?ve included will
help you with defining the scope of your inquiry so that you can
continue your explorations. Please ask for clarification if any of the
material I?ve collected is not clear.

Wishing you well for your project.

~ czh ~

Putting a Healthy Spin On Processed Foods
Companies Cut Sugar, Add Vitamins
Monday, January 10, 2005; Page A01 

After spending millions on advertising their processed food products
to children, the nation's food manufacturers are now attempting to
appeal to parents worried about childhood obesity and unhealthy eating

Hitting grocery store shelves: Goldfish crackers and Hershey's syrup,
both enriched with calcium; reduced-sugar Cocoa Puffs; and scores of
other products that emphasize their whole grain and vitamin content
alongside their cool packaging and sweet taste

***** This article reviews some interesting changes in the formulation
of popular packaged food items that try to manipulate the customer
through misleading advertising.

Living up to new dietary guidelines
Adding whole grains, veggies, exercise boosts health

The dietary guidelines call for half of all grains eaten to be whole
grains, which are a good source of fiber. ? Just because an item
claims to be "multigrain" or "stone-ground" doesn't mean it's a
whole-grain food.

The food industry is responding to the guidelines' new emphasis.
General Mills (GIS: news, chart, profile) is reformulating all of its
cereals to be whole grain, and Sara Lee (SLE: news, chart, profile)
has introduced some whole-grain products as well, said Stephanie
Childs, spokesperson for the Grocery Manufacturers of America, a trade
group representing 140 food and beverage companies that collectively
ring up $500 billion in annual sales.

***** This is one of many current articles reporting on the new
dietary guidelines issued this week by the US Department of Health and
Human Services.

Sugar, Vending Groups Take Action Against Obesity Claims
Thursday, January 13, 2005; Page E01 
Two more food industry groups are taking the offensive against claims
that their products play a role in the nation's growing obesity

***** See also the related articles on this page.

Thursday 9 December 2004 - 11:30
Nutrition and health claims made on foods
In Short:

In the food sector producers sometimes use claims such as "low fat",
"helps your body resist stress" or "purifies your organism", which
either cannot be scientifically substantiated or contain only a
partial truth regarding the health effects of food products. This can
be misleading to consumers. In order to prevent unfounded claims on
food packages, the Commission proposed (in July 2003) a regulation on
nutrition and health claims. The new 'claims' regulation aims at
introducing procedures for the substantiation of claims and restricts,
a priori, the use of certain types of claims.

***** This article addresses current developments in regulations in Europe.

`Heart-Healthy' Food Claims Challenged - American Heart Association
food labels - Brief Article
Nutrition Health Review,  Wntr, 2001

Stroll down any supermarket aisle, and you're likely to see dozens of
different health claims on food packages. Next to some of these claims
sits the heart-check symbol, the American Heart Association (AHA)
"seal of approval." The symbol signifies that the AHA deems the food
"heart-healthy" when eaten as part of a balanced diet.

But if you were to select only foods with the heart-check symbol,
would you end up with a more heart-healthy diet than if you ignored
the symbol? Not necessarily, according to nutrition experts. Although
the AHA symbol--and most other heart-related food claims--can be
useful, choosing foods based on these claims is only one step on the
path to a heart-healthy diet.

22/10/04: Healthy food claims: do you know what you're eating?

During National Consumer Week (18 - 22 October) Dorset County
Council's Trading Standards Service is reminding health conscious
consumers to question food claims more carefully. Detailed nutritional
information is available on packs but it is often the brief bold
claims which catch the eye.

Week of July 19, 2003; Vol. 164, No. 3 
No Hiding Most Trans Fats

The current federal food-labeling law requires that manufacturers
identify the major nutrients in processed foods, including total fat.
Moreover, the law mandates that the "Nutrition Facts" section of each
label separately list nutrients that can pose significant health
risks, such as saturated fats. Last week, the Food and Drug
Administration announced that beginning in 2006, it will require food
processors and dietary-supplement makers to also reveal quantities of
another notorious member of that family: trans fats.

Spitzer Alleges 17-Year Global Conspiracy Drove Up Costs for New York Consumers 

State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer has charged manufacturers and
distributors of food additives with unlawfully restraining competition
in the United States and elsewhere by entering into a global
conspiracy to fix the price of sorbates and to allocate market share
among themselves. Sorbates are preservatives widely used to inhibit
the growth of microbes in food and beverage products, such as cheese
and other dairy products, baked goods, processed foods, fruit juices
and soft drinks.

The suit, filed Wednesday in New York State Supreme Court in
Manhattan, names as defendants five major sorbates producers located
in the United States and abroad, as well as various related companies
involved in sorbates sales. All five manufacturers have pleaded guilty
to criminal charges brought by the United States Department of
Justice, and have paid criminal fines totaling $132 million.

January 15, 2004
Food Additives, Sugar and IQ

All the nutrients necessary for good health can be found in a normal,
varied diet. That is the mantra repeated again and again by health
authorities, dieticians and those politicians who believe them. What
we aren't told is that our normal, varied diet is seriously deficient
and full of things that tend to destroy any nutritional advantage.

Thanks to Jon Rappoport for this article about a research done in more
than eight hundred public schools in New York, which showed that just
limiting sugar and food additives had an appreciable impact on the
learning performance of the kids.

Thursday, 7 December, 2000, 08:46 GMT 
Food claims 'must be honest'

A code of practice has been launched to ensure that health claims on
food are truthful and helpful to shoppers.

The code has been backed by consumer groups, the food industry and
regulators, including Sir John Krebs, chairman of the Food Standards
It is designed to stop manufactures making health claims that they
cannot substantiate.

***** See also the links to related articles.


Hungry? How does a turkey sandwich on whole wheat with potato chips
sound? Does noshing on nitrate, sodium stearyl lactylate, and
monocalcium phosphate have the same appeal? Probably not, but a look
at the ingredients of store-bought sandwich meat, bread, and almost
every other type of processed food reveals a menu of just such

Few consumers know what they are, much less how to pronounce them.
(Try saying diacetyl tartaric acid esters or ethoxylated
monodiglycerides three times fast.) Yet according to Julie Miller
Jones, a professor of foods and nutrition at the College of St.
Catherine in St. Paul, Minn., and author of Food Safety (Eagan Press,
$89), average Americans eat their weight in food additives every year.
``That's a whole lot,'' she says, and it's worth finding out ``what
these things are and whether they're safe.''

***** This is a consumer oriented article that highlights how and why
food additives are necessary and what types of additives a consumer
should be cautious about.

Center for Science in the Public Interest
The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) is a consumer
advocacy organization whose twin missions are to conduct innovative
research and advocacy programs in health and nutrition, and to provide
consumers with current, useful information about their health and

***** This is an excellent site for exploring consumer protection
issues in the field of nutrition, including food additives.

A Diner's Guide to Health and Nutrition Claims on Restaurant Menus 

Functional Foods: Public Health Boon or 21st Century Quackery?
Functional Foods Examined

This report examines food products which claim, or imply, that they
possess a health or nutritional benefit to the consumer. These include
the recently-promoted 'functional' foods - such as those with added
bacterial cultures, fish oils or soluble polysaccharides supposedly of
benefit to the eater - as well as foods which have for some time been
promoting themselves as having the benefit of added nutrients or being
a rich source of certain nutrients.

***** These reports examine a new type of food category and consider
the various regulatory approaches necessary for consumer protection.

The European Food Information Council, EUFIC, is a non-profit
organisation which provides science-based information on food and
food-related topics to the media, health and nutrition professionals,
educators, and opinion leaders.
EUFIC acts as a vital link in the communication chain by channeling
information gathered at the source - primarily from nutrition and food
safety experts - through to the consumers.

***** Be sure to check out the section on Food Additives. 

NutritionData (ND) provides nutrition facts, Calorie counts, and
nutrient data for all foods and recipes.

"ND tells you, in simple terms, what's good and bad about the foods
you eat, and helps you select foods that best meet your dietary

Food Additives
Food additives don't appear in ND's database, but you'll find them on
the ingredient labels of many of the foods that you eat. Some are
naturally occurring compounds, others are chemically synthesized, and
all work to (theoretically) improve the quality of our foods.

We trust the government to do its part in regulating the safety of
these compounds, but sometimes we'd just like to know what it is that
we're eating, and why it's there. To that end, here is an extensive
listing of individual additives and identification of their known
usage. Following this table is a glossary of food additive


***** This is a wonderful list of common claims for foods and the
acceptable synonyms and substitutions according to FDA rules.
Examples: ?low/high in? ?lean? ?reduced? etc.

Kraft "Cheese?": Adulterated Food? 
FDA: Don't Ask! Don't Tell! 


***** Legal definition of adulterated food.

Staking a Claim to Good Health
FDA and Science Stand Behind Health Claims on Foods

Health claims authorized by the Food and Drug Administration are one
of several ways food labels can win the attention of health-conscious

These claims alert shoppers to a product's health potential by stating
that certain foods or food substances--as part of an overall healthy
diet--may reduce the risk of certain diseases. Examples include folic
acid in breakfast cereals, fiber in fruits and vegetables, calcium in
dairy products, and calcium or folic acid in some dietary supplements.
But food and food substances can qualify for health claims only if
they meet FDA requirements.

***** This is a long article that spells out the requirements for
making health claims for foods.

Center for Science in the Public Interest

CSPI's Guide to Food Additives
Alphabetical Listing of Additives
Shopping was easy when most food came from farms. Now, factory-made
foods have made chemical additives a significant part of our diet.
Most people may not be able to pronounce the names of many of these
chemicals, but they still want to know what the chemicals do and which
ones are safe and which are poorly tested or possibly dangerous. This
listing provides that information for most common additives. A simple
general rule about additives is to avoid sodium nitrite, saccharin,
caffeine, olestra, acesulfame K, and artificial coloring. Not only are
they among the most questionable additives, but they are used
primarily in foods of low nutritional value. Also, don?t forget the
two most familiar additives: sugar and salt. They may pose the
greatest risk because we consume so much of them. Fortunately, most
additives are safe and some even increase the nutritional value of the
food. Additional information about some of the additives is available
elsewhere in this Web site. Use the search engine provided to locate
that information.

***** This site provides a long list of food additives, categorizes
them according to safety, gives the name that appears on food labels
and the purpose for the additive and gives a paragraph or more about
the common uses of the additive, considerations for evaluating its use
and other consumer-oriented information. You may want to explore the
rest of the CSPI site for additional information about food safety.

US Food and Drug Administration -- FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition
Food Ingredients and Packaging

***** This is a very comprehensive site that gives you lots of
information about US standards and practices on food additives. Be
sure to review the databases for Everything Added to Food (EAFUS),
Indirect Additives and Food Contact Substance Database (CEDI/ADI).

Food Additives ? What Are They?

***** This is a 4-page document that gives a short summary of the
major issues addressed by the FDA and provides a quick overview if you
don?t have time to review the FDA website.

Food Safety: From the Farm to the Fork 

The EU integrated approach to food safety aims to assure a high level
of food safety, animal health, animal welfare and plant health within
the European Union through coherent farm-to-table measures and
adequate monitoring, while ensuring the effective functioning of the
internal market.
Chemical Safety of Food 
Chemical substances play an important role in food production and
distribution. As food additives, they prolong for example the shelf
life of foods, and, as colours and flavourings, they may make foods
more attractive. Other chemicals are pharmacologically active and
therefore used to fight diseases in farm animals and on crops.

***** This is a good website to focus on the European rules and
regulations on food safety. The topics covered include: Additives,
Flavouring, Contaminants, Residues, Food Contact Materials, and
Hormones in meat.

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve it, or to
improve its flavour and appearance. Some additives have been used for
centuries; for example, when preserving food by pickling (with
vinegar), salting, as with bacon, or using sulfur dioxide as is common
in wine. However, with the advent of processed foods in the second
half of the 20th century, many more additives have begun to be used,
of both natural and artificial origin.

***** This website gives you an excellent overview of food additives
and provides lots of links to additional resources.

Nutritional Claims in Food Labelling and Advertising Guidance Notes 
Thursday, 11 November 1999 
The Food Labelling Regulations 1996 

These guidelines provide advice on the criteria to be used in relation
to certain popular nutrition claims. They are based on recommendations
made by the Food Advisory Committee.

The guidelines are advisory only. We hope that manufacturers will
follow the recommendations so as to ensure that consumers are given
information in a helpful and consistent manner. If any dispute arises
over the acceptability of a claim, ultimately it will be for the
courts to decide whether the claim was made in accordance with the
relevant provisions of existing legislation.

Food Additives and Human Health
By Elson M. Haas, MD
A Consumer's Dictionary of Food Additives : Fifth Edition
A Shopper?s Guide To What?s Safe & What?s Not (2004 Edition)
Food Chemical Safety, Volume 2 ? Additives

GA-040N The Food Additives Business 
Charles Forman 
Published January 1998 
$3,150.00 for full report 

Many in the general public consider foods and the additives that go
into them rather mature, dull, prosaic products and markets. As we
show in this BCC report, nothing really could be further from the
truth. Food additives are a complicated and quite technical business,
one which is getting more complicated each year as food and food
additives suppliers work to create food products that meet modern
American society demands for convenience, safety, taste, etc., while
also being more ?natural? and less suspect of being ?chemicals.?

The last point ? that is, the chemical nature of food additives ?
deserves a little more attention, for it focuses some of the most
important aspects of this report. By studying food additives one can
meet and interact with many or most of the variables which currently
affect American (and world, for that matter) business, public
perceptions, and politics.

***** This website provides the introduction to this costly research
report and gives you an excellent overview of some of the issues and
trends impacting the additives industry. The comprehensive table of
contents makes very interesting reading as well.

Food and Beverage Additives
Product Type: Market Research Report
Published by Freedonia Group
Published on September 2000
Product Code: R154-337
Price $3600

U.S. demand to grow 6% annually
Food and beverage additive demand in the United States is forecast to
exceed $6 billion in 2004, up six percent annually from 1994. The best
advances are anticipated for bulk nutraceuticals used as food and
beverage additives. A barrage of new nutritionally enriched product
introductions will propel growth as food companies target aging and
health-conscious consumers.

Processed foods largest and fastest growing market
Processed foods will remain the largest and fastest growing market for
food additives, as time-constrained consumers seek foods combining
convenience and optimum flavor. Demand will lag in more mature market
segments such as dairy and meat products. Beverage additives will
record faster growth than food additives, driven by increasing use of
nutritional additives in sports drinks and other alternative

Key Players in the Global Food Additives Industry - 2nd Edition
Product Description: 
An authorative insight into the global additives industry,
highlighting key market and industry trends, and key players by
GB 595  (EU ?875 est.)  

Food Additives to 2008 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders,
Demand Forecast and Sales
Study #: 1846 
Published: 09/2004 
Pages: 331 
Full Study Price: US$ 4,100 
Per Page Price: US$ 30.00 

Increased food production and gains in value-added sweeteners,
nutraceuticals and natural additives will drive US food additive
demand up 4.8 percent annually through 2008. Flavors and flavor
enhancers will remain the largest segment, while alternative
sweeteners grow the fastest. Grain mill products, pet food and snack
food show best market prospects.

This study analyzes the $4 billion US food additive industry. It
presents historical demand data for 1993, 1998 and 2003 plus forecasts
to 2008 and 2013 by product (e.g., flavors and flavor enhancers,
texturizers and fat replacers, emulsifiers, preservatives,
nutraceuticals, colorants, enzymes, alternative sweeteners,
acidulants, phosphates); and by application (e.g., processed foods,
dairy products, bakery products, sauces and condiments, fats and oils,

The study also examines the market environment, details industry
structure and market share, and profiles 40 leading industry
competitors including Danisco, International Flavors & Fragrances,
Sensient, Givaudan, and Archer-Daniels-Midland.

***** You can download a sample from this report for free at this site:
Food Additives (sample file size : 70631 bytes)
To download the free sample, please kindly provide your name, company,
and e-mail address in the fields below.

Food Additives Market Research, Trends, and Forecasts
Global Information, Inc. offers market intelligence on every topic in
the Food Additives Market, including, but not limited to: Food
Additives; Beverage Additives; Flavors; Sweeteners.

The Food Additives and Ingredients Association is affiliated to the
Chemical Industries Association and represents companies whose
principal business is the manufacture and marketing of food additives
and ingredients.
Your Choice of Food

Once, food was just food but the word is now just as likely to be
preceded by a qualifier: Processed Food, Organic Food, GM Food,
Functional Food. Each has its points and most of them can be precisely
defined but understanding all the claims and counter-claims for
different kinds of food can be confusing. If we take them one by one,
the picture clears somewhat.

***** Explore this website to get the food and additives industry
perspective on today?s food choices. The section on Why Food Additives
is especially relevant to your question and gives you the UK

------------------------------------------------- Europe

Breaking News on Food & Beverage Developement is a specialised news service, broadcast as a free
access website and e-newsletters to registered subscribers. It guides
decision-makers in food and beverage development by distilling facts
of strategic significance or likely impact on the sector.

***** The articles on this site give you insights on current and
future developments in food technology and food additives.

ELC is the Federation of European Food Additives and Food Enzymes
Industries. It brings together producers of food additives and enzymes
in the European Union (EU) in the area of regulatory and scientific
affairs. ELC's network of personal contacts links to its Members to
regulatory and scientific bodies, academia and industry accross the

International Food Information Council (IFIC)
IFIC's mission is to communicate science-based information on food
safety and nutrition to health and nutrition professionals, educators,
journalists, government officials and others providing information to
consumers. IFIC is supported primarily by the broad-based food,
beverage and agricultural industries.
Food Additives 

The Prepared Foods Network is a cohesive and unique portfolio of
magazines, conferences, websites, e-newsletters, Webcast technologies,
& annual directories, all designed to insure the successful marketing
of your ingredients to the $450 billion domestic food & beverage

Food Ingredients is the food industry?s leading portal for
unique content on food & beverage development.


food additives
food additives industry
processed foods
food claims
food nutrition claims
adulterated food
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