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Q: Water Conservation ( Answered 5 out of 5 stars,   0 Comments )
Subject: Water Conservation
Category: Miscellaneous
Asked by: carlosmontana-ga
List Price: $50.00
Posted: 09 May 2005 13:44 PDT
Expires: 08 Jun 2005 13:44 PDT
Question ID: 519649
Need as much info as possible on Water Conservation efforts in China...

Request for Question Clarification by politicalguru-ga on 15 May 2005 07:10 PDT
Dear Carlos, 

Could you please be more clear on what you're looking for?

Clarification of Question by carlosmontana-ga on 01 Jun 2005 06:00 PDT
I am specifically interested in areas of China where the government or
water authorities are promoting or subsidizing water conservation such
as in Los Angeles California (LADWP)
Subject: Re: Water Conservation
Answered By: pafalafa-ga on 02 Jun 2005 12:46 PDT
Rated:5 out of 5 stars

Here is some information on water conservation projects, policies,
subsidies, statements and issues in China.

I believe these should meet your needs for thorough background
information on this topic.

However, please do not rate this answer if you find you need
additional information.  Just post a Request for Clarification to let
me know what you need, and I will be happy to assist you further.



Water Conservation Project

The Water Conservation Project for China enhances the beneficial use
of water resources, agriculture production capacity, and farmer
incomes by: increasing the value of agriculture production per unit of
consumed water through increasing yields and reducing non-beneficial
water losses; and establishing mechanisms for sustainable use and
management of water resources in irrigated areas. Twenty-seven
counties from the provinces of Hebei and Liaoning and the
municipalities of Beijing and Qingdao have been identified and all of
the subprojects have been prepared at the feasibility level.

...There are four project components: 1) Irrigation and drainage works
and onfarm systems, including canal lining, low-pressure pipes,
drains, wells, small structures, surface irrigation improvements,
sprinkler systems, and micro-irrigation systems; 2) Agriculture
support and services, including land-leveling, non-tillage in the dry
season, deep plowing in the rainy season, and soil fertility
improvements such as using green manure and stalk, organic and plastic
mulching, cropping pattern adjustments, seeds improvement and
development of drought resistent varieties, balanced fertilzation, and
improved planting and cultivation techniques; 3) Forestry and
environmental monitoring; and 4) Institutional development, including
training, technical assistance and research as well as establishing
and strengthening operation and maintenance entities made up mostly of
water users.

[You can access additional World Bank project documents for water
conservation in China at the following link]:
Available Project Documents

Farming Experts Urge Water-conservation Techniques

...Respected Chinese agriculturists said Wednesday that the state
should popularize water-conservation techniques in farming to
effectively safeguard the nation's food supply and ecology.

...The Ministry of Science and Technology brought more than 20 experts
together Wednesday to discuss the feasibility of the state's key
project on water-conservation farming techniques, due to be carried
out from now until 2005.

US$3.6 Billion Earmarked for Water-Conservation Projects

 ...Top water resource officials vowed Tuesday to channel more than
US$3.6 billion into water-conservation projects nationwide to fight
against acute shortages.

...Zhang Jiyao, vice-minister of water resources, said Tuesday that
the money would come from an issue of state treasury bonds.

...Zhang said funds earmarked for the projects, including flood
control and water supply facilities, will be significantly more than
30 billion yuan (US$3.61 billion).

...About 80 percent of such state bond investment has been pledged by
the central government to the construction of large public water
infrastructure, Zhang added.

...The message was delivered at a national conference on the planning
and programming of water conservation projects.

China Water Conservation Week initiated

...On May 15 2005, a ceremony was held for initiating the 2005
National Water Conservation Publicity Week and unveiling the Honor
Roll of Water Conservation Models of Beijing Municipality. Mr. Suo
Lisheng, Vice Minister of Water Resources, and Mr. Niu Youcheng, Vice
Major of Beijing Municipality unveiled the Honors of Beijing Water
Conservation Models, and announced that the 2005 National Water
Conservation Publicity Week officially started.

...The theme of the National Water Conservation Publicity Week is "to
reduce leakage losses, exterminate waste and establish a water-saving
city". Vice Minister Suo pointed out that the establishment of
water-saving society is critical for realizing sustainable
development. Moreover, to raise the awareness of the public on water
conservation is crucial for the construction of a water-saving

Guangdong to invest heavily in water conservation projects
2003-10-28  (Xinhua)

...Guangdong Province in south China will invest 53.9 billion yuan
(6.5 billion US dollars) in water conservation projects in the next
five to eight years in a bid to improve its anti-disaster capacity, a
senior official said Tuesday.

...The projects mainly concern embankments along rivers and the sea,
flood control facilities in cities and reservoir reinforcement, said
Zhou Rifang, director of the provincial bureau of water resources.

Experience and Policy Perspectives
Remarks at South-to-North Water Transfer Workshop, April 2, 2001
Kurt W. Tong, Counselor for Environment, Science and Technology, U.S. Embassy

...Rational pricing is one key method to encourage efficiency in water
distribution and use. But local governments will also need to match
this policy with strong investments in water conservation
infrastructure, along with educational efforts to prepare consumers to
maximize the efficiency with which they use water, in advance of the
inevitable price rises. Improving water distribution infrastructure in
North China will be very expensive ?perhaps even more expensive in
total than the south-to-north diversion project ?but these are
investments which will be necessary if the region wants to sustainably
lessen the severity of its water shortages.

...It is encouraging that China? leaders already recognize that just
building the south-to-north diversion, by itself, will be insufficient
to address North China? water shortages. Rational pricing, water
conservation measures, and pollution control are also needed if water
supply is to have any hope of keeping up with demand.

...According to Qu Geping, Chairman of the Environmental and Resources
Protection Committee of the National People? Congress, China's ideal
population size, given its limited water resources, is 650 million,
roughly half the actual number. When presenting the 10th Five-Year
Plan last month, Premier Zhu Rongji said:

...We need to put water conservation high on our work agenda,
establish a rational pricing mechanism, comprehensively adopt water
conservation technologies and measures, develop water-efficient
industries, and raise the entire society? awareness of water
conservation. Prevention and control of water pollution should be


[This on'e a bit dated, but there's a good overview here, just the same]

PRC Water: Waste A Lot, Have Not: The Problem Is Policy Not Technology
A Report From Embassy Beijing November 1997

Summary: Chinese water resources scientists told Embassy Environment,
Science and Technology section officers on October 29 that very low
water prices perversely encourage waste even in water-short areas.
Rural poverty make it difficult to end water subsidies in the
countryside, but gradually rising prices in urban areas will encourage
conservation. Although a plan to move water from water-rich Hubei
province to northern China first proposed in the 1950s is favored by
the Ministry of Water Resources, gains from water conservation savings
may make it possible to scale back this expensive project. Waste water
recycling is low because treated water is more expensive than
subsidized fresh water. One Chinese scientist believes that climate
warming will reduce rainfall in the Beijing region and thus make more
efficient irrigation and industrial waste water recycling even more

Water Expo China 2006 - 4/24-4/29, Beijing

Event Summary: Water management has become one of China's most
critical issues for the 21st century. Specifically, this involves
allocation of water resources, water utility management and water
conservation. Water Expo China 2006 will promote the development and
advancement of the water resources industry through focus on the
following areas:
City Water Consumption
Daily Water Usage
Sewage Treatment
Anti-flood and Disaster Minimization
Water and Earth Maintenance
Hydroelectric Power

China Commercial Brief - December 10, 2004
U.S Commercial Service - American Embassy, Beijing

Beijing to begin water conservation campaign at public places

...The Beijing government is planning to put water-saving utilities
into full use at public places like government agencies, schools,
hospitals, hotels and shopping centers within the next two years. The
water-saving plan will also affect local households. It will take four
years for the Beijing government to guide local residents to change
into water-saving utilities, thus increasing the usage rate by 10 per
cent each year.

...Meanwhile, related government agencies will take strict measures to
ensure the authenticity of the water conservation certification for
the water-using utilities, and issue the Beijing Water-saving
Utilities List and the List of water-using utilities to be strictly
eliminated in Beijing.


Will Water Scarcity LimitChina's Agricultural Potential?

...China is responding to these concerns on several levels. At the
national level, the Ministry of Water Resources began promoting water
conservation through various measures in the late 1990s, such as
strengthening the authority of National River Basin Commissions to
enforce water withdrawal limits and promoting irrigation management
reforms. Provincial and other local officials are mediating conflicts
between users to improve overall water management. In villages, local
water managers and farmers are adopting water management reforms and
water-saving techniques, such as forming water user associations and
alternating wet-dry irrigation for rice. In addition, reforms in the
pricing and fee collection system may provide farmers with better
incentives to conserve water.

Managing Water Resources in China: ADB's Water Policy

Keynote Address by
M. E. Tusneem
Director General
East and Central Asia Department
Asian Development Bank
3rd World Water Forum
Asia and Pacific Day
18 March 2003

...The PRC's water resources management presents special challenges,
including: a large aggregate water supply, but low per capita
availability; floods, droughts, and high seasonal variations; and big
differences in regional water availability. Added to this, of course,
is the need to keep pace with the demands of 1.3 billion people and
the social changes brought about by rapid economic development. The
need is to achieve balance between sustainable supply and human and
environmental aspirations.

...The Government's Tenth Five Year Plan aims to manage water
resources based on river basin capacity and environmental protection;
and balanced socioeconomic development. It plans to increase
wastewater treatment and the use of recycled water by industries. To
complement investment in urban water facilities, it plans to increase
water tariffs, charge wastewater treatment fees, and improve the
financial management of water and wastewater.

...These objectives are consistent with ADB's Water Policy, "Water for
All," adopted in 2001. Its principal elements are sector reforms;
integrated management of resources in river basins; improved delivery
of services; and conservation.

...Water conservation has been addressed by ADB projects through the
adoption of adequate pricing and promotion of commercial operations,
which is being used in the Tenth Plan to help allocate resources
between competing uses.

...ADB's loans only account for a small part of investment in the
sector. So, to be a strategic partner of the PRC, we pay great
attention to our TA work. This has resulted in the formulation of a
national strategy for soil and water conservation, introduction of the
cost-recovery principle as the basis for determining tariffs in
cities, introduction of wastewater tariffs, implementation of
commercial principles, improved environmental management, formulation
of effluent standards, and private sector investment. ADB is also
helping China to design and implement market-based instruments for
water quality management monitoring...

Chinese Water Table Torture
China's water table levels are dropping fast
By Lester R. Brown
26 Oct 2001

...If you aren't normally fascinated by China's agricultural problems,
then an obscure report issued this summer on the state of the nation's
water supply might have struck you as rather dry. But in this case,
dry is precisely the problem: The water table under the North China
Plain, which produces over half of China's wheat and a third of its
corn, is falling at an alarming rate.

...The study, conducted by Beijing's Geological Environmental
Monitoring Institute (GEMI), reported that over-pumping has largely
depleted the shallow aquifer, forcing well-drillers to resort to the
region's deep aquifer. That's bad news, because the deep aquifer
cannot be replenished. Under Heibei Province in the heart of the North
China Plain, the average level of the deep aquifer dropped by almost
10 feet last year. Around some cities in the province, it fell by more
than twice that.

Some Facts about the Three Gorges Project
World's Largest Water Conservation Project

...China's Three Gorges Project is the largest water conservation
project in the world.

...Taking the total amount of concrete work as one example, the Three
Gorges Project totals 26.43 million cubic meters, 2.5 times the figure
for the Gezhouba Barrage project and twice that of the Itaipu project
in Brazil, which is currently the largest water conservation projects
in the world.

China to Invest US$48b in Water Conservation in 5 Years 
People's Daily Online
December 24, 2001

...China is to inject more than 400 billion yuan into
water-conservation projects over the next five years. Of the funds,
130 billion yuan will be investment left over from the previous
five-year plan period (1996-2000). Priority for investment will be
given to reinforcing the key levees of China's major flood-prone
rivers, renovating large reservoirs with potential problems and
improving western China's fragile ecosystems.

China' s Management and Legal Systems for Land Resources 

...Twenty-five major soil erosion controlled areas have been
established at the state level. Soil and water conservation projects
have been carried out in the seven large river basins. The accumulated
eroded soil area under control is 67 million hectares. The integrated
soil erosion control area in the Loess Plateau is about 15 million
hectares, putting 30% of the eroded soil area under control to some
extent and decreasing the annual discharge of silt to the Yellow River
by more than 300 million tons.

Quarterly Report on Water Industry Developments in Asia - April 2004 


...Central China's Hubei province is developing water conservation
projects throughout the province by attracting investment from private
According to the provincial department of water resources, there are
392,000 water conservation and irrigation projects invested by private
capital, with the total value of over 4 billion yuan (about 484
million US dollars).

...The majority of the private investment goes to small and
medium-sized projects, of which 42 percent were water source projects
and water saving agriculture.

...The private water conservation projects covering all water areas in Hubei. 

...Construction-based Gadang Bhd ("Gadang") has decided not to proceed
with a proposed investment in a waste water project in Xiangcheng,
China. Last November Gadang signed a memorandum of understanding with
Xiangcheng County Government in China to develop, construct and
operate a waste water treatment plant in Xiangcheng county and to
collect fees for a concession period of 30 years.
Recently Gadang decided that after conducting a feasibility study on
the treatment plant, Gadang would not proceed with this investment."

...The memorandum of understanding on the proposed investment lapsed on Feb 21. 

...Gadang estimates that the total investment cost for the project to
be 20.67 million ringget. (1 usd = 3.8 ringget).

Water Saving Called for Along China's Longest Inland River
Xinhua, 26 May 2001

...China's water conservation experts said Thursday that water saving
is the key to protecting the ecology of the drying up Tarim River, the
longest inland river in China, in northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur
Autonomous Region.

...The 1,321 kilometer long Tarim River runs from west to east along
the northern verge of the Taklimakan Desert, the biggest moving desert
in the country, and used to flow into the Taitema Lake in Xinjiang.

...A 320 kilometer section of the lower reaches of the Tarim River
dried up in 1972 following the construction of the Daxihaizi Reservoir
at the middle reaches of the river.


...In order to implement the sections in the Ninth Five-Year Plan and
the Long-Term Objectives for the Year 2010 relating to environment
protection, China formulated:

...the Ninth Five-Year Plan and the Long-Term Objectives for the Year
2010 on Land and Water Conservation attaches great importance to the
land and water conservation projects of the seven largest river
valleys. In 33 key areas, land and water conservation projects of
national level should be established to halt increasing land erosion,
and efforts should be made to preserve an additional 650 thousand
square kilometres of land by curbing soil erosion, by the year 2010.

Again, let me know if there's anything else you need.


search strategy -- Google searches on:

"water conservation" site:cn

"water conservation" china site:org OR site:gov

"water conservation projects" china
carlosmontana-ga rated this answer:5 out of 5 stars
Researcher found the proverbial "needles in the haystack"!

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