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Q: 19th century scientific achivements in American ( Answered,   1 Comment )
Subject: 19th century scientific achivements in American
Category: Science
Asked by: annpi-ga
List Price: $30.00
Posted: 05 Oct 2005 20:51 PDT
Expires: 04 Nov 2005 19:51 PST
Question ID: 576966
Someone in here may be explain me some events about "19th century
scientific achivements in American " ?
Or another people, event have most of  influences about scientific in
American in 19th.

Thank you

Request for Question Clarification by pinkfreud-ga on 06 Oct 2005 15:36 PDT
I believe you'll find precisely what you need here:

If this is what you're seeking, I'll be glad to repost this link as your answer.
Subject: Re: 19th century scientific achivements in American
Answered By: pafalafa-ga on 06 Oct 2005 18:47 PDT

Your question is phrased in an interesting way, since you asked to
focus on science in America, yet you mention one of the pre-eminent
British scientists of the 19th century (and of any century!), Charles

And in truth, most of the "big ideas" in science were emanating from
Europe at the time, while America was steadily asserting itself as the
realm of practical invention.  We remember Darwin, and Mendel and
Maxwell and Ohm as European leaders in the fields of theoretical
Biology and Physics, while back in the USA, folks like Robert Fulton
and Thomas Edison were busy making things like steamboats and

One of my new favorite resources on the web, Wikipedia, does a nice
job of presenting the major inventions and discoveries of the 19th
century, without providing an overwhelming amount of detail.  I've
presented this information below, along another useful resource from

I trust this information fully answers your question.  

However, please don't rate this answer until you have everything you
need.  In particular, if you need a clearer breakout between advances
in America vs the rest of the world, just let me know.

If you would like any additional information, just post a Request for
Clarification to let me know how I can assist you further, and I'm at
your service.

All the best,



Timeline of invention

19th century

1800: Electric battery: Alessandro Volta 
1801: Jacquard loom: Joseph Marie Jacquard 
1802: Screw propeller steamboat Phoenix: John Stevens 
1802: gas stove: Zachäus Andreas Winzler 
1805: Submarine Nautilus: Robert Fulton 
1805: Refrigerator: Oliver Evans 
1807: Steamboat Clermont: Robert Fulton 
1808: Band saw: William Newberry 

1811: Gun- Breechloader: Thornton (?) 
1812: Metronome: Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel 
1813: Hand printing press: George Clymer 
1814: Steam Locomotive (Blucher): George Stephenson 
1816: Miner's safety lamp: Humphry Davy 
1816: Metronome: Johann Nepomuk Maelzel (reputed) 
1816: Stirling engine: Robert Stirling 
1816: Stethoscope: Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec 
1817: Kaleidoscope: David Brewster 
1819: Breech loading flintlock: John Hall 

1821: Electric motor: Michael Faraday 
1823: Electromagnet: William Sturgeon 
1826: Photography: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce 
1826: internal combustion engine: Samuel Morey 
1827: Insulated wire: Joseph Henry 
1827: Screw propeller: Josef Ressel 
1827: Friction match: John Walker 

1830: Lawn mower: Edwin Beard Budding 
1831: Multiple coil magnet: Joseph Henry 
1831: Magnetic acoustic telegraph: Joseph Henry 
1831: Reaper: Cyrus McCormick 
1831: Electrical generator: Michael Faraday 
1835: Photogenic Drawing: William Henry Fox Talbot 
1835: Revolver: Samuel Colt 
1835: Morse code: Samuel Morse 
1835: Electromechanical Relay: Joseph Henry 
1836: Improved screw propeller: John Ericsson 
1836: Sewing machine: Josef Madersberger 
1837: Photography: Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre 
1837: Steel plow: John Deere 
1837: Standard diving dress: Augustus Siebe 
1838: Electric telegraph: Charles Wheatstone 
1839: Vulcanization of rubber: Charles Goodyear 

1840: Frigate with submarine machinery SS Princeton: John Ericsson 
1840: artificial fertilizer: Justus von Liebig 
1842: Anaesthesia: Crawford Long 
1843: Typewriter: Charles Thurber 
1843: Fax machine: Alexander Bain 
1843: Ice cream maker: Nancy Johnson 
1844: Telegraph: Samuel Morse 
1845: Portland cement: William Aspdin 
1845: Double tube tire: Robert Thomson (inventor) 
1846: Sewing machine: Elias Howe 
1846: Rotary printing press: Richard M. Hoe 
1849: Safety pin: Walter Hunt 
1849: Francis turbine: James B. Francis 

1852: Airship: Henri Giffard 
1852: Passenger elevator: Elisha Otis 
1852: Gyroscope: Léon Foucault 
1853: Glider: Sir George Cayley 
1855: Bunsen burner: Robert Bunsen 
1855: Bessemer process: Henry Bessemer 
1856: First celluloids: Alexander Parkes 
1858: Undersea telegraph cable: Fredrick Newton Gisborne 
1858: Shoe sole sewing machine: Lyman R. Blake 
1858: Mason jar: John L. Mason 
1859: Oil drill: Edwin L. Drake 

1860: Linoleum: Fredrick Walton 
1860: Repeating rifle: Oliver F. Winchester, Christopher Spencer 
1860: Self-propelled torpedo: Ivan Lupis-Vukic 
1861: Ironclad USS Monitor: John Ericsson 
1861: Regenerative furnace: Carl Wilhelm Siemens 
1862: Revolving machine gun: Richard J. Gatling 
1862: Mechanical submarine: Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol 
1863: Player piano: Henri Fourneaux 
1864: first true typewriter: Peter Mitterhofer 
1865: Compression ice machine: Thaddeus Lowe 
1866: Dynamite: Alfred Nobel 
1867: Practical Typewriter: Christopher L. Sholes 
1868: Typewriter: Carlos Glidden, James Densmore and Samuel Soule 
1868: Air brake (rail): George Westinghouse 
1868: Oleomargarine: Mege Mouries 
1869: Vacuum cleaner: I.W. McGaffers 

1870: Magic Lantern projector: Henry R. Heyl 
1870: Stock ticker: Thomas Alva Edison 
1870: Mobile Gasoline Engine, Automobile: Siegfried Marcus 
1871: Cable car (railway): Andrew S. Hallidie 
1871: Compressed air rock drill: Simon Ingersoll 
1872: Celluloid (later development): John W. Hyatt 
1872: Adding machine: Edmund D. Barbour 
1873: Barbed wire: Joseph F. Glidden 
1873: Railway knuckle coupler: Eli H. Janney 
1873: Modern direct current electric motor: Zénobe Gramme 
1874: Electric street car: Stephen Dudle Field 
1875: Dynamo: William A. Anthony 
1875: Gun- (magazine): Benjamin B. Hotchkiss 
1876: Telephone: Alexander Graham Bell 
1876: Telephone: Elisha Gray 
1876: Carpet sweeper: Melville Bissell 
1876: Gasoline carburettor: Daimler 
1877: Stapler: Henry R. Heyl 
1877: Induction motor: Nikola Tesla 
1877: Phonograph: Thomas Alva Edison 
1877: Electric welding: Elihu Thomson 
1877: Twine Knotter: John Appleby 
1878: Cathode ray tube: William Crookes 
1878: Transparent film: Eastman Goodwin 
1878: Rebreather: Henry Fleuss 
1878: Incandescent Light bulb: Joseph Swan 
1879: Pelton turbine: Lester Pelton 
1879: Automobile engine: Karl Benz 
1879: Cash register: James Ritty 
1879: Automobile (Patent): George B. Seldon ... note did NOT invent auto 

1880: Photophone: Alexander Graham Bell 
1880: Roll film: George Eastman 
1880: Safety razor: Kampfe Brothers 
1880: Seismograph: John Milne 
1881: Electric welding machine: Elihu Thomson 
1882: Electric fan: Schuyler Skatts Wheeler 
1882: Electric flat iron: Henry W. Seely 
1883: Auto engine - compression ignition: Gottlieb Daimler 
1883: two-phase (alternating current) induction motor: Nikola Tesla 
1884: Linotype machine: Ottmar Mergenthaler 
1884: Fountain pen: Lewis Waterman NB: Did not invent fountain pen,
nor even "first practical fountain pen". Started manufacture in 1883,
1884: Punched card accounting: Herman Hollerith 
1884: Trolley car, (electric): Frank Sprague, Karel Van de Poele 
1885: Automobile, differential gear: Karl Benz 
1885: Maxim gun: Hiram Stevens Maxim 
1885: Motor cycle: Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach 
1885: Alternating current transformer: William Stanley 
1886: Dishwasher: Josephine Cochrane 
1886: Gasoline engine: Gottlieb Daimler 
1886: Improved phonograph cylinder: Tainter & Bell 
1887: Monotype machine: Tolbert Lanston 
1887: Contact lens: Adolf E. Fick, Eugene Kalt and August Muller 
1887: Gramophone record: Emile Berliner 
1887: Automobile, (gasoline): Gottlieb Daimler 
1888: Polyphase AC Electric power system: Nikola Tesla (30 related patents.) 
1888: Kodak hand camera: George Eastman 
1888: Ballpoint pen: John Loud 
1888: Pneumatic tube tire: John Boyd Dunlop 
1888: Harvester-thresher: Matteson (?) 
1888: Kinematograph: Augustin Le Prince 
1889: Automobile, (steam): Sylvester Roper 

1890: Pneumatic Hammer: Charles B. King 
1891: Automobile Storage Battery: William Morrison 
1891: Zipper: Whitcomb L. Judson 
1891: Carborundum: Edward G. Acheson 
1892: Color photography: Frederic E. Ives 
1892: Automatic telephone exchange (electromechanical): Almon Strowger
- First in commercial service.
1893: Photographic gun: E.J. Marcy 
1893: Half tone engraving: Frederick Ives 
1893: Wireless communication: Nikola Tesla 
1895: Phatoptiken projector: Woodville Latham 
1895: Phantascope: C. Francis Jenkins 
1895: Disposable blades: King C. Gillette 
1895: Diesel engine: Rudolf Diesel 
1895: Radio signals: Guglielmo Marconi 
1895: Shredded Wheat: Henry Perky 
1896: Vitascope: Thomas Armat 
1896: Steam turbine: Charles Curtis 
1896: Electric stove: William S. Hadaway 
1897: Automobile, magneto: Robert Bosch 
1898: Remote control: Nikola Tesla 
1899: Automobile self starter: Clyde J. Coleman 
1899: Magnetic tape recorder: Valdemar Poulsen 
1899: Gas turbine: Charles Curtis 


Timeline of scientific discoveries


1824 - Carnot: 2nd law of thermodynamics 
1827 - Georg Ohm: Ohm's law (Electricity) 
1838 - Matthias Schleiden: all plants are made of cells 
1843 - James Prescott Joule: Law of Conservation of energy (First law
of thermodynamics), also 1847 - Helmholtz, Conservation of energy
1848 - Lord Kelvin: absolute zero of temperature 
1858 - Rudolf Virchow: cells can only arise from pre-existing cells 
1859 - Charles Darwin: Theory of evolution by natural selection 
1865 - Gregor Mendel: Mendel's laws of inheritance, basis for genetics 
1869 - Dmitri Mendeleev: Periodic table 
1873 - Maxwell: Theory of electromagnetism 
1877 - Boltzmann: Statistical definition of entropy 


Timeline of scientific experiments

19th Century

1801 - Thomas Young: double-slit experiment showing wave-particle duality 
1820 - Hans Christian Ørsted discovers the connection of electricity and magnetism 
1843 - James Prescott Joule measures the equivalence between
mechanical work and heat, resulting in the law of conservation of
1845 - Christian Doppler demonstrates the Doppler shift 
1851 - Léon Foucault uses Foucault pendulum to demonstrate the
rotation of the earth
1861 - Louis Pasteur disproves the theory of spontaneous generation 
1863 - Gregor Mendel's pea plant experiments (Mendel's laws of inheritance) 
1887 - Heinrich Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect 
1887 - Michelson and Morley: Michelson-Morley experiment, showing that
the speed of light is invariant
1896 - Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity 
1897 - Joseph John Thomson discovers the electron 


In addition to Wikipedia, also offers a useful timeline of
inventors and inventions:
Nineteenth Century Inventions 1800 - 1850 

American, W.A. Burt invents a typewriter.

American, Cyrus H. McCormick invents the first commercially successful reaper

American, Thaddeus Fairbanks invents platform scales. 

American, Charles Goodyear invents rubber vulcanization. 

American, Elias Howe invents a sewing machine

Dr. William Morton, a Massachusetts dentist, is the first to use
anesthesia for tooth extraction.
19th Century Inventions 1851 - 1899 

American, C. Goodyear, Jr. invents the shoe welt stitcher

Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone

Thomas Edison invents the cylinder phonograph or tin foil phonograph

American, W.L. Judson invents the zipper.

American, H. O'Sullivan invents the rubber heel. 

Many of the other inventions on these pages are also from Americans,
even though they are not always identified as such.

Again, let me know if there is anything else you need.



search strategy -- Used the bookmarked Wikipedia and sites,,
as well as a Google search on:

19th century science OR invention america OR american
Subject: Re: 19th century scientific achivements in American
From: czh-ga on 06 Oct 2005 15:30 PDT
Check this out:
Decade by Decade Science Background

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