Tools would be bronze for Jesus, as the iron age doesn't start for
another 50-100 years. Joesph is not a rich man, not really poor
either, so he could probably afford these. Just about all the tools
were known about by this time. He could have used iron tools, but
these would be very scarce and "experimental" for most people in this
Wood Use in the Ancient Near East.
Carpentry. Almost every tool--from the crude to the
sophisticated--known to modern carpenters was used by the ancients:
axes, adzes, hammers, mallets, wedges, chisels, drills, lathes, right-
angles (or T-squares), plumb bobs, compasses, planes, rasps, and
polishing agents of various kinds. Evidence exists for the use of
almost every modern technique as well: mortising, tenoning,
treenailing, beveling, gluing, and intricate joining and inlaying. A
glance at the more elegant pieces of the Gordion furniture (eighth
century BC) should remove any doubt about the skill and sophistication
of the ancient carpenter, not only in the craftsmanship thereby
demonstrated, but also in the selection of a half-dozen species of
wood for their contrasting colors and textures and the assemblage of
thousands of such fragments into an agreeable whole.
That article also talks about where wood was found, how the trade
worked and several other things regarding your question. The time
period is a little early, but will show some of the level of
sophistication which would only get better by the time Jesus is born
in 4 B.C.
Found this interesting tidbit on this page
Travelers : Israel
"General Information Nazareth, the site of the Miracle of the
Annunciation, is the largest Arab city in Israel with a population of
60,000 - half Christians and half Moslems - living together in
harmonious coexistence. Its geographic location, with Cana of the
Wedding Feast and Sepphoris (Tzippori) just next door, make it a
perfect base from which to tour the rest of the Lower Galilee.
Picturesque red roofs and white snow churches ramble haphazardly down
the slopes of this ancient Galilean hillside, the summit of which
overlooks the entire Yezreel Valley. Nazareth, one of the most
important Christian holy sites in the world, has always attracted
pilgrims. Biblical References The return of the Holy Family from Egypt
is chronicled in Matthew 2:23 "And he came and dwelt in a city called
Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets,
He (Jesus) shall be called a Nazarene." And indeed it was in Nazareth
that Jesus lived for the major part of His life. The church of St.
Joseph's Carpentry contains ruins of 1st-century Nazareth - the
original workshop of Joseph and home of Holy Family."
"Carpentry" +"AD" +"Israel" +"Bronze Age"
"Carpentry" +"AD" +Roman +Bronze